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Full text of "Cosmologia sacra, or a discourse of the universe as it is the creature and kingdom of God : chiefly written, to demonstrate the truth and excellency of the Bible, which contains the laws of his kingdom in this lower world : in five books"

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Cofmologia Sacra : 

o R A 




As ic is the 

Creature and j^inguom 

O F 


Chiefly Written, 

To t)emonftrate the T^rut kand Excellency of the 
BIBLE; which contains the Larps of his 
Kingdom in this Lower World. 

In Five Books. 

Fellow of the College of Thyficiansj and of the ^yal Socitty. 

L nX> N: 

Printed for W. ^gers, S. Smith, and !B. Walford : At the Sun 
againft ^t.VunJlans Church in Fleetjlreet 5 and at the frinces 
Arms in St. <faul\ Church-Yard , M D CCI. 



• % '^ ^ 




'-i- -"3 

*** ^'- 



d lo 

^« IJl O H 1^ 

— *r 



Moft Sacred MAJESTY 




O F 

Great Britain, &c. 

S I R, 

Tis a J em el of much Lujire^ 
^^ in Your Ma j e s tyV Im- 
perial Crown^ that You are 
Defcended of many moft 
Noble Progenitors. And yet a fairer 
One^ that You are the Inheritor of Their 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

Princely Endoivments, meeting in Your 
Royal Perfon m their Centre. Horn 
7mtch a Greater Conqueror .was Your 
Ma J F STY, than the Firft William ; 
when England , Renowned for Her 
Beauty^ having made Her Court to You ; 
You came not to Force, hut to Embrace 
Her, with Your Arms, And being then 
pleas d to take upon You, theSafegiiard 
of Our Ejlates, Our Liberties, and Our 
Lives ; and of what k dearer to Us than 
all Ihefe, Our BIB LES : Your M a- 
j E s T Y., by Your Wifdom and Valour, 
hath abundantly anjwered this Sacred 
TrujL For whereas fome Princes, through 
their Unhappy Birth,Education^ or Coun- 
fels, apprehend they cannot be Great, 
without being Cruel-, that their Crowns 
look but dull, unlefs they are Vamifhed 
with Blood : It eminently appears, be- 
fides the Native Goodnefl of Your Royal 
Mind, Your Majesty confiders. That 
One of the Princes of the Empire^ upon 
whom the Senate beflowed the Title of 
Maximus ^ was alfo the Bell. That^ 
^ Optimus 

The Epiftle Dcdicatoty. 

Optimus Maximus, mas the Style ap- 
propriated by their Anceflors ^ to the 
Deity Himfelf. That in Imitating the 
Pattern given You by the King of Kings ^ 
You have proposed Your Self a Glorious 
One, both to Your Royal Succefors, and 
to all ether Pjinces : the Worji among 
Us, feeling the Clemency, and Your 
Majesty V Dutiful Subje£is, the Jufi 
and Gracious Influences of Your Reign. 

In Contemplation whereof I take this 
Occafion , moft humbly to prefent Your 
M A J E s T Y, with the Tribute of my 
Thanks, for that fufficient Share, I have 
my Self the Happinefl to Enjoy. And ' 
her emit hal a Specimen, of the Ufe 
which may be made of thofe Encourage- 
ments. Your Ma j esty gives unto 
'rue Religion and Virtue, Believing, it 
would be very pleafing to You, if all Your 
Subjeds, after Your Majesty V Own 
Example, were, in their Inferior Sphere^ 
Defenders of the Faith, 

May it pleafe Almighty God, who 
hath raifed You up to make Us Happy 

b at 

^1 11 -■■ I..— .M - — ...— I I' I ■■^■■1 M I ^ -■ ■ ' ' ■..- - .■■.- . - ' ' ' ~ ■■ - 

The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

at Home ; to BleJI Your M a j e s t y V 
Endeavours, for the Redemption of the 
Foreign Churches^ and the Peace of 


Moft Humble 


Moft Obedient 




ToHisGrace, THOMAS Lord 
Auhhifhop of CantCYhuvy, Primate 
and Metropolitan of all England, 
and One of m MAJESTYs mofl 
Honourable Privy-Council. 


lo Hi^ Grace , J O H N Lord Arch- 
bifhop of York, Primate and Metro- 
politan of England. 


OUR being made Choice of by His 
Majesty, with whom more efpe- 
cially to entruft the Bufinefs of Reli- 
gion ; and Your known Readinefs to allift His 
Princely Endeavours for the promoting hereof: 
have induced me, to prefent to both Your Gra- 
ces the following IVork. And the rather, as 
being affured , That of Your Zeal for the Ho- 
nour of God, and the Welfare of his Churchy 
no Offering added to the Treafury of Divine 
Knowledge, how Small or by Whomfoever, 
would be Unacceptable to You. 


The Efijile Dedicatcry» 

And yet, My Lords, I have not forgot^ 
how much it behooved me to take care, in Com- 
pofing it, Not to trouble You, with what has 
been already done by Others. Nor to alTert any 
thing herein, without good Proof. Nor only to 
Write, what is True, but alfo Seafonable. And 
that in other refpecfts, it might abide Your Cen- 
iiire 5 Whofe Abilities to make an Exad Judg- 
ment hereof, are Unqueftionable. Which I 
have faid, the better to prepare the Reader, duly 
to Confider what I have Writ. If this be done, 
the Fublick, with God's Bleffing, will not lofe 
the Benefit hereby intended, nor Your Grace's 
the good Hopes You are pleas'd to conceive 
of it. 

I am ^ 

My LOKT> S, 

To both Your GRACES 

A mojl Humbk 

Servant , 

Neh. Grew. 



TH E many Lcud Opinions, efpeciaily thofe of Anti- 
fcripturifts, which have been publiflied of late Years 5 
by Sp'mofa and fome others, in Latirij Dutch^ and 
En^Hp? 3 have been the Occafion of my Writing this Book. 
As feeing too well, that hereby, not only Men of Erudition , 
but the Citizens themfclves, grown of late more Bookifh, 
are very dangeroufly infeited. In fo much, that every Ap- 
prentice, who can but get a Play to his Tooth, Stuffed with 
Vice and Prophanenefs , formeth all his Thoughts, Words, 
and Actions, by This, as his Bible. 

Whereupon, though I confider'd, we have as Learned a 
Clergy in England^ as in the World : yet I refolved, with the 
beft Skill I had, to contribute towards the Antidoting of this 
City and Kingdom, againft a Contagion fo difmal in it 
felf, and the Confequences of it. Neither Duplejjy a Sol- 
dier , nor , Grotius a Civilian , were ever thought to have 
mifengaged themfelves , in the like Undertaking. And if 
I had not their Examples, nor had ever heard of them j 
yet the fame Reafons which prevailed with them , are 
now in being. Nor did I fee caufe to flay at the Refiexi- 

which the Lord Verulam makes upon Phyficiins, for 
ploying their Pens fometimes on other Subje(5ts befides 
Medicine. When himfelf undertook die Improvement of 
all other Sciences and Profeffions , more than his Own. 
And though it is not neceilary , that every one fhould 
meddle with Hippocrates , or Littleton 3 yet the Scriptures 
are a Book, we are all bound to Read and Confider. I 
can truly fay too, That the Writing, neither of This, not 

A of 

the ? KEF AGE. 

of any ocher Book, hath at any time occafioned the omif- 
fion of my Duty to the Sick. It is very well known, That 
there is no one Phyfician in London at this Day , but he 
hath his Spare Hours. And I will take it for Excufable , 
if I have dedicated my Own , unto this Work. And having 
addi6ted my felf, to the Contemplation of Nature, from 
my Youth upward : as I hop'd , I was in fome meafure 
qualified, for an Eflay of this kind 3 fo I concluded, the 
applying of my fmall Talent hereunto , to be the Beft 
life, I fliould ever be able to make of it. . I had therefore 
nothing further to think of , but endeavouring , the Per- 
formance might in fome degree, anfwer the propofed 

For This, I intended at firft , only a few Sheets. But 
looking further, I faw it neceffary to proceed from the 
Beginning of things. Hereby the better to fliew, That 
there is nothing contained in the. Holy Scriptures, concerning 
God or Man, the Vifible or Invifible World, but what is 
agreeable unto Right Reafon. 

The Firft Chapter, Concerning^ GOD; I have comprized 
in as few words as I could. Suitable to a Subje(5t, of all 
others, the moft Sublime. In which, I have Demonftrated 
the Nature of God, a Priori ; >/;^. from the Neceflity of 
his Being. In the following Chapters , a Tofteriori j or from 
theUniverfe, his Handy-Work. And v.hereas the Being of the 
Sacred TRINITY, is thought by fome to be Impoffible: 
I have^ proved, on the contrary, in four or Five Paragraphs, 
that we cannot have a due Conception of the Deity with- 
out it. ■ ' 

Of the Second Chapter , Concerning the Corporeal World , 
having neither Health , nor Leifure, nor Convenience, Cm 
the making of Nod:urnal , and other Celeftial Obferva- 
tionS 5 I have taken the greater part, from the Beft Aftro- 
nomers of the prefent Age. Not omitting^ to intermix 
fuch Remarks of my own, as are proper to the Scope I 
aim at. 


The ? KEF ACE. 

For all the following Chapters, both of This, and of the 
Second and Third Books 3 fo much only excepted, as is 
Hiftorical ; Nature hath been, in a manner, my only Book : 
which I have Read, and Copied, as exactly as I could. 
In doing of which, I purpofely avoided the perufal of forae 
Works, of much Efteem. That this Copy of Mine, might 
be no where Interlined, nor my Thoughts diverted, front 
their own proper Motion aud Compafs. 

When I came, in the Fourth Book, to difcourfe of the 
Holy Scriptures 3 I law it neceflary to underftand the Nature 
of the Hebrew Tongue ; the firfl occaiion I ever had to 
meddle with it. And the Reader may be afliired, I have 
taken care, as not to miflead him in that moderate ufe I 
have made of it 5 fo like wife, fully to comprehend the Au- 
thors I was obliged to Confultj efpecially for the Firft 
Chapter, Of the Integrity of the tiehrew Code. 

The reft of this Book, and all the Laft 5 which further 
prove the Integrity , and herewith , the Truth and Excellency, 
both of the Old and New Teftament 3 avoiding as much 
as I could, to repeat what has been already very well faid 
by others : I have compofed chiefly, out of my own fmall 
Reading and Obfervation. To the End, I might be both 
another Witnefs 3 and alfo be ablcj to bring further Evidence 
in the Cafe. 

One particular I have advifedly omitted 3 and that is, 
the Defcription of. Solomons Temple 3 the Learned VtUalpandm 
having faved me the Labour. But I have taken fome Pains 
for that of the Tabernacle, which, I think, hath hithertb 
been wanting. . 

I have made no Quotations, in proof of any Aflcrtion or 
Opinion, but only in point of Fad. And havefeldom trou- 
bled the Reader , or my Self, in anfwering Objections. 
For, if the things I have Written, are True : as no Authority 
can make them Truer 5 fo a Thoufand Objed:ions cannot 
make them falfe* 


The ? KEF ACE. 

Whoever (hall think fie to Read the following Difcourfe, 
I have this piece of Juftice to reqiieft of him, That he will 
begin with it. For though he lliould be lefs acquainted 
with fome of the Subjeds treated of, yet will he be Maftcr 
of fo much all along , as to difcern the dependance of one 
thing on another, from firft to lafl:. And \v\\\ then come to 
fee, that Religion is fo far from being inconfiftenc with 
Philofopliy, as to be the highefl: point of it. 

To fay, that no Man is an Antifcripturift, but for 
want of Wit 5 is neither good Manners, nor good Senfe. 
But this I fay, That if any Man will Study the Grounds 
of Religion , with the like Application , as he doth any 
thing elfe he takes to be his Bufinefs to think of; I 
will then give him leave to be an Antifcripturift if he 

The hardeft Queftion I have been asked, is this. Do 
you think to Damm up the Thames ? I Anfwer , No : 
yet a Bridg may be laid over it. And this too, may be 
fo far from Stemming the Tide ; as only to caufe it to make 
a greater Noife. But as the Bridg may not be able to 
flop the Tide; fo, I truft, the Tide, fhall never be able 
to beat down the Bridge ; but that many will hereby, 
Land themfelves, fafe from Drowning in the common 






FoDowing D I S COU RS E 



Heweth, That God made the 
Corporeal World. And what 
it is. 

Chap. I. Of God. 

Chap. 2. Of the Corporeal World. 

Chap. 5. Of Corporeal Trinci- 

■ pies. 
Chap. 4. Qf Compounded'Bodies. 
Chap. 5. Of their life. 


Shewethj That there is a Vital 
World which God hath made. 
And ivhat it is. 

Chap. I. Of Life. 

Chap. 2. Of Senfe. 

Chap. 3. Of Mind. And fir ft ^ 

OfThancy.or ^hantaftickMnd. 
Chap. 4. of IntelleBual Mind. 
Chap. 5 . Of the Three chief En- 

dowments of Intelleclual Mind. 

And fir ft. Of Science. 

Chap. <$. OfWtfdom, 
Chap. 7. Of Virtue. 
Chap. 8. Of Celeftial Mind. 


Shewethy That Cod governs the 
UniVerfe he hath made. And 
in what Manner. 

Chap. I . Of the Nature of God's 
Government, or of Providence. 

Chap. 2. Of the Ends of Provi- 
dence. Andfirft, in this Life. 

Chap. ^. Of (providence oVer 
^ublick. States. 

Chap. 4. Of the Celeftial Life. 

Chap. 5. Of the (I(ides of Provi- 
dence. And fir ft. Of the Law 
of Nature. 

Chap. 6. Of TofttiVe Law. 


Sheweth^That the 'Bible, and fir ft, 
the Hebrew Code, or Old lefta- 
ment, is God's (poftttVe Law. 

(a.) Chap. 1, 

chap. 1 . Of the Integrity of the 

Hebrew Code. 
Chap. 2. Of the Truth and Ex- 
cellency of the Hebrew Code. 

And firfij as they appear from 

Foreign ^roof 
Chap, 3 . Of the Truth and Ex- 

cellency hereof^ a^s they appear 

in it Self Jndjirjij if we con- 

jider the Writers. 
Chap. 4. Of the Contents hereof. 

And firftj Of the Biftory. 
Chap. 5. Of the Miracles. 
Chap. 6. Of the Prophecies. 
Chap. 7. OftheLaws.AndfirJi^ 

of thofe given to Adam and 

Chap. 8. Of the Moi^uckLaw. 


Sheweth, That the New Tejia" 
ment, is alfo God's ToftiVe 
Law. . 

Chap. I. Of the Integrity of the 
New Tejhmenty 

Chap. 1. Of the Truth and Ex- 
cellency hereof. And fir fl, O/S 
they appear from the Writers. 

Chap. 3.0/ the Contents. And 
firjij Of the Miracles. 

Chap. 4. Of the DoBrine. And 
frfl^ Of the ^'Velations we are 
to 'Belie'Ve. 

Chap. 5. Of the Laws. 

Chap. 6. Of our Saviour's Tro' 






O F T H E 


BOOK the Firft. 


CBJT. 1. Of GOD. 

I S natural for a truly Wife Man^ to Enquire after God^ ^. i , 
Whofe Beings is as certainly knowahle, as our own^ x. As he 
isSelf-ExiJlent, 3. And mofi Perfe^y 4v5> 6. That is to 
Jay, Infinite in Duration^ or Eternal, 7, 8, 9. In Ejfence, 
or Immenfe, 10, n, 12. In Power, 13, 14, 15-. In Knowledge, 16, 17. 
in Goodnefs, 18, 19, zo, xi. And Imrnutahly Juch, zz, 13. Andasfuch, 
of necejjity. Eternally Energetick, 24. And Omnipotently, 2,5, 2.6. So 
as to heget the Divine Images of Himfelf, 27, 28, 29^-^ And hy Thefe, td 
Make the World, 30. to the end. 

CHA^P. 1. Of the Corporeal World. 

7T was made Perfe^, i. In the Whole, or in its Extent. As appears, 
■* partly ^ from theDijlance of the Vifible Fixed Stars, 2. Partly^ of thofe, 
which areVifille only with the help of Glares, 3. And in its Parts, ioth 
Great and Small, 4. Firfl, the Greater, whereof in this Chapter \ viz. the^ 
Planets, &c. As appears, in the Regularity of their Motions, 5. ,A»a 
their great Variety, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1. In the Suhftance and Splendor of 
the Sun, 12, 13, 14. In the Command hereof, over all the Primary Pla- 
nets ; and of Thefe, . over their Satellites, 1 5'. Extraordinary, yet not of 
that Extent as isfuppofed, 16, 17. But other Caufes, to he added, 18, 19. 
The Caufe of the Suns own Motion, alfo Unknown, 20. And wherein the 
Power of his Command lyeth, if/icertain, 21. Alfo the Magnet ick Poles, 4 
great Secret, 22. The Rarity of the Ether, of great Ufe, 23. The ma- 
nifold Ufe of the Air ; and the Caufes of Winds, 24, 25-. The Generation 
of Clouds, 26. The Ufe of Seas and Rivers, Currents and Tides, 27, 2?.' 
The Moon, and other Planets, fo many more Terraqueous Orhs, 29. And 
every Fixed Star, another Sun; having the Command of another Syflem of 
Planets, 30. 

CHAP. 3. 

it The Contents of the Chapters. 

C HAT. I. Of Corporeal Principles. 

/IS far as the World is Extenfible,fo far is every part ofit^ Divijihle^ that is 
Infinitehj^ i. Proved^ 2-, 3, 4, 5". From hence we may learn^ To conceive 
jufily, of the Smallnefs of the Principles of Bodies, 6. And from what is 
ohfervahle of Compounded Bodies^ with a Microfcope, 7, 8. From hence 
alfo, we may judge of their Qualities, 9. Particularly, in the Magnet, 10. 
And fame other Bodies which Attra^y xi. The Principles of Bodies like- 
wife proved. To he Unalterahle, Both in Confiflent Bodies, ix. And in 
Fluids, i-^. And this, for great Reafon, 14. And were therefore Created 
fuch, 1 5. The fame Principles, were alfo Created, Regular. Proved In 
Inflances, in Fluids, 1 6, 17, 1 8, 19, 20. And in Confiflents. As in Stones 
zi, XX. In Metals, x^. In Salts, 24 /o 30. In Snow, and Frofl, ?i 
to 3 5-. The greater part of all which, have One certain Angle in common, 164. 
Therefore Regular, and Created fuch, 37,38. 

CHjT. 4. of Compounded Bodies. 

n~'HE Compofiiion of Principles, is alfo Regular, i. As ohfervahle in the 
■*■ Suhfiance of feveral Kinds of Bodies. In Plants, x. And in Animals. 
Both the Conjijlent Parts, ^, 4, ^. And the Fluid, 6. Likewife tn the 
Vifihle Organifm of Bodies. As in Plants, 7. So in Animals. Wherein 
all the Parts, as well as in Plants, do Originally conjiji of Fibers, 8. Either 
Soft, or Hard, or hoth, 9,10. By the various Pofition, and Compojition 
of which Two Sorts, all the Parts of an Animal are formed, 1 1. Cartila- 
ges and Bonis, 1 1. Mufcles, 1 3, 14, 1 5'. Membranes and Skins, 1 6, 1 7. 
Glands and Giandulous Parts, 18. Whether Conglobated, 19. Or Con- 
glomerated, 20. The Tejlicles, x 1 . The Heart and all Mufcular Parts, 22. 
The Spleen, 23, The Kidneys, 24. 77?^ Pancreas, 25. The Brain, xG. 
The Coats wherein they are all irruolved, xj, x%. The like Regularity is 
alfofeen in their Figures, 29, 30, 31, 32. Some further Remarks of the 
Labyrinth of the Ear, 33. And the Cryflal of the Eye, 34. 

C BAT. <). Of the Ufe of Compounded Bodies. 

^f^E ^fe of 1'kings further ohfervahle, i. As appearing everywhere^ 
efpecially in all the Parts of Plants and Animals, x. In the manifold 
^airiation of every Part; as for example, of the Skin, 3. The Swim- 
Bladder, 4. The Cjyftal of the Eye, 5. The Rock-Bone of the Ear, 6. 
The Parotides, 7. The Teeth, S. The Wind-pipe, ^, 10. The Lufigs,\i'. 
The Brain, 12. Likewife, in the multifarious Ufe of each Part ; as for 
example, of the I^ofe, 13. The Eye, 14, 15. The Tongue, 16. The 
Hand,x']. The Belly -Mufcles, \%. In the Confpinng too, of many Parts 
mto One Ufe -, as for Nutrition, 18. For a Single Ad, as the Flight of a 
Bird, 20. Or hut to Talk, 21. Or Laugh, 22. Orjor a Single Thought, 23. 
As alfo, in the Relation of one Part to another, 24. And between Man 
and other Parts of the Univerfe, x^. All of them, the Undeniable Effeds 
0f a mofi Perfe^ Underftanding, x6. And of Equal Goodnefs, 27. 



BOOK the Second. 


CHAT. I. Of Life. 

THere is a Vital Sahftance diflin£l from a Body, i. The Being here- 
of, Pojfthle, 2,3. Tho" we have no Adequate Conception hereof^ 4, 5-. 
Reafonaik, 6. Atld Neceffary^ 7. For as much as Body, cannot 
he Vital, 8. Neither as Suhtilized, 9,10,11. Nor as Organized, ix, 
15, 14, 15". Nor as moved, 1 6. Nor as Immediately Endowed with Life, 
ly^ 18, 19. The Communication of Things Corporeal and Incorporeal, how 
made, 20, xi,22. And their Union, 23. The feveral Species of LifCyX:^. 
The Lowefi, that without Senfe, 25, 26. By which ail Bodies have their 
Radiations and Mutual Inclinations, 27. And are, in a fort. Animated, 28. 
So as to make one Moiety of the Univerfe, 29. More Remarkable in Plants 
and Animals, 30. In their Generation, and Nutrition, 31, 32., 33, 34. 
And in fundry of their Motions^ 35'. The Benefit of this its Independence 
on Senfihle Life, 3 6. 

CHAT. 2. Of Senfe. 

CEnfe, the highefl Species of Life, in fome Things, i . Tet the AdjunSl 
^ of a diflinil Principle^ 2.. What Senfe is, 3. The Modes of Motion, 
on which Senfe depends, 4. On which, a/I Grateful Senfe, 5. Sounds, how 
diverffyd ; in being Bigger, 6. Louder y and Sharper, 7. Mufical, 8. 
Whence the famenefi of a Mufical Note, whether Strong or Soft, 9. Whence, 
Mufical Concords, lo. Or Difcords, 11,12. Figures, and Colours, how' 
they become Beautiful, 13,14. Whence the diftin^ion ofTaftes, and Scents, 
15,16. Whence any pleafant Touch, 1 7. The Trouhleftmenefi of Tickling, 1 8^ 
TVhencePain, 19. The fuitahlenefi of all the Injirume'nts of Senfe, 20. 77?^ 
Number of Senfe s, limited by the Number of Organs, 21. The Notice they 
give us of Senfibles, True and Ju/i, 22, 23, 24, 25. Tet not fujfficient of 
themfelves, to produce Senfe, 26. 

CHAT. 3. OFMind. And firfl: , Of Phancy, 
• or Phancaflick Mind. 

Jl4Ind or Thought, dijiind from Senfe, i. The Species hereof, Phancy, 
and Intelled, 2. Of Phancy, we are to d/ftingui/h the Organ,,^. The 
Images, 4. And the A^s, 5. The great Ufe hereof, even in Brutes, 6. 
Tet amounteth not to IntelleLiion ; Becaufe they are not Improvable, beyond 
their own Injlin£l, 7. Nor do they Work Elellively, 8. Nor by Imitation, 
nor Drfquifition, 9. Something like them, in Mad-men, 10. Explain d 
by Inflances, 1 1. Great Evidences of the Divine Art, 1 2. Human Phancy, 
much more Noble, 13. Defined, 14. Its Acls, 15, The Firft, viz. Per- 
ception', hath its Species, 16. Every Species, Three Modes, 17. viz. Re* 
cognition, 18. Memory and Reminijcence, i<), 7.0, ri. Forefight and Fore ^ 
cafiy 22,23,24. of thefe, confijl the Schemes of Phancy, zj. Either 

(b} Anfwe"- 

- • !■■ iiM^ii - warn I I ■ — ■ — ' — — 

iv* The Contents of the Chapters. 

Attfwerahle to Senfe, or Arbitrary, x6. With their Parts, an^ Colours, %-]. 
And are the Materials of Wit and Ingenuity, i8. Of thefe Alls, which pro- 
per to Mankind, 29. Upon Perception, follow the f ever al Sorts of Fo lit ion 
or Affe^ion, 10. Their various Mixture, -^i. And Symptoms, ;^z. Front 
hence. Habits, 3 5 , And PaJJIons, 3 4, 3 ^. The l^eceffity of an Incorporeal 
Principle, demonflrated from the Or^n of Phancy, 36, :;7, 38. And from 
its fever al Atts, 39,40,41. The Office of Phancy, in Generation, ^x. In 
ihe t/fe of Corporeal Habits, 43. And of Mental, 44, 45, 46. 

CHAf. 4. Of Imelledual Mind. 

HTHE Intelle^^ hath its proper Ohje^s, andA&s, i. Senfe, andPhancy^ 
■'■ have nothing to do, ivith the De^nition of the Deity, z. Nor of any 
Thing elfe, 3, 4, 5. Nor with Univerfals, 6. The forming of which, pe* 
culiar to the Intelle^ual Mind, 7. Intelle^ion defind, 8. Its Ails, 9. 
The firfl, viz. Perception, hath Two Modes, 10. The firfl, Duhitation, 11. 
Attended with Difquijition and Collation, ix, 13. The other, Invention: 
Improperly, or Properly fo called, 14, 1 5, 1 6. Attained, either by Senfe, 17. 
Or by firfl Theorems, 18. Or by Confequence, 19. All Knowlege , truly 
fo called^ of equal Certitude, lo. To fupfofe the Incertitude of any, but 
that of Senfe and the Mathematick, abfurd^ zi. Tet Demonflration, and 
Comprehenjion^ Two Things ; Jhewed by divers Inflances, zx, z3, z^, z^. 
Next to Perception y Volition, 26. Its Modes, 27. And Concomitancy 
with the Underflandingy 28, 29, 30, 


CHAfP. 5. Of the Three Chief Endowments of 
Incelledual Mind 5 And firft, Of Science. 

HTRuth, the Obje^ of the Underflandin^ , 1, 2. The feveral Sorts of 
■*• Truth, 3 . Theoremick Truth, Twofold, 4. Tofitive Truth, the Chief 
ground of Science ; which confifleth in defining the Effences of Things, 5, 6. 
The difference between Geniu and Generality, 7. Definitions of Things 
Simple, or Senfble, themoji Perfe^, 8. As of Quantity ; which we may 
confider abflraSly, 9. In Geometry, wetnufl, 10. And of its Relations; 
VIZ. Equality, XI. Proportionality, iz. And Commenfurability, i^. As 
alfoy of Regular Figures, 14. And their Relations, viz. Similitude, 15. 
And Coexijtence, 1 6. The Definitions of all other Things, unattainable j 
proved by Inflances, 17, 18, 19. Definitions fo called, are no more than 
certain Titles or Marks to know them by, 20, 21, 22. Nor are the Ideas 
we have of Figure and Quantity, abfolutely Perfe^ ; proved by Inflances, 
23, 24, &c. to 30. Much lefs, that we have of the Deity , 31. Tet 
are ive not to flay, with the Schools, upon meet Titles, but to go as far 
as we can, 32. 

<: H A P. 6. 


The Contents of the Chapters. 


CBAJ>. 6. Of Wifdom. 

T/fffont, wore JlreBly looks at the Caufes of Things, i. AJI reducible 
to the Efficient, x. Whereof there are Four Cardinals, 3. Each of 
which , have Four General Ways of Operation^ 4, j, 6, 7. The difiin£l 
Ohfervations wheTeof are the Elements of Wtfdom, 8. 

#/ the Firft Cardinal, the Firfl v)ay of Operation, is that of Body upok 
Body ; Either ly the Bulk, 9. The Figure, 10. Or the Po fit ion, n. 
On which are grounded, not only the greater part of Mechanick Operations ; 
hut the Mechanifm and Motions of Animals, 12. And in a great part, 
the Produflion of Sundry Difeafes, 13. As alfo the Internal Anions and 
Operations of Bodies, 14'. Seldom knowahle, faving in their vifible Ef- 

fe£ls, 15,16. The Second way of Operation, is that of Body upon Senfe, 1 7. 
The Third, of Body upon Phancy ; whereof, divers Injlances, 1 8, 19,' zo, 
11. The Fourth, of Body upon Reafon, xx. 

Of the Second Cardinal, the Firfi way of Operation, is of Senfe upon 
Body, 13. The Second, of Senfe upon Senfe, 7,4, z^. The Third, of Senfe 
upon Phancy, a6, 27. The Fturth, of Senfe upon Reafon, xB. Further 
Jnftanced, in the Operation of Beauty, 19. Cloaths, 30. Speech, jr. 
And Gefture, 32. 

Of the Third Cardinal, the Firft way of Operation, is that of Phancy 
upon Body, whereof divers Inftances, 33,34,35,36. The Second, of 
Phancy upon Senfe, 37,38,39. The Third ^ of Phancy upon Phancy; 
/hewed in fundry Inftances, 40, &c. to 46. The Fourth, of Phancy upon 
Reafon. By its Perceptive Ails, 47. And thofe of Volition, 48, 49. 
Among other Phancies, Four efpeciaUy, often fuperier unto Reafon ; viz. 
Wit, 51, 5 i, 5" 3. Opinion; whereof fundry Inftances, 54, &c. te 5-8. 

. Ilove, 59,60. And Pride, 61. 

J Of ih& Fourth Cardinal, the Firfi way of Operation, is that of Reafon 
upon Body, 6 1, 6 3 . The Second, of Reafon upon Senfe, 64, 65-. The Third 
of Reafon upon Phancy, 66, 6j. Which it Governs, andUfesfeveral ways, 
69, 70. 77?^ Fourth, of Reafon upon Reafon. Either in another, 71,71. 
Or in a Man s Self. As one Truth begets another, 73. Either Proxi- 
tmate ; whereof divers Inftances, 74, &c. to j^. Or Remote, 80,81, 
iBx, 83. And often builds high, upon mean Foundations, 84, &c. to 88. 
And as the Underftanding operates on the Intellectual Will, 89. How all 
Wifdom founded in the Premifes, 90. 

CHAf. 7. Of Virtue. 

/^Oodneft, what, i. Hereof, many Kinds, z. As more or left Certain, -i. 
^^ Or Comprehenfve, 4. Or Enjoy d; Wiiether Senfual, 5-. Phanta- 
Jiick, 6. Or IntelleUual, 7. As one kind, or degree, is related to ano- 
ther, 8. Or to theUniverfe, 9, 10. In the Choice whereof, confifteth 
Virtue, 1 1. Which is one Immutable Thing, 12. In chufing the Beft End 
and Means, 13, 14. And is the higheft Wifdcm, 15. To be Virtuous, 
more than to be Innocent, 16. Is joyned with Refolution, 17. And is 
the Force, both of Reafon, and of Phancy, 18. Therefore the higheft Wif- 
dom, and fomethingmore, i^,zo. Mediocrity, not hereunto neceffary,zi^ 


vi The Contents of the Chapters 

But Proporiiorty r%,xi. And Uniformity^ 24. Confifient with feveral 
Degrees^ z^. But with none, under its being Intelledual, 1.6. With 
Reafon^ the Affe£lions hecowe Firtues , 27. Which receive their Names ^ 
from the OljeBy 28. Three Virtues, fo called^ rather lelonging to all • 
viz. Prudence, 29. Conftancy, 30. And Love or Charity, 31. Four^ 
mar^ eminently Ufeful, \%. The Firfiy Humility ; Founded upon great Rea~ 
fon, 33,34. And of great Ufe^ ISih^iM- The Second, Magnanimity ; 
alfo of great Ufe, 38. Chiefly, as it begets Indufiry, 39,40. And Sa- 
pience or the LoveofWifdom, .41. The Third, Juflice ; likewife a Ni^le 
Virtue, and of Great and Publick Ufe, 42-, 43. The Fourth, Fortitude^ 
afewelcompofedoffeveralGems, 44? 4^. viz. Juftice, ^6. Prudence, 
47, And Courage, 48. In all, we are to fhew, the Dignity of Virtue^ 49. 
As the Workman fl^ip, and Image, of the Deity, 50, 51, 52. 

•~V' CHAT. 8. .Of Ccleftial Mind. 


' T the knowledge we have of the Divine Perfeflion, i . And of our 
own Imperfetlion, 2,3. And of Nature below us, 4. We may come 
to the Knowledge of Nature above m -, viz. the Exiflence of a more Per. 
fed Mind, 4, 5, 6. As aljo, from the Plenitude of the Vifible World, 7. 
And its Indefinite Extent, 8. That there are feveral Degrees of Supe- 
riority herein, likewife indicated. From our Selves, 9. An^ Jrom the 
Creatures below us, 10,11. .7'/'^^ they are of Two General Orders, ix,. 
Embody d, 13,14. And Pure Mind, 15-. The former, not without 
Senfe, 1 6. Nor Phapcy, 1 7. And that of a higher Species, than the 
Human, 18. But withfuch an Intelled, as js Coordinate with our own, 
19,2.0. And capable of Moral Evil, 21. That Pure Mind^ is either 
Compomnded, viz. of Phancy and Intelle^, z2, &c. to 26, And both of 
a Superior Species, 27. The Latter aBing by Dire^ Intuition, 28, 29, 
Or Simple ', that Ji, Abftra£ied Intellectual Mind; viewing Things, with 
■a Contemporary Intuition, 30. Whereof, we have the Shadow in our 
Selves, 31. P erf ed in its Nature, 32. And in its Extent, t^t^. With 
the PerfedioM of Will, 34. And of Happinefi grounded hereon, 35-. 

88 c^ , 

■ vv. :i *., 


The Contents of the Chapters. 


BOOK the Third. 

CHAT. 1 . Of the Nature of God's Government , 
or of Providence. 

PRovidence^ what^ i. The Being hereof demoHjlrated from the Cre- 
ation, i, 3, 4. ^fom the Imperfeiiion of the Creature, y. And 
the Conflitution of the Univerfe, 6. The Nature hereof 7. Of 
Vniverfal Extent^ 8. V roved, 9, 10, 11, ix. Of a Becoming Form, 13. 
With the Minifiry of Second Caufes, 14, 1 5-, 16. And their due Order ^ 
17, 18. In their Dominion feen among Corporeal Principles, 19. Among 
Motions, xo. In that of Celejlial Bodies, over the Earth, zi. Parti- 
cularly, that of the Sun, x%, z^, 24. Of the Moon ; feen in thofe Ef- 
feds, efieemed Natural, %^,z6,zy,zS. And Preternatural, x^, -^o. In 
the Dominion of the Vital, over the Corporeal World, 31, 3 x. tet tvith 
Limitation, 33. And in that feen among all the Parts of the Vital; as 
among Brutes, the Phantafiick, 34. The ArUtraty^ of Man over Brutes, 
54. And the Civil, among Men, 35,36. In that dlfo, of the Superiof 
World, over the Minds of Men, 37. Proved, 38, 39,40. Tet t»ith 
Limitation , 41, 41, 43. And that of the Superior World within it 

M* 44> 45- 

CHAf. 2. 

Of the Ends of Providence : And 
firflj^ in this Life. 

'THE Ends of Things with refpeii to Providence, i. Not always 
•*■ feen, z. for divers Caufes, 5,4, 5, 6. Tet our Enquiries into thef)i, 
not to leftinted, J. No real Contingents, %. What, fo called, (). What 
meant, ly Fortune, 10. No Accident, really Minute, ii. AsGodworki 
hy Accidents, fo iiy fi^pending Good Counf els, 12. And frufl rating the 
ieji Precaution i called Fate, 12. The Synmetry of Providence , hoiV 
feen,. 14, i^, 16. To he owned, in the mofi Natural Ejfe^s^ 17, i^. 
And in all /^reealle Events,, 19. Providence, Good and Jwfi^ 46, zi. 
Notwithfianding the Permij^on. of Moral, and the Forecaft of Penal Evil, 
az, zjy »4, Which Men commonly hring upon themf elves, z j-. The ofie, 
Jomefimcs vifihly cmgrnom to the other, z6, zj. The Divine Goodnefi 
apparent, in over-ruling of both. Sundry Infiances ; In the Body of Man, 
18, &c. ^i» 33. In the greater Parts of the World, as the Air, W^- 
ter,&cc. 34. In Minerals, Plants, and Animals, &c. 35. to 40, All 
which, we are fitted to Command, 40. In fitting us alfo, to ferve one 
another. By certain Similitudes in Nature, 41. By fome Difimilitudes, 
4Z, 43. And the djfferent Difpenfation, of her Gifts, 44. Tet fo, as 
that every one hath, or may have, the Suhftance of all Good, 45. In 
hinging Good out of Evil j whereof fundry Injiances, In the greater Parts 

CO ef 

viii The jCon tents of the Chapters. 

of the World, 46. In Minerals^ Plants, and Animals, 47, 48,49. 
Things Hurtful, hy Accident, 50. The feeming Faults of our own Bodies, 
of great Ufe, 51, 5:1. As alfo thofe of our Minds, 53, to 56. Lafily , 
In the Alternate Diftrihution of Good and Evil, 57, 58. 

C fiJT. j. Of Providence over Publick States. 


THerein God deals with the Body Politick, as with One Man, i, %. 
Exhibiting both his Juflice and Benevolence, fundry ways, 3. Shewed 
in divers Infiances. In the Spartan and Meflenian Commonwealths^ 4. 
In the Athenian, 5. In the Babylonian Monarchy, overthrown hy Cy- 
rus, 6. In the Vex(\3in,fupplanted by VhiM^, 8. And overthrown by Alexan- 
4^r, 9, 10. Who afterward, was left to dejiroy himfelf, 11. But efpeciaUy, 
in the Komzrx State, i%. Eminent for their Virtue, 12,13,14. And 
the^EJleem they had of Virtuous Men, 15. Their Courage, 16. Pru- 
dence, 17. 'Juflice, efpecially in their Wars, 18, 19. And Moderation 
ivith their Victories, zo. And thefe their Virtues, as Eminently attended 
with a Divine Favour. Remarkable upon fundry Occajions, ri. Efpeci- 
ally, in their Prefervation from Ruin, by Averroefles, 22. And by Han- ' 
nibal, 23. And in the Extent of their Empire afterwards, 24. And 
their Crimes, as Remarkably Punifljd. One, in relation to the Gauls, 
25", 26. The other, in relation to the Carthaginians, 27, 28. And 
after their Advancement^ growing worfe j were left in conclu^on, to de- 
jiroy themfelves, z^. 

CBJT. 4. Of the Celeftial Life. 

n^H E Certainty we have of the Future Life, i. Proved, From the 
■'■ perpetual Identity of Corporeal Principles, and of Motion, ,2, 3,4: 
From the Convenient Tranfition of Corporeal Principles, from one Eftate 
of Being to another, 5, 6. And from the ftrong Conception , which the 
Mind of Man hath, of Futurity, 7. The Future Eftate hereof, fuperior 
to the Prefent, S. Tet to be.Invefted with a Body, 9, iq. Of another 
fort, 11,12,13. But capable of Senfe, 14. And of Phancy, i^. And 
this, as well as Intellection, more perfeSl, 16. But with the fame Incli- 
nations, 17. According to which, ever-^ one will be dealt with, 18; At 
the Divine Tribunal, 19. And before all, 20. Either to a fad Eftate, 21. 
Or Happinefi. Depending Chiefly on the Perfe^ions of the Mind, 22. As 
refpe^ing Things pafl, 23, 24. . Or then prefent. Efpecially in the Enjoy- 
hrent of God, 25', 26, 27. As the Fulleft Good, 28, 29. The Near eft to 
ttf , 3 o, 3 1 . And the moft Certain, 3 2. And in the Imitation of him, in 
the Energy, San^ity, and Regularity of our Virtue, 33, ^0 36* In every 
Celeftial Eftate, 37, 38. 

- "■•' -' 'f- ■"■ ■ 

•A - V ' 

:^:, CHAP. '). 


.The Contents of the Chapters. ix 

CHAT. 5. Of the Rules of Providence. And 
fir ft, of the Law of Nature. 

N on/er to the Future Life, we are to enquire into the Rule; nf<? are 
to go ly, i» ThiSy i. Reafon, is one Rule, andthefirft, 2. By which ^ 
we make a judgment of Good and Evil^ 3. And are account allc unto 
God, 4, Notwithflanding the pretended Superiority of Senfcy 5,6. Our 
Sulje£lion unto Whorn, according to Reafon, that is. Nature, is our Natu- 
ral Religion, 7, 8. Either in the Duties we owe to our Selves and Others ; 
as for example. In the Ufe of Temperance ^ 9. Sobriety, 10. Qka- 
Jiity, II. Diligence, iz. Contentment, 13. Or in fhofe, we owe im. 
mediately unto God; In Learning to Know, 14, if. Love, 16, 17. 
Fear, 18. Revere, 19, ao. Obey, xi. And Adore Him, xi. And 
herewith, to Rely upon him, x^, 24, xj. Chiefly, for our Future Hap- 
pinefi, z6,z'j. To be always hereunto ready, efpecially in our Service 
of Fray er, z8, &c. to ^z. And of Praife, 33. 

. CBAT. 6. Of Pofitive Law. 

^T'Hough the Law of Nature, is of feme force, i. And is the Foundation 
*•■• of all Pofitive Laws, z. Tet the giving of an Exprefi Divine Law, 
veceffary, 3. To add Light, unto that of Nature, 4. Overjhadowd 
with Darknefi, 5, 6. Even among the Wifeft Men and Nations, 7, 8. 
And to add Strength to it, 9. And unto Human Laws themfelves , 
xo, &c. to 14. Nor was it fit, for the Supream Reafon, to leave Men 
entirely to their own Reafon, 15, 16, 17. Nor to their own Will, 18. 
It would Impeach the Wifdom of his Creation, 19. And of his Provi' 
dence, xo. And Eclipfe his Goodnefi, fundry ways, xi, xz, xt,, 24. 


The Gontents of the Chapters. 

BOOK the Fourth. 

C H A^. 1 . Of the Integrity of the Hebrew Code. 

THIS^ very provable^ i. From the fafe Cufiody of the Original 
Books ^ -i.^ T,. And their frequent Pul>licatioM, ^. From the Ma^ 
ny and Early Copies taken of the faid Originals, 5-, 6. From the 
Many and Early Tranflations of the fame. As firfi, the Two mo ft ancient 
Pentateuchs, viz. the Samaritan and the Greek, 7. Next, that of the 
Septuagint, 8,9,10. Which took in the whole Hebrew Code, n. 
And whereof we have now the True Copies. As appears, from the fafe 
Cuftody of the Original for a$ove Two Hundred Tears, 12. From the fe- 
deral and very early Editions hereof, 13, 14. And the Antiquity of the 
Manufcript Copies now Extant, 1 5:. Next to this, the Targum or Chal- 
dee Paraphrafe, 1 6. Then the Syriac Verfton, 1 7. The later Samari- 
tan, Ethiopick, Vulgar Latin, ^c. 18. Further proved. From the M^~ 
fora : as containing the Ohfervations of the more ancient Rabhies, 10 ^.o. 
Of theVoii'T2\m\xdLick Rahhiesy xi. And the Hebrew Puntiation, zz. 
The Tukkun Sopherim being allow' d, 23 : And fame few Errata of the 
Scribes, 24 : Tet by means of the Three Letters, called Matres Lecili- 
onis, the Text is everywhere tfncorruptcd, 7.$. Which none could poffiblv 
have Corrupted, if they would, ^6. Nor would they, if they could!, xj. 
Nor are the few Errata herein, inconfiflent with its being cf a Divine 
Original, 28, to the end. 

CHAT. 2. Of the Truth and Excellency of the Hehren> 
Code. And firft, as th^y appear from Foreign Proof. 

^^HE Hebrew Code, a True Account of Things, as well as a True Copy, 1. 
■^ As appears from the Agreement ofProphane, with the Sacred Writers, 
2, 3. As for Injlance ; In what is faid of the Creation, 4. Adam'i 
Food, f. The Serpent, 6. Adam J Cloathing, 7. CainV Offering, 7. 
The great Age fl/z/^e Ante-diluvians, 8. The Mofzick Genealogies, 8,9, 
10,11. The Flood and 'Soah's Ark, 12. The Tower of Bahd, iS. The 
Ci/y 0/ Nineveh, 14. The Burning of Sodom, if. Divers of the Pa- 
triarchs ; iM Abraham, 16. Jacob, 17. Job, 18. Jofeph, 19. Mo- 
fes, 20. Jofliua, 21. The Land of C'dnazn, 22. David, 23. Solo- 
mon, 24. The Babylonian Captivity, 25. Nebuchadnezzar, 26. BeJ- 
fliazzar, 27. The Taking of Babylon, 28. With fame other Particu. 
lars, 29. Which Agreement, though fomewhat obfcured, 30. Tet fuffici- 
ent, 3 1 . Many particulars, not only Reported, but Imitated by Men of 
other Nations : as in their Fables, 3 2, &c. ^035. And Poet ick Sayings, 3 6. 
Much, /j Homer, 37,38,39. By Philofophers , 40,41. Efpecially 
Plato, 42. By Princes and Legijlators. In their Occajional Policies, 43, &c. 
/o 47. And in many of their Stated Laws, 48,49. Anjwering to thofe 
of the Decalogue, and other Mofa ick Z.<7U'J, 50, &c. to 6'j. The ConcluJ 
(ion from the Premifes, 68. 

C HA P^ ;. 

The Contents of the Chapters xi 

CHAT. 3. Of the Truth and Excelkncy of the Hebrew 
Code, as they appear in it felf. And firft, if we confider 
the ^v riters. 

THE Truth of the Old Tcjiament, though hy fome doubted of i. tet 
appears, vot ordy from the Teliimony of Prophane Authors, as we have 
feen, z. But further, from the Sacred Writers themfehesf Their great 
Antiquity, 3. Mofcs, within the time of Longevity, 4, 5-, 6. And not 
the jirjl'Sacred Writer^ 7. Some fort oj Writing, prolahly in the Churchy 
from the Beginning, 8. The Pentateuch, except fame few injerted Paffa- 
gesy Recorded hy himfelf, or his Order, 9. Both the Legiflative Part, 10. 
And the Hiftorical, 11. Mofl of the ether Books, Writ, or Dilated, ly 
thofe wkofe Names they bear, 1 z. Whoever were the Authors of the reft, 
'tis certain, that the Contents hereof, were Recorded in the Puhlick Jout- 
nals, I 5 . Whereof, they who had the Making and Cuftody, were the Priefts, 
14. And the Prop,hets, 15. The former, excellently qualify d for this 
Office, 16, And fo the Latter, 17. And their Writings, have all the 
Mvks of Truth. Exathiefs in their Chronology, 18. And Genealogies, 19. 
In their Defcriptions, zo. Simplicity of Style, %i. Their Narratives, 
jufl, zt. Pertinent, 23. Not pompoufly amplify d, Z4. Nor vainly re- 
pea ted, Xj. Their Speech, proper, z6,z7. Of Men, one to another, zS. 
Of Men, unto God, z^. Of God, unto Men ; where, the Prophetick Style, 
is confider d, 30, &c. /<? 35". Their Harmony, ohfervahle everywhere, not- 
■withfldndingmany feemingContradi^lions, 36. Chiefly, through mifohfer' 
ling the Sacred Story ; as in divers In (lances, 11, to 40. Sundry notori- 
ous Mijiakes of Spinofa, 41, &c. to 48. The Agreement between the Old' 
Teftament-Hiftorians, in ivhat they Write, 49, 50, ji. And between the 
Prophets, ^z, 5-3. In the JEnd they all propofe to themfelves, 54, 5-5. 
And the Agreement between the Old left ament and the New, 56. 

C HAT. 4. Of the Contents of the Old Teflamenc. 
And firfl: , of the Hiftpry. 

CCripture-H/ftory, Singular, i, a. In the account we have. Of Man s 
^ Primitive Perfe^ion, 3. The coming of Evil into the World, 4, The 
Holy Line, ^. The Longevity of the firft Ages, 6. The Univerfal De- 
luge, 7, Noah'j- Ark, 8, And the Original of Nations, 9, lo, 11. Scrip- 
ture- Hiftory, other wife Remarkable ; Jhewed in fundry Inftances iz &c 
to zi. Not Blemifhed with any Immorality : though there feems to he fome 
Inftances hereof, ix, &c. to z%. Nor with any thing Romantick or Ab- 
furd, notwithftanding any feeming Inftances, 29, to 52. Further ft^ewed, 
33, &C. to ij. Nor with any thing, to be accounted Trivial, 38, &c. 
to 41, 

Cd} C HA P, s. 

xii The Contents of the Chapters. 

CHJT. 5. Of the Miracles. 

T"HE Truth of thefe, fpeciall^ proved^ r. By diftinguijhingthe Mira* 
culous Works of Creation^ from Miracles^ commonly fo called^ x, 3,4. 
By laying down the fever al Properties of a Miracle^ 5, &c. /o 13. Jppli- 
cable to all thofe reported to us in the Scriptures. As the feeming Change 
of Aaron'j Rod^ into a Serpent^ 14. the turning of the Rivers into 
Blood, And bringing the Frogs into the Houfes of the Egyptians, 1 5-. 
Turning the DUJi into Lice, And bringing the Swarm of Flies, 1 6. The 
Murrain, And Boyls upon Man and Beaft, 1 7. The Hail, Locufts, Dark- 
nefi, and Peflilential Plague, 18. The Caufes of all ivhich, were Limited^ 
19. Andfuited to their Ends, xo. The Truth of the foref aid Miracles^ 
further proved, xi, ai. And of fun dry others. As the drying up of the 
Red Sea, x4, 25. The Pillar of a Cloud by day, and of Fire by night, x6. 
The defcending o/Manna, zj, i8, 29. Bringing Water out of the Rock, 30. 
Bringing the Quails, 31. The'Earthfwallowing up Corah, ^c. t,x. The 
Fire which confumed thofe who offered Incenfe, 33. The Bloffoming of 
Aaron V Rod, 34. The Sanative Power of the Brazen Serpent , 35. The 
Cutting off of the Waters o/Jordan,3 6. The Fall of the Walls 0/ Jericho, 3 7. 
The ftanding fiill of the Sun and Moon, 38,39. The Suns Jhadow going 
back, 40. Afjd the Confimption of the Sacrifice, by Fire from Beaven, 41. 

C H Af. 6. Of the Prophecies. 

PRophecy, herefpoken of in the firi^efl Senfe, i. Suppofeth, the non- 
being of Contingents, x. The Definition hereof; with Proofs of the 
Divinity of Scripture-Prophecies, 3 . From the Manner oj their being Re- 
vealed, 4, 5, 6, 7. With the Affurance the Prophets always had, of the 
Revelation, 8. From the Matter herein contained, 9, 10, 11. And front 
the Evidence, wherewith they have been Fulfilled, xr. Both thofe, which 
■ relate to the Heathen World; As the Ruin 0/ Nineveh, 13. O/Tyre, 14. 
Of Egypt, 15. And off&zhylon, 16, 17; Nebuchadnezzar'^ Dream, of 
the Four Heathen Monarchies, 1 8. Daniel'^ Prophecy, of the Grxcian, 19. 
And thofe, which relate to the Jews. Either to particular Perfons, zo. 
' Or to the feveral Tribes ; VIZ, o/Reuben, 21. Judah, 22. Levi, 23. 

Jofeph, or Ephraim W Manafleh, 24. And the reft, 25,26. Or to 
the Whole Jewifti Nation. With refpe^ to their Sins and Punift^ments for 
the fame, 27,28, 29. Chiefly, upon their Captivity, 3 o, 3 1 . And after- 
mrds, 31. And with refpeil to the Bleffmgs they Enjoy d; Chiefly Three, 
viz. A numerous Offspring, 33,34,35:- The Land of C^n-^^t), -^6. Re- 
markably, in their Return thither, 37, 38. And after, 39. And the 
Efpecial Prefence of God, as their King , 40, 6fc. to 44. 

CHAP. 7. 

The Contents of the Chapters. xiii 

CHAf- 7' Of the Laws. And firft, of thofe 
given to Jdam and ISloah. 

'H E ReafoH of the Law, to he fuppofed of great Extent^ i . Four 
Difpenjations hereof z. The Laws given to Adam lefore the Fall j 
CoiKerning Food, 3. The Sahhath , 4,5. Daily Labour, 6. Modera^ 
tion, 6. And Marriage, 7, After the Fall ; The Retrenchment of Li- 
lerty, 9. The Suhtraclion of Food, 10. And Addition of Labour, 11. 
The giving of other Laws not mentioned, to he fuppofed^ 11,13,14. Chiefly, 
about Sacrifices ; not taught by Mature^ if, 16, 17, r8. But of Divine 
Jnflitution, 19, lo, 21. With other Laws, anfwerable to the Corruption 
of Mankind, and the Promife of a Saviour, ii, 21. Laws alfo given to 
Noah, 23. Fiefh allowed, 24. Raw Flefh, and Blood, forbidden, %^. 
And Murder, z6. Befides thefe^ others not mentioned, to be fuppofed. 
Proved from Pajfages recorded of the Heathen World, 27. \And of the Holy 
Seed, z8, &c. /'o 33. Chiefly, c/ Abraham, 34. As given unto All, jj. 

CHAT. 8. Of the MofakkL^w. 

JI/HT given only to the Jews ; and what, in general, i. This Difpen^ 
^^ fation, admirable ; if we conjider the Preparatory Part, 2. The De- 
corum wherewith it was accompanied, 3. The Method in which it was 
writ, 4. A«d the Reafon of the Law itfelf, 5. Firfl, In Temporal re- 
fpe£ls,6. As the Duty of Children, J, "i. Of Servants, ^. Of Subjects, loi 
The Leffer Sanhedrim, 11. The Court of Appeals, 1 1. The Greater San- 
hedrim, 13. The King, 14. . The Military Orders, 15. The Laws againfl 
■Murder, 1 6. Manflaughter, 1 7. The Dietetick Laws .- partly for Health, 1 8. 
As appears, In what was allowed, ig. Forbidden, xo. As alfo, for Good 
Husbandry, zi. AndContinency, zx. The Laws againfl all forts of In- 
crdinate Venery, 13, 24, 25. Divers other Laws, hereunto relating, z6, 
zj, 28. Laivs relating to their Goods and Chattels, 29, 30, 31. Their 
Real Eflates. The Eflates of Each Tribe, 32. Of Each Family, 3 3 . Par- 
ticularly, of the Levites, 34. Some other Laws hereunto relating, 35-. 
For regulating the Courts of Jufl ice, 7,6, Tfj. Againfl Extortion, t^^. Op' 
preffion, 39. And other Injuries, 40. To be Benevolent to all, 41. Thefe 
Laws, further Singular, In being given together^ 42. And in few Words, 
43. The Advantages thence arifing, 44. 

Next, In Spiritual refpeHs, 45-. Again]} Polytheifm,'%^ Idolatry, 
47,48. Blajphemy , 49. Gods Attributes, alfa to he obferved in hh 
Works. Of Creation, 50. And of Providence, 51. Efpecially relating 
to themfelves. Here, 53. And in the Future Life, 54. 

The Ceremonial Law, further infirutlive herein, 5^5. The Defcription 
of the Tabernacle, in general, 56, 57, 58. Of the Parts ; viz. The Boards, 
59. Bars, 60. Curtains, 61, 62. Floar , 63. The Figure of the 
Whole, 64. Of the moft Holy Place, 65. The Furniture within the Veil; 
viz. The Ark, 66. The Mercy-Seat, 67. The Cherubims, 68. With- 
fiut, viz. The Altar pf Incenfe, 6^. The Table, "/o. TheCandleJlicks,yi. 
Their Situation, 72. And^ the Vefluary, 73. Without the Tabernacle; 
the Brazen Altar, 74,75. The Laver, 76. And the Court, 77. The 


xiv The Contents of the Chapters. 

l^amlers and Meafures in the Talernacle, how they aKJvoer to thofe in the 
Body of Man^ 78, to 86. The Ornaments of the High Priefl^ 87, The 
Breafi.PIate, 88. The Urim and Thummim, 89. The Arts ufed for 
making all, 90. And the Materials, 91. With the Service hereunto he- 
IcKging^ 91. 

Of all which, there was a Myflical Intent, 92. To Exhilit the Power 
and Wifdom of God, 93, 94, And the Excellency of hu Works. Of Cre- 
ation, 95. And of Providence, 96, 97. As alfo his Omnifcience , ^"i. 
Jnflice, 99. Sovereignty, 100. Holinefb^ loi, loi, 103. And Good' 
;/(?/}, 104. To Exhibit likewife fomething of Heaven, lo--^. The polluted 
Eftate of this Lower World, ic6. And the San^ity whereunto the Jews 
were called, 107. For which, the Prieflhood was Ordain d , 108. And 
the Priefls abundantly Qjialify d by their Confecration, 109, no. And the 
Ufe of the Urim and Thummim, 1 1 1 , 112. For which likewife, fundry 
Laws were given, refpetling the refl of the People. Partly, in appointing 
certain Marks of Spiritual Uncleannefs, 113, to 116. And the Degrees of 
ity I in. UntoAvhich Ufe, the Dietetick Laws were alfo referrd, 1 1 8, 1 19. 
And partly, certain Rites andCeremonies for Expiation, no. The Intent 
whereof, was both Dire£l and Oblique, 1 x r . Diretl, as in the Burnt- Of- 
fering; Which was either the Continual, ixi. Or Occafwnal, 1x3. The 
Meatoffering, 1x4. The Peace-Offering, 1x5-. The Trefpafs-Offering, 
\2.6. With other Rites, forPurijying of divers forts ofUncltannsJs^ 117, 
ii8. Efpecially, theLeprofy, 1x9. For Capital and Prefumptuous Sins^ 
no Sacrifice, 130. 

But thefirongefl Fort, was that raifed againft Idolatry ; By flrid Inqui- 
fit ion, and fevere Penalty, 131. By many Ceremonial Laws, 131. By 
prohibiting Intermarriage with Idolaters, 133. By the Dietetick Laws^ 
134. And hereby^ as well as by other Means., in making Medicine of little 
Ufe to the Jews, 135". // being Evident, from the Original, and State 
cf Medicine, under Ofiris, 136. Orus, 137, 138, 139. Athothus, 
140, 141, 142. With the Improvements made by Serapis and other Chief 
Priefis, 143, 144. And efpecially by Hermes, 145,146. That it was 
either wholly Magical, or fuch in a great. part, 147, As in Egypt, fo all 
Over the World, 148. For which Cauje the Jews ivere prohibited medling 
with Phyjicians, 1 49. But encourag'd to Study the Nature of Difeafes and 
Medicines, I $0. Miraculoufiycurd, 151. And placed in a Country, every 
way conducing to their Health, 151. 

There was alfo an Oblique or Typical Intent, 151, 153. Of the Taber- 
nacle, x/j^. Of the feveral Parts, 15-5. ^0 158. And of the Order 
wherein they were all placed.^ 159. Of Perfons, 160, 161, i6z. And 
of Things appertaining to Divine Service, 163. Of the Anions, 164, 
1 6 J, 166. And of the Numbers 6 and ^, 167. This Ceremonial Law 
Injiitutedy not to Humour the ]ews, 168. Nor to imitate the Gentiles, 
169. But for fundry great Reafons, mentioned from ijo to i8o. 


The Contents of the Chapters. xv 

BOOK the Fifth. 

CHAT. I. Of the Integrity of the New Teftamenr. 

TH E Divine Authority of This, equally provahle xvith that of th^ 
OUTeftament. And frji, from its Integrity^ i, z. Of the Seven 
artif Twenty Books, Twenty were always acknowledged, 3: viz. The 

Gofpdof St. Mmhew, 4. Of St. Mark, c. O/S/.Luke, 6. 0/-5/.John, 7. 

The Aits, 8. , Thirteen of St. Paul s Epiftles, 9; The Fir ft of St. Peter, 10. 

And the Firfi ofSt.]ohn-, 1 1 . The other Seven, though the Authors dbuhteti 

ofy.M a. few, 1 2. • Tet Authentick : viz. The Epijile to the Hebrews, 13. 

Tht?t af'iSt. James, 14. The Second of St. Peter, i j. That of St. Jude, 1 6. 

And'the A^oz?.\)y\h, 17,18, And fo the other Six, ih'id. Their hein^ 

puhlickly Recvfft}ized, not hefore the Council of Laodicta, noOhje£lionagainJi 

their. Ajtrtarity^ t^I . Which was owned hy Hereticks and Injidels, xo. 

Tl'.-' .i j,o'<^rapha ibewfehes, for feme time in the Church's Cujlody, xo. 

And the Copies were Innumerable, x\. AuJ fufficiently Attefted. By the 
Apcftles and ApolloUcal Men, 2Z. And iy the Prophets, -li. Nor have 
thefe Copies been Corrupted, 24. Neither hy the Catholichs -, for want of 
Care, 25. OrofPrclity, z6. Nor iy the /-fereticks, zy,toi,o. And as 
appears, from the many Verfions made hereof 3 r. Next to the Greek Gofpet 
of 5/. Matthew, theSyxhc^ 32. ThernoftAncient'Lznn,y^. TheCo\inc\<. 
a;?^ Ethiopick, 34. 77?^ Arabick, 3 5-. //-'^Perfian, 36. 77;£' Gothick, 
Sclavonian, Armtnian, Dalmatian, 37. As a!fo from their Agreement 
with theQjiotatiof^s made hy the Ancient Doctors, 38. And from the Agree- 
ment of all the Manufcript Greek Copies among themfelves, 39. Notwith- 
fianding the Various Lettions, 40. Either the Emta of ScriheSy /^i. Or 
fuch Various Ledions , as were purpofely made; By Addition, 42, 43, 44. 
Omijfion, 45, 46, 47. Or Corretlion ; In conformity to the Latin, 48. To 
the Writings of the Ancient D odors, 49. Or to the WorJs moft in ufe^ 
where the Scribes lived, 50,51. The Conclufion from the Premifes. 

I^f CHAT. 1. (Of the Truth and Excellency of the New 
Tedament. And firft, as they appear from the Writers. 

* ^T'Hefe dcmonftrated. In that the Writers could not he Decervedy 1,2. Ai 
-*■ being Prcfent, when every thing was fa id and done, or Reporting from 
thofe that voerel-n,.' Mofi Attentive, 4. And very Difcreet ; no twit h- 
flanding that in fome Exprefions, they feem to he other wife, from 5 /o 14. 
Their Record therefore, fofarUnqueftionahle, 15. As alfo, in that it is 
in its own Nature, credible, 16 to zi. Neither could they have a mind to 
Deceive ; If we confider. When they Wrote, 22. The Cotjfequence to them- 
felves of What they Wrote, 23, 24. Or the Manner of their Writing ; 
With Brevity, 25. Simplicity, z6. Modefty,z'j. Impartiality, z'^. If 
ure further confiikr. Their Agreement with Human Writings, 29, 30. With 
thofe of the OldTeflament, 31 to 34. And one with another. The Agree- 
ment of the Ads and Epifiles, with the Gofpels, 35. Of the Epijlks with 

C e } thi 

xvi The Contents of the Chapters. 

the A£ls^ 36. And of the Go/pels one with another^ 37. Notwitb- 
Jl an ding fame feeming ContradilUons , from fundry Caufes, 38, 39, 40. 
Whereof many Injlances, from 41 /o 57. Their Way of Writing julHfyd^ 
from great Reafon, 58/0 the End. ' 

CBA^. 3 . of the Contents. And firft, of the Miracles. 

n~HE Truth and Excellency of the New Te (lament demon flr at ed from 
■'- Thefe, i, x. Confidcrd firft^ In the Evidence we have of them ^ itt 
point ofFa^i. Either in the Scripture itfelf; As to the Number of Difeafei 
Curd^ 3. The Number of Patients^ 4, When Cur'd^ ^. In what Manner^ 
6, 7, 8. Before Whom, 9, 10. And by Whom, 11, iz. Or i» the Wri- 
tings of the Ancient Chrijiians, 13. Or in thofe o/Jews and Vzgzns, 14. 
Confiderd next. In their Caufes. In general, 1^ to xo. And in particu- 
lar, XI to x8. And confiderd. In their manifold Reafon or Ends^ 29. 
Whereof fundry Injlances, from 30 ?o 43. 

CBA<P. ^. of the Dodrine. And firft, of the 
Revelations we are to BeHeve. 

n^^FIE Do^rine of the Gofpel, anfwerable to the Miracles, i. Of the 
■*- Unity and Nature of the Godhead, 2. Of the Sacred Trinity, -i^. The 
Second and Third Perfons hereof, Typify d many Ways in the Old Tejlameni^ 
4, 5, 6. More evidently Revealed in the New, 7. 'jefus Chrifl the Second, 
by his Divine Attributes, 8, 9, 10, 11, ix. By his EJfence, 13. And 
Name, 1^. Hjs Appearance among us, was Becoming, 15. The Marks of 
his Divine and Human Natures, given us in a Becoming Conjun^iony 16 toz^. 
And his Appearance was Necejfary : on God's part ^ x6. And on Ours, xj. 
The Divinity likewife of the Holy Ghofl, proved divers ways, x8 to 33. 
The Being of Divine Providence, perfpicuoufly ajferted in the Scriptures of 
the New Teftament, 34. As alfo Election by the Father, 35. Juftifica- 
tion by the Son, 36. And San^ification by the Spirit, 37. With the Mi- 
nijlry of Good and Bad Angels, 38. And the RefurreUion, Life, and Judg^ 
ment to come, 39. Of all which, the Scriptures fo far plain, as is neceffa. 
ry, 40. But alfo Myflerious, as this Word is commonly underflood : the de- 
nying whereof y dangerous, 41, 42.. The fame Revelation, with refped to 
divers Capacities, may be more or lefi Myjlerious or Plain, 43. And more 
or lefiufeful, ^<^, ^^1). Further proved in general, ^6. By particular In- 
Ji antes y from 47 to j6. Knowledge and Comprehenjion differ not in Na- 
ture, but Extent, 57. That the Scriptures are Abjirufe in fome ThingSy 
no Faulty 58. But our Difputes about them, a great Oney 59. 


The Contents of the Chapters. xvii 

CHAT. 5. Of the Precepts. 

''T'H'cfe another part of the Divhie Revelation^ i. Wherein their Excel- 
■*• lency appears, 2, To Repent an^ Believe, the Two Principal Laws of 
the Go/pel, 3 . Ami were Myjlicaliy taught in the LeviticalLaw, 4. Re~ 
fentance defind, 5. Faith defind, 6, 7. All the other Precepts, a Com^ 
ment hereupon, 8. Both of themfet forth in our Saviour s Sermon on the 
Mount, 9. The Former, in the Seven firfl Benedi£iions, 10 to 16. The 
Latter, in the Three folloiving, 17, 18, 19. Specially recommended to his 
Difciples, zo. And diflinguifhed from the Corrupt Glojfes, made upon the 
Com.mandments hy the Scrihes and Pharifees, xi. In doing which, he paf. 
feth over the Five frfl, and Why, 2x. He begins therefore, in Shewing 
the Extent of the Sixth, 23,24. Then, of the Seventh, 25-, 26. And 
condemns Polygamy, 27. Next of the Ninth, 28, 29. Of the Eighth, 
30, 31. And of the Tent h^ 32, 33. He then diretts them infome efpe- 
cial parts of P rail ice, 34. As in giving of Alms, 35. In Praying ; as to 
Words and Meafure, 3 6. Method and Matter, 3 7, to 4 j. In Fajling, 46. 
And with refpett to Worldly Affairs, 47. And then, how to judge of others, 
48, 49, ^o. In all, to depend upon the Grace of God, 51. To recoiled 
what he had Taught, 52. To ufe great Refolution in ohferving the fame, 53 . 
To take heed of Deceivers , 54. And of Self-Delufion , 55, 5 6. Befides 
there is afufficient Store ofGofpel-Precepts,forallPerfons andOccafions, /^-j. 
The Manner wherein our Lord deliver d his Dotlrine, grounded on the heji 
Reafon. On a Mountain, but not with Terror, 58. Nor in one entire Sy- 
Jiem ; that many Things might be the better Repeated, 5-9. Metaphors the 
better made ufe of, 60. And Parables, 61. And fome Paradoxes, 62. 
As alfo Arguments, 63. Allujions to CuflomSy and the Sayings of Noted 
Men, 64. That he might give them Occajfionally, and Extempore, 6§. And 
that his Life, as an Illufirious Example of Practice, might be Interwoven 
with his Dodrine : Whether we look upon it, as A^ive^ 66, 67. Or PaJ~ 
five, 68 to 71. 

CiiAT. 6. of our Saviour's Prophecies. 


/N which, he forefels the Effects of his Dodrine, 1. Firjl, his PaJ/ion : 
which, though Seemingly Impoffible, 2. Tet was contrived Infallibly to 
come to pajs, 3 . And then, the Great Things, which followed hereupon, 4. 
Firft, The Preaching of the Gofpel unto all Nations, 5. Notwithfianding 
all the Oppofition made againji it, 6. For which Work, the Apofiles were 
admirably Qualify d, 7. And favour d in Judea , with Equal Succefi, 8. 
And upon their Leaving of Judea, dividing all Nations among them, 9. 
And being Eminently ajpjled by St. Paul, i o. Preached the Gofpel all over 
the World, 1 1 . Next, The Defolation <?/ Jerufalem and the Temple. Both 
the Forerunners, 12,13. And the Manner hereof, 14,15,16. Then, 
the following Perfecutions, with the Caufes of the fame, viz. The Defama- 
tions cfChriJl's Perfon, and Religion, 17 . And the Corruptions of the Church, 
18,19. Upon which the General Perfecutions arofe,xo. And La{[ly, his 
Coming to ejiablijh Chrifiianity through the Empire, 21, 22. The Signs 
ivhereoj] were Confjikuous : viz. His Striking of all the Heathens Oracles 


xviii The Contents ot the Chapters. 

dumh^ 23. Continuing Miracles in the Church, 2-45X5. Injpiring the 
Martyrs with Invincible Courage, %6. Stopping the Mouths of Wild 
Beajis, 27. Setting the Marks of Divine Vengeance on his Enemies^ z8. 
The Operation of all which ^ very admirable upon Men of all Sorts, %g, ]o. 
On the Emperors themfelves, 31. But the great eft Signs of his Coming, 
iv'ere thofe Exhibited in the Days of Conftantine : Qjtalifyd by his Vir- 
tue, and a Celejlial Vifion, 32, 33. For the Overthrow of all the Grand 
Enemies of Chriftianity, 34. And making it the Religion of the Empire^ 

. ^ 

Z6e E R R A T A c/ the Trefs. 

P/)ge ti. £:«« 4 y. rwi, Friable. P. 35. A 37. r. Adventitious. P. 36. /. i(S. r. Still in. P 37, 
A 10. r. Modification. P. 58. /. 14. r. propofeth. P. 61;/. a8. r. as in the Chapter. P.6g. 
A 13. r. 37tb. P. 77. /. 43. r. Arc. P. 81. /. jo. r. and whereof. P. 87. /. 3. r, doth not. P.iio. 
l.-j. r. than Fear. P. 113. /. fenult. r. Operations. P- 154. /. 12. r. potivetit. P. lyy- /. 31. 
r. Shews forth. P. 161. /. 41. r. could propofe. P. 196. /. 49. r. eiFefted. P. j^g. /. 22. r. the 
mention. P. an. /. 42. r. asfpeaking of ihe Nile. P. a8i. /. 47. r. Qioip'ofQ-. P. 299. 7.38. 
r. Invidioufly. P. 332. /, a. imit , And firft, of, the Precepts which equally concern all. p. 354. 
/. 15. r. Invidious. 




herein is fliewed, That GOD 
made the Corporeal World. And 
what it is. 

C H A P. I 

Of GO D. 

T is very natural, for all. Men to defire, 
in the enjoyment of what is agreeable 
to them, to be Happy. It is therefore 
as natural fcr every wife Man to enquire, 
^ Whethef there is not a Supreme Being, 
^1 who is fupremely Good, and communica- 
ble to us-; in the enjoyment of whom, 
our chief Happinefs muftconfift. ; , 
z. Now the Exiftence of this Supreme 
Being, upon the ufe of found Reafon, 
becomes as certain to us, as our own. For 
it" is mod certain , that there never could be nothing. For if 
there could have been an Inftant, wherein there , was Nothing: then, 
either Nothing, made Something: or Spmething, rnade it lelf:and 
fo, was, and adlcd, before it was. But if there never could be No- 
thing : then, there is, and was, a Being of neceffity without any Be- 

V And therefore without any Caufe. For how can that Being have 
any Caufe, the necedity of whofe Exigence is in Himfelf ? And if he 
were his own Caufe, he muft then alfo be his own Effed or Creature : 
which is nonfenfe. So that there is a Fir ft neceflary, and never-begun 
Being, before, and above, all Caufe or Caufation : tliaf is, a Being 
which is Self-ex iftent. . " 

.4. Whence it alfo follows, That this Self-exiftent Being hath the 
Power of Perfedion, as well as of Exiftence, in Himfelf. For he that 
is above, or exifteth without, any Caufe ; that is, hath the Pawer of 
Exiftence in Himfelf: cannot be without the Power of any Poftible Ex-: 
iftence. Becaufe, that no Pofiible Exiftence, nor therefore, State of Per- 
I'edion, can be more above another, than Something is above Nothing- 
Having tlien, the Power of Self-exiftence : He" muft needs alfo ha.vfe the 

B Pow- 

O j GOD, Book I. 

Power of any fort of Exigence : And therefore, of that Way or Man- 
ner of Exigence, which is the moll Perfed, 

5-. And becaufe the fame Self-exiftent Being, neceflarily is what he 
is ; as hath been proved : 'Tis therefore evident. That what he May Be, 
or hath the Power of Being ; he Mufl Be. If then, he hath the Power 
of Perfection ; he is, neceffarily a mofl; PerfecSb Being. 

6. Again ; Self-exiftence is fo tranfcendent and perfed: a manner of 
Being; that itcannot be conceived, but in conjund:ion with all other 
Perfedlions. For otherwife, Perfection would be wanting to it felf ; 
that is, Perfedion would be Imperfedt. 

ji This Perfect Being, cannot but be every way Infinite. And firfl 
of all, in his Duration, For that is Infinite which is without Bounds. 
But the Duration of a Never-begun Being, can have no Bounds. 

8. Now that Duration, which is without Bounds • mull: likewife of 
iieceffity be without Parts. For nothing can have more Parts than it 
hath. But there can be no number of Parts fo great, to which another 
Part, or number of Parts may not be added. Notliing therefore, can 
be Infinite, which hath Parts; except it hath more Parts, than it 

9. Therefore Time, which confifteth of Parts ; can be no Part of In- 
finite Duration, or of Eternity. For then there would be Infinite Time 
part, to Day, which to Morrow will be more than Infinite. Time is 
therefore, one thing ; and Infinite Duration is another ; before, in, and 
after Time, a perpetual rh vw. Which we mean, or ought to mean, 
when we fpeak of Eternity ; and of God, as of an Eternal Being.' 

10. Moreover, He that is Infinite in Duration, cannot but be Im- 
menfe. As alfo. Infinitely Powerful, Wife, and Good, fje may be fo. 
For it is as pofiTible, for a Being to be Immenfe, or Boundlefs in his Ef- 
fence, as in his Duration. And all pollible Infinities are as conceiva- 
ble as any one. And what he may be ; he mud be ; as hath been 
proved. For otherwife, he were neither a NecefTary, nor a Perfed 

11. As therefore Infinite Duration, hath no relation unto Motion and 
Time : So Infinite or Immenfe Eflence, hath no relation unto Body ; 
but is a thing diftind, from all Corporeal Magnitude. Which we mean, 
or ought to nciean, when we fpeak of Immenfity ; and of God, as of an 
Immenfe Being. 

12. Now, as Nothing hath no Parts ; fo neither hath that which is 
Infiriite ; as hath been proved. When therefore we fpeak, not of Body, 
or Quantity, but of God, as Infinite or Immenfe, properly fo called, or 
>)v'ithout Parts : the Ratio between Infinite and Finite, is the fame, as be- 
tween Finite and Nothing. Wherefore, this Infinite Being, is as much 
above any thing, which hath Parts ; as Nothing is below it ; that is, as 
much more, than the whole World j as the whole World, is more than 

■' 13. The fame Perfed Being, mud alfo needs be Omnipotent : Both 
as Sdf-exiftent, and as Immenle. As Self-exiftent. For he that is Self- 
e'Xiftent, having the Power of Being ; hath therefore, as hath been pro- 
ved, the Power of all Being. Equal to the Caufe of all Being : which 
is^ tp be Omnipotent. 

^ 14. Again ; He that is Self-exiftent, exifteth without a Caufe. But if 
if be pollible, for fome one Being to exift without a Caufe ,• then it is 


Chap. I. Of GOD. 

poffible, and much more conceivable, for all other Beings, to exifl: with 
one. And therefore, for that One, to give Exiftence to all other Be- 
llas; that is, to be Omnipotent. 

1 5. He is alfo Omnipotent, as he is Immenle. For having, as he is 
Jpimenfe, the Power of Infinite Being ; he mull needs likewife have the 
Power of all Finite Being : which is, to be Omnipotent. 

16. The fame Being, moreover, which is Immenfe,- cannot but be 
Omnifcient. Becaufe, as he is Immenfe, he is mofl: immediately and 
intrinfically prefent with every thing. And fo, comprehends the E(- 
fences, Relations, and Operations of all Beings. And therefore, all 
things knowable : which is, to be Omnifcient. 

17. Likewife, he that is Omnipotent, cannot but be Omnifcient. For 
having the Power of Making every thing, that is Makable : if he had 
not alfo the Knowledge of every thing, that is Knowable : he would then 
Make or iiave the Power of Making he knew not what. 

18. He likewife that is Omnipotent, or he that is Omnifcient, 
cannot but be perfedly Good : For all Goodnefs is founded in Truth, or 
fome kind of Congruity. But it requireth more Power and Wifdom al- 
ways to Will and to Do that which is Congruous, than that which is 
otherwife.' Should he therefore at any time Do or Will any thing Ihcon- 
gruous, he would be lefs Great and Wile than he is, which is a Contra- 

19. Again, the mofl Perfedl Being can never Do, or be made to Do, 
any thing but that which pleafeth him bed : But all Evil of Being, 
A(3:ion, or Paffion, is fome fort of Imperfecftion. Were it polfible then 
for God to Do or Will any Evil, Perfedion would be pleafed with Imper- 
fedion, or that which is contrary to Himfelf. 

zo. And he that is perfedly Good, mud needs be perfedlly Jufl: : For 
Juftice is a certain Congruity between the Deed and the Reward ; and fo 
between any Evil Deed, and the Penalty due to it: Which Congruity he 
Wills, but neither of the other. If then he were not perfedtly Juft, he 
could not be perfedily Good. 

zi. His Veracity likewife is hereby evident : For could he be Falfe, it 
mud be becaufe he either Dares not, or Knows not, or Wills not, to be 
True, that is, through Impotence, Ignorance, or Malice j all which are 
contrary to the aforeiaid Perfedions. 

zz. And in all Thefe he mull needs be Immutable : For were it poffible 
)r him in any manner or degree to Change or be Changeable, he would 
leither be a" NecelTary nor an Eternal Being. 

z^. Wherefore the Supreme Being, whom we call GOD, is a Necefla- 
y, Self-Exident, Eternal, Immenfe, Omnipotent, Omnifcient, and bed 
^Being : And therefore alfo a Being, who is, and ought to be edeemed 
mod Sacred or Holy. 

Z4. God, who is thus every way Perfedl in his Being, cannot be con- 
ceived ever to have been, and not withal to Operate : For the Excel- 
lency of every Being fit to Operate, lieth in its Operation. The Na- 
ture therefore of a Perfedl Bemg implieth not only an Aptitude unto 
Operation, but a Necefllty of it j as that which is included in the Effence 
of his Perfedion. So that to have a Power to Do every thing, and yet 
to Do nothing, is to have indeed no more than a Poflibility of Perfedion, 
without the Perfedion it felf ; which is a Contradidlion : If then we will 
conceive of God truly, and as far as we can, Adequately ; we mud look 


Of GOD. Book L 

I .III II I 11 I I I !■ ■! I n n M III I..I ... .1 I ■ ■■! I mmt - H I I ^— — i^M I ■■ii.-iiii I II- - 

upon him not only as an Eternal Being, but alfa as a Being Eternally 

-L^. Neither can we conceive him to Operate otherwife than in a man- 
ner fuitable to his Perfection : That is, there is no Senfc in his not Be- 
ing and Doing, both alike. We are moft certain of the Perfedioh of Ijis 
Being; Yet we can have noPerfed, that is, Adequate or Comprehenfive 
Conception hereof, in regard it is Infinitely above our own, and all other 
forts of Being. In like manner we are certain that he cannot but Ope- 
rate, and that he cannot but Operate like himfelf. But the manner of his 
Operation, we can by no means comprehend, as that which Infinitely 
tranfcends the Manner of our own. 

x6. Now, if God Exifteth not as weExift, and therefore Doth nothing 
as we Do ; He then Thinketh or Mindeth not as we Think or Mind ; but 
in a manner tranfcending our Imitation or Adequate Conception hereof. 
As we then our felves do Operate when \\t Mind, but yet in a manner 
anfwerable to our own Eflence ; fo God in Thinking or Minding doth al- 
fo Operate, but in a manner fuitable to his own Perfection. As far 
therefore as the Power of a Self-Exiftent Being exceedeth that of one 
which is Dependent ; fo far the Operation of Mind or Thought in 
the Former, tranfcendeth that in the Latter : So that we are to 
look upon God as one that thinketh with Operation infinitely Perfect ; 
that is, with an Omnipotent, as well as an Eternal Energy. 

zy. And nothing being Eternal but Himfelf, he cannot poflibly Think 
of any thing , but of Himfelf as fuch : and in Thinking of Himfelf, 
he muft of neceflity See and Like himfelf, juft as he is : that is to fay, he 
mufl in Thinking, beget the Subflantial Ideas or Images of himfelf, or of 
his Omnipotent Underftanding and Will, and of all Divine Perfedion in 
them both : And therefore alfo theJe Images muft have a Necedary and 
Eternal Exiftence ; for otherwife they could not be Perfed Images of 
himfelf : Nor would his Energy be Infinite and Eternal, and full of all Per- 
fedion, as it muft needs be. 

18. And as God's Underftanding and Will are themfelves, tho' Incom- 
prehenfibly, yet really DiftinCt ; fo the Subftantial Images of thefe muft 
likewife be really Diftind: ; And not only Diftind one from the other, but 
alfo from himfelf; for nothing can be its own Image. 

xy. Yet neither can they have a Separate, tho' a Diftind Exiftence, 
no more than the Ideas of our own Mind can have any Separate Exift- 
ence from the Mind, but have a Co-Exiftence therein. As therefore the 
Ideas of the Mind of Man are One with the Mind ; So God^s Ideas or I- 
mages of himfelf are one with himfelf. 

30. Together with thefe Images, which God hath of the Perfedions 
of his own Being, he muft of neceflity, as he is Omnifcient, have the 
Images likewife of all other poftible Beings ; that is, the entire Idea of 
the Univerfe, as the OfF-fet of the former. 

^ I. But becaufe nothing can be Eternal but what is Infinite ; it is there- 
fore impolfible that God fhould think of the Univerfe, or of any thing 
therein as of a thing Eternal : Nor can he therefore be faid Eternally to 
Think it into Being : Nor can the Univerfe, or any thing therein be 
truly faid, as are the Images of his own Perfedions, to be one with 
him : For how can things Finite and Infinite be One ? 

3z. The two Vifible Parts of the Univerfe are Matter and Moti- 
on J botb which, with all other Beings, were made by virtue of the 



Chap. I Of G D. 

Divine Ideas aforefaid ; that is, by thefe God did Think them into 

33. That Matter was thus made, is moft evident : Forotherwife it had 
been Self-Exiftent : But that which is Self-Exiftent, having the Power 
of Being ,in* it felf : and therefore the Power of any Being, as hath 
been proved ; it would alfo have the Power of being Perfed: : And confe- 
quently, not only the whole Corporeal World, but every fingle Atom, ha- 
ving the Power of Being, would alfo have the Power of Perfedion; that 
is, would be a God. 

34. Again, Body cannot be Self exiftent ; becaufe it is not Self- 
movent: For Motion is not of the Eflence of Body; becaule we may 
have a Definitive Conception of Body, abftradled from that of Moti- 
on. Wherefore Motion is fomething elfe befides Body ; and fomething, 
without which, a Body may be conceiv'd to Exift. If then Body Could 
move it felf, it would have the Power of Making Something of Nothing. 
And one fmgle Atom, by multiplying its own Motion Infinitely, would 
have been able in time to make all the Motion in the World. But, td 
liippofe Body to be Self-Exiftent, or to have the Power of Being, is as 
abfurd, as to fuppofe it to be Self-Movent^ or to have the Power of Moti- 
on ; there being as great a diftance between Exiftence and Non-Exiftence, 
as between Morion and Reft. 

35. Moreover if Matter and Motion were not made, then they are 
Eternal. But this we cannot fuppole ; for if Motion were Eternal, then 
Time, wherein Motion is made, muft be Eternal : And fo, there muft 
always have been Infinite Time paft : And therefore Time always paft, 
which was never prefent : For how could that ever be prefent which was 
always paft? To avoid which Contradidion, it muft be granted, That 
there was a Beginning of Time; andfoof Motion; and therefore alfo 
of Matter. For to what end ftiould Matter have been Eternally without 
Motion? And confequently, that the World was Made, and that God did 
Make it, or Think it into Being. 

36. Andbythefaid Divine Ideas, Matter, and Motion, and all othet 
Beings do now Exift ; in that nothing Made, Can continue to Be, by vir- 
tue of its own firft Being : For, as the Extenfion of Body is the Con- 
tinuation of Body upon Body ; fo the Duration of Being is the Continu- 
ation of Being upon Being, As therefore a fmall Body can no more 
Magnifie than Make it felf; fo a Begun Being, can no more continue it 
felf, than of it felf begin to Be. If therefore the World hath Power to 
give it felf Continuance, it would be Self-Exiljent, or without Beginning ; 
Which, fince it is not, it is then continu'd in its Being, by that Divine 
Power, whereby it firft began to Be. 

. C CHAP. 

Book L 


Of the Corporeal World 

1, 13 UT albeit the World being Made, cannot be Self-Exiftent ; nor 
J3 therefore Eternal, nor any other way Infinite : Yet being made 
by God, we are to look upon it in every way of Made Perfedion, to 
be Indefinite : For we can never define the utmoft or anfwerable Effed: 
of an Infinite Caule. 

z. We can never come to its utmoft Extent : We fee enough to stdmire 
in the Vaft, and to us, Unlimited Diftance of the Fixed Stars, which are 
Vifible, The Parallax of the Pole-Star fubtended by the Diameter of the 
Orhis Magnus^ is not above a Minute : Therefore its Diftance from the 
Sun not lefs than 3400 Diameters of the Orhis Magnus ; or from the 
Earth, whenneareft, 3399. So that the Diameter of the Earth being 
near 8000 Miles ; and the Diapieter of the Orhu Magnus loooo Diame- 
ters of the Earth. The Diftance of the faid Star from the Earth, is about 
four hundred and feventy Millions and eight hundred and forty thoufand 

• .3. Befides the Vifible Stars, there are others difcover'd only by the 
Telefcope : As thofe which compofe the l^ia Laflea^ the Nehulofte in the 
Head of Orion ; the Prafepe^ a Clufter of above forty Stars ; thofe inter- 
■ fpers'd among the Pleiades about as many ; and thofe adjacent to the 
Sword and Girdle of Orion about 80. Of which, and all other Stars, 
our Learned Profeflbr Mr. Flamfled in a Printed Letter of his to Dr. 
WaHis, faith indeed very well. That it is not neceflary we fliould fup- 
pofe all thofe which feem lefs to be at a greater Diftance : He having 
found, that the Parallax of tht Pole-Star is greater than that of Syrius ^ 
which is therefore more diftant than the Pole-Star^ tho' much bigger and 
brighter. But, as .the fore-mention'd Stars were unfeen before the ufe 
of Glafles J fo, no doubt there are others, which as well from their 
greater. Diftance, as their lefler Bulk, are ftill Invifible: For that which 
is Indefinite, tho' it hath Bounds, as not being Infinite, yet thofe Bounds, 
to us, are undefinable. 

^,4. Neither if the World more admirable in the Whole than in its 
i^arts : And in thofe. innumerable Relations they have one to another j 
whether they are Great, whireof in this Chapter j or Small, as will appear 
in the Chapters following. 

5. Thofe Greater Bodies call'd the Planets, are all of them regularly 
mov'd : For albeit they move in Orbits, whole Plains lie oblique, or are 
inclin'd to the Plain of the Ecliptick ; for which reafon they are call'd 
Planets; yet they all move in certain Regular Lines, with certain 
Degrees of Velofity, and at certain Diftances one from ano- 

6. And their Motion is regular with great Variety. All the Mafter 
Planets move about the Sun at feveral Diltances, as their common Cen- 
tre, and with different Velofities. This Common Law being obfcrved 
in all of them, That the Squares of the Times of their Revolutions are 
proportional to the Cubes of their Diftances. And the Lunar or Sub- 


C H A p. II. Of the Cor -pored World 

Planets obfefve the fame Law in their Motions about their Mafter* 

r Planets. As alfo in* this, That Lines drawn from the Foci of the Curves 
they move in, to their Bodies, fweep over equal Areas in equal Times 
jpn the Plains of their Orbits. , 

r 7. It is alfo evident from the Spots fometimes obferv'd in the Sun ; 
and from thofe in the Primary Planets ; that befides their Circulati- 
on about the Sun, the Sun and fome of the reft, have alfo a Rotation 
upon their own Axis \ and always tha lame way, viz. from Eaft 
to VVefl. 
8. But withal, that they make this Rotation with very different Ve- 
lofities. The Eartii making one Revolution upon its Axis in one Day, 
the Sun in about 15 Days and '^i, Mars, tho* lefs than the Earth, yet re- 
quires fomewhat more than a Day; Jupiter, tho' much bigger than 
the Earth, yet makes his Revolution in about lo Hours, or two Re- 
volutions and } p^rt for one made by the Earth. 

9. Again , of thole Planets which move upon their Axis , 
they do not all make Entire Revolutions : For the Moon maketh 
only a kind of Libration, or a Reciprocated Motion on her own 

10. The Axis likewife of the Earth, and of thofe Planets which 
revolve, feem to maintain a perpetual Parallelifm to themfelves, but not 
to each other. 

1 1 . The Motions alfo of Comets, tho' formerly fuppos'd otherwiie , 
yet of late are found to be Regular, as thofe of the Planets : And as in 
the Planets Lines drawn from the Sun to their Bodies, fweep over e- 
qual Areas in equal Times^ on the Plains of their Orbits; fo in Co- 
mets, Lines drawn Irom the Focus of the Curves they move in, to their 
Bodies, do the fame in the Plain of their Orbits. 

1 1. The Subftance not only of all the Dark Planets, but of the Sun 

Hit felf) is confident. As fitteil for the Permanency of its Figure, in the Ro- 
tation it makes upon its Axis. 
13. And it is that which makes its Splendour to be the more admira- 
ble ; in that, among all other Luminous Bodies, thofe which give the brigh- 
teft Light, are Fluids; as Flaflies of Lightening, and fome other 

14. And (till the more, beeaufe that for ought we know, the Sun 

gives us this Light, without any Intenfe Heat. Which Heat, it is pro- 

: bable, the Beams of the Sun do then firft conceive, when they come 

m^ t Q be mixed with the Air or Atmofphere : Fot as fome things will be 

|Hl|[ptenny Hot without giving Light : So Rotten Wood, the Glo-worm, 

■^^^nd fome other Bodies give a brisk Light without any fenfible Heat : 

To that Light and Heat have no necelfary Conjun!dl;ion ; at leaft, not 

in any fenfible Proportion. It is known too, how necellary the . Air is 

Bfor the making of Fire, and even of Light it felf in fome of thofe Bo- 
dies which (hine in the Darkj but lofe that Property in whole or in part, 
upon their being fecluded from the Air in the Air-Pump. It is alfo knowny 
that the Sun-Beams being colle(3:ed into a Focus by a very large Concave, 
will melt Gold, or any other Metal in a Moment : But it doth not 
ieem, that the Heat of the Sun- Beams can by this CoUedion be fo much 
augmented, as by their being diflufed in palling through the (pace of 
tienthoufand Diameters of the Earth, that is, ten millions of Miles, the 
Sun's leall Diftance, it muft needs be diminilhed. If then the Sun were 

a burn- 

Of the Corporeal World. Book 1. 

a burning Body, dnd the Heat it hath fo much greater than that we 
feel of it ; as to be in proportion to its Diftance : how comes it to be 
fo little altered in its Subftance by fo intenfe a Heat ? and to hold 
this Heat in a contrary manner to what we fee in all other Bodies, Fluid 
or Confident, with fo great an Equality for near fix thoufand Years ? 
Whether therefore it be or no, we cannot but wonder, either in feeing 
fo Glorious a Body as the Sun without Fire; or, if it be a burning Body, 
without any material Alteration of his Subftance, or his Heat in fo long 
a time. 

15. Neither is the Command which the Sun hath over all the Prima- 
ry Planets, and that which thefe have over their Satellites lefs admirable. 
1 lie Regularity of their Motion is Vifible, as hath been lliew'd ; but 
the Caufe of it lies deeper. It is fuppofed to depend in a great meafure. 
upon a fort of Gravitating Power in the Nature and Motion of the Sun, 
fomewhat like unto that in the Earth, by which all Bodies are made to 
defcend. And that the Sun is the better fitted to command them at (o 
great a diftance, by its Bulk. For as the Diftance of the Sun from the 
Earth, is fuppoled to be about ten thoufand of the Earth's Diameters ; fo 
the Bulk of the Sun, with refped: to the Earth, to be at leaft as a Mil- 
lion to One : And therefore alfo that this Power ©f the Sun is greater or 
lefs, according to the Bulk and Diftance of the feveral Planets. As all 
Bodies gravitate more or lefs, according to their Diftance from the 
Centre of the Earth. 

16. Yet there are remaining Difficulties : For tho' the Sun be allowed 
a Power to move the Planets, yet the Co-operation of fome other 
Caufe, feemeth necefl'ary to dired this Motion into a Circle, and this 
Circle always the fame. For why elfe fliould not all Bodies within the 
Compafs of the Gravitating Power of the Earth, alfo move in a Circle 
about it, inftead of defcending towards its Centre ? 

1 7. Nor doth it appear that the Power by which the Sun is fuppo- 
fed to move the Planets in a Circle about it felf, is alone fufficient to 
give them a Rotation about their own Axis. For if it were, why then 
Ihouldnot the Earth by the like Power give the like Rotation to the 
Moon >. 

18. It therefore feemeth probable, that for the better ftating of the 
Diftances of the Planets one from another, and from the Sun, there are 
as many feveral Spheres, and therefore kinds of /Ether ^ as there are Pla- 
nets which fwim therein. 

1 9. And that befides the faid Power of the Sun, there is fome other 
in the Planets, which co-operates in diverfifying the Species of their 

ao. Again, we will fuppofe the Sun, with refped to the Planets, to 
be the Primum Mohile ; But what is it that gives the Sun its Motion * 
Whether the Sun it felf be mov'd by fome other Celeftial, but Dark, 
orotherwile Invifible Body, is more than we know, or can dif- 

XI. And wherein the Moving Power of the Sun lieth, or of any 
Planet, or other Body, we are yet to feek. Thus much is plain ; That 
the feveral Species of Moving Powers are all of kin to the Magrie- 
tick. So is Gravitation it felf. They difagrec indeed in fome Properties : 
The Attradive Power of the Magnet is reciprocally proportional to the 
Cube of the Diftance from it, nearly. But the Gravitating Posver of the 


Chap. II. Of the Corporeal World. 

Earth, is exactly as the Squares of the Diftances from its Centre, re- 
ciprocally. The Magnet operates more remarkably, at or near its Poles; 
the Earth, near alike in all Parts of its Surface. And in iome Properties 
they agree. The Interpofal of no fort of Body, hinders the Attradioit 
in the one any more than in the other. Both attrad moft at the lead 
Diftances from their Surfaces. And it is fuppofed that the Earth, as the 
Magnet, attrads a little more ftrongly, or that any the fame Body is a 
little heavier, near its Poles than at a diftance. Whatever it is, the ufe 
made of it in ranging the Celeftial Bodies, and in keeping the Parts of 
each fo coherent, was a Defign well worthy of the Deity. 

zi. The Magnetick Poles are alfo a great Secret ; efpecially now they 
are found to be diflindt from the Poles of the Earth : As alfo not to be 
fix'd, as the Poles of the Earth are, but to be moveable, varying vi^ith 
us, about a Degree in fix Years, but with much Regularity. We are yet 
ignorant both of the Laws of their Variations, and the Caufe of them. 
Our Sailers make fome ufe of them in their Eafl-India Voyages. More 
than we can yet forefee, may probably be deduc'd from them in future 

z^. The /Ether likewife wherein the Planets move , befides the Di- 
verfity of its Species before-hinted, is alfo of confideration, with refpedC 
to its Rarity ; wherein perhaps it exceeds the Aer zo fold more than the 
Aer doth the Water. That is, if Aer exceeds PT^/f-r 860 times, then the 
/Ether \xs.-i.y exceed the Aer 7x00 times. And it is very likely, that if 
there are different kinds of Mther^ they have all a different Degree of 
Rarity : By which Rarity it becomes fo fit a Medium^ for trajeding the 
Light and Influence of all Celeftial Bodies at fo great a diftance. Compu- 
ted to be done with that Swiftnefs, as to pafs ten thoufand Diameters of 
the Earth in ten Minutes of time, or the 6th of an Hour : And by the 
fame means it moft readily yieldeth to their Revolutions, and the making 
of them with that Evennefs and Celerity as is requifite in them all. In 
he Earth, for Inftance which moveth in its Annual Orb about zoo of 
;s own Diameters in a Day ; which is about 1000 Englifli Miles in the 
inute of an Hour. 

Z4. Of how manifold ufe is the Aer^ as it minifters to the Generation 
of Winds, and of Meteors above, and of moft Bodies here below, and 
to the Confer vation of Life it felf. The Trade- Wind which blows be- 
tween the Tropicks, from the North-Eaft and South Weft all the Year 
round, is fupposM partly to depend upon the Diurnal Motion of the 
Earth, which there makes a greater Circle, and fo a f wifter Motion. And 
there are other Winds, efpecially from the Weft, which will blow fome-- 
times two or three Days upon one Point, fo as to drive a Ship before 
them 1 50 Leagues, or 450 Englilh Miles in that time : And Hurricanes 
themfelves move, at leaft fometimes, in a Dired Line : And the North- 
Weft Winds, call'd Aquilones^ as they are obferv'd by Pliny^ z. 47, ufu- 
ally to blow about 8 Days before the Rifing of the Dog-Star ; therefore 
call'd Prodromi : fo afterwards, then calla Etefite^ very conftantly for 
40 Days. 

z-^. To account for all which, and other Regular Winds, ([and perhaps 
all Winds are Regular,) we muft have recourle not only to the Earth, 
but alfo to the Phafes^ Motions and Portions of all the Planets, and to 
fome of the Fix'd Stars. All which we may reafonably fuppofe to have 
fome Degree of Moving Power over the Earth, like that of the Sun, 

D fo 

lo of the Corforeal World Book I, 

fo as to be able more or lefs to alter, tl:|e Pofition of the fame. NotoF 
its AxiSy which the Sun lleadily commartds, but with refpeit to its Di- 
flanee. Whereby the Figure of the Surrounding Atmofphere, in prefling 
more or lefs upon the adjacent yEther^ will be cjiore or lefs alter'd, and 
therewithal the Motion hereof. . . . 

z6. Nor arc the Celeftial Bodies more admirably fitted by their various 
Motions, Pofitions, and otherwife for the begetting of Winds, than Wa- 
ter is, by making two of its Properties, wz. Fluidity and Continuity, to 
be confident, for the begetting of Clouds. For were it Incapable of be- 
ing expanded into a Volatile Bubble, there cou'd be no Clouds, nor there- 
fore any Rain. For as a Mill is a Multitude of Small, but Solid Glo^ 
bules, which therefore defcend ; fo a Vapour, and therefore a Watery 
Cloud, is nothing elfe but a Congeries o^ very Small and Concave Globules, 
which therefore afcend, 'viz. to that Heighth, in which they are of equal 
Weight with the Air, where they remain fufpended, till by fome Mot 
tion in the Air, being broken, they defcend in Solid Drops ; either fmall 
as in a Mift, or bigger, when many jaf them run together, as in Rain. 

xy. What too cou'd be of more excellent Ufe for Navigation, and o- 
ther ways, than the various CoUedlion of the Waters into Seas, Lake^, 
and Rjvers ? Or more advantagious for the faid Vie than the Winding of 
Rivers'? Defignedand effeded in the Beginning by the Inequality of the 
Surface of the Earth. 

x8. Nor cou'd any thing be more ufeful than the Regular Variety of 
the Motions of Seas and Rivers in Currents and Tides. The Diurnal Vi- 
ciflitudes of the latter, being effeded by the Diurnal Motions of the Earth ; 
and the Monthly Revolutions of their let times, by thofe of the Earth 
and Moon together j according to our Learned Geometry-Profeflor 
Dr. J^'^af/is. 

29. It is alfo very reafonably fuppos'd by fome of late, as well as by 
the Pythagoreans heretofore ; both from the Obfcure Parts, and the Ine- 
qualities of the Moon ; fome of them four times greater than any ort 
the Earth, and from fome other grounds ; that it is another • Terraque- 
^ ous Orb, having its Atmofphere, Winds, Seas, and Tides ; and here- 
withal a fuitable, tho' perhaps a different Furniture of Animals, Plants 
and Mines. And we have as good reafon to believe the fame of all the 
other Planets ; their greater and leHer Diftance from the Sun being mat- 
ched with a fuitable Atmofphere. 

^o. And further, to believe that every Fixed Star is another Sun, which 
by making conflant Rotations upon its own Axif, hath alfo the Com- 
mand of another Planetary Syfleme, in fome fort like unto this we fee, 
and wherein we move. For the Dillance of Saturn from the 5«w, the ut- 
moft of all the Planets, which make up this Vifible Syfleme, is perhaps 
not a.fifth part of the Diflance between the faid Planet and any Fix'd 
Star. Now there can be no manner of Symmetry in furniihing fo fmafl 
a part of the Univerfal Expanfion, with fo noble an Apparatus as afore- 
faid ; and letting innumerable and far greater Intervals to lie wafte 
and void. And admitting every Fix'd Star to be a Sun, it were further 
Incongruous to give fo great a Command to one fingle Sun ; and to 
make fo great a Number befides, of no anfwerable Ufe. If then there 
are many Thoufands of Vifible and Invifible Fix'd Stars, or of Suns, 
there are alfo as many Planetary Syflems belonging to them; and 
many more Planetary Worlds : For we can have no fight, nor 


Chap. Ill, Of Principles. n 

Conception of the utmoft Bounds of the Univerfe ; no more than of 
the Omnipotent Wifdom, By which it was made. 


Of the Principles' of Bodies. 

i - A S there is no Maximum whereunto we can go, but God only j 
£\ (o there is no Mmimum^ but a Point : which hath no Dimenfi- 
ons, but only a Whereneft, and is next to Nothing, For as far as the 
Whole is Extenfible, To far the Parts are alfo Divifible, both Indefi- 
nitely ; or as Mathematicians fpeak, Infinitely : that is, beyond any Hu- 
man Obfei'vation or Conception. 

a. How the Whole is fo, I have flievved in the precedent Chapter : 
And fo likewife are the Parts. For the fliorteft part of a Line, is a Line : 
But there is xxt Part of a Line, or no Line fo Ihort, but it may become 
the Bounds of a Surface ; and that Surface of a Body. 

/J. Could a Line, and fo a Body, be divided into lead Parts, the Hypo- 
themfa of a Right-Angled Triangle, would be Commenfurable with ei- 
ther of the other two Sides. For could any one of the Sides, then 
each of them would be divifible into leaft Parts. And therefore 
into, thofe Parts, which being all Leaft, m ould be all Equal. 

4. Ilie fame \s fhewed from the nature of Infinite Spirals, and of 
all Afymptote Lines : To wit, fuch Lines as in the fame Plain doi 
fo continually apprdach one to another ; as at length to be nearer 
than ahy given Diftance ; yet will never meet, tho' produced Infinitely. 

5. Upon the fame ground it likewife is, that tho' fome have very well 
fliewn the Rectification of Curve Lines, and the Squaring of fome Curve 
Figures ', yet this cannot be done to a Point, by an immediate Comparifori 
between a Strait Line, or Rectilinear Figure and a Curve ; but requi- 
rfeth the mediate Help of Motion ; from the Velofity whereof, as I 
have heard the Learned Mr. Ntwton affirm, the Length of the Curve may 
be calculated. A Strait and a Curve Line may perhaps be brought by 
Immediate Commenfuration, nearer to Equality than any given Difference ; 
but the Equality can never be brought to a Point. For as the fmallefl: Part 
of a Line, is a Line • fo the fmalleft Part of a Curve Line, though 
divided Infinitely , is a Curve. So that after all the Immediate Com- 
menfuration which can be made between a Strait Line and a Curve, 
there will ftill be a String to a Bow. 

6. The Confideration ^'hereof, will enable us to think as we ought, 
of the Principles of Bodies; which, as they muft of neceflity have their 
Dimenfions, and therefore their Solid Figures ; fo withal they may be 
Ihfinitely Small, not only beyond all naked or ailifted Sthk ; but be- 
yond all Arithmetical Operation or Conception. 

7. To thofe who are not iifed to a rigid Mathematick Proof, this may 
be illuftrated by the Smallnefs of many Organized Bodies. Ten thou- 
fand Seeds of the Plant called Harts-Tongue, hardly make the Bulk of a 
Pepper-Corn. Now the Covers and the true Body of each Seed, the 
Tarenchymom and Ligmns Parts of both, the Fibres' of thole Parts, the 



12 UJ Frinci-ples book 1. 

Principles of'thofe Fibres, and the Homogeneous Particles or Atoms of 
each Principle, being moderately multiplied one by another , afford a 
hundred thoufand Millions of Formed Atoms in the fpace of a Pepper- 
Corn ; but how many more, we cannot Define. 

8. The fame is yet more evident from the StupendiousSmalnefs of 
fome Animals, efpecially in the Sperm of Smaller Infedts. Which have 
been obferved by Mr. Leuwenhoeck^ to be a hundred Millions of times 
fmaller than a great Sand. And what then muft be the Number and 
Smalnefs of thofe Formed Atoms, whereof all the Organical Parts of thefe 
Animals are compofed > 

9. Thefe Inftances may alfo lliew how very conceivable it is, That 
the Qualities of Bodies, whereby they Operate one upon another, may 
fo properly belong to fome one Corporeal Principle, as not to fubfifl; 
primarily in any other. That Heat, for Example, tho' communicable, 
to any fort of Bodies ; yet there is fome Subtile Body, which is the 
primary Subjed: hereof. That is, when a Body is heated, it is by fome 
Subtile Calorifick Principle, which is either excited within the Heated 
Body, or transferred to it through any Medium, from fome other. 
Therefore a Silver Cup, being more retentive of the Qilorifick Parti- 
cles it receives • will not only keep hot longer; but grow hotter, than 
the Liquor it contains. By what Chymerical Motion could a Burning- 
Glals make a Focus with io Intenfe a Heat, were not Light a Body 
fit to produce it ? Or how could Water make thofe vifible Starts upon 
Freezing, but by fome Subtile Freezing Principle which as fuddenly 

10. We may hereby likewife the better conceive how Gravdfation, 
and tile Power of the Magnet, may depend upon fome Effluvia mini- 
ftring thereunto ; although the Iron Ibmetimes may be more than 
fixty-fold the Weight of the Magnet. For as one String of a Viol 
will make another to move, when tuned to an Unifon j fo the Effluvia 
of the Magnet, and of the Iron, having a like Motion, may together 
have a Power fuperiour to that, which is proper to the Principle ot Gra- 
vitation ,• and may thus fuffice to bring them together. 

1 1 . There is a fort of Magnetifm, not only in Amber, and Jett, as is 
know n ; but alfo in Gumm Anime^ Gumm Elemy^ and in all other, not Muci- 
laginous, but Refmous Gumms, even in Common Rofm it felf. Any of 
which being rubbed till they are warm, will make a fmall piece of a 
Straw to leap up to them. And yet thefe Gumms being warmed to 

. , the fame, or a greater Degree, by holding them to the Fire, or a 
Candle ; the fame Piece of Straw will take no notice of them. And 
many other Phccnomem relating to Corporeal Qualities, when they 
come throughly to be examined, lie in the fame Obfcurity. Sodeep- 
ly and far out of fight, have the Divine Power and Wifdom, laid the 
Foundation of the Generations and Operations of Bodies, in the unfcarcha- 
ble Subtility of their Principles. 

It. Nor is the Workmanfliip of the Deity, more apparent in 
the Smalnefs of Principles, than in their being made Unalterable. 
There are fome Minerals wherein, not only the Principles, but the Com- 
pofitions, are Unalterable. Every Alchymift knows, that Gold will en- 
dure a Vehement Fire for a long time, without any Change ; and that 
after it has been divided by Corrofive Liquors , into InvililDle Parts; 
yet may prefently be precipitated, lo as to appear again in its own 



Chap. II. Of Principles 1:5 

Form. And the fame Immutability which belongs to the Compofition 
of Gold, doth much more to the Principles both of Gold, and of all 
other Bodies, when their Compofition is deftroy'd. 

I :}. It is plain that the Atoms of Water, are Hard, and Unalterable in 
their Figure. For othervvife all kinds of Salts, as of Tartar^ Sal Armo- 
tiiac^ Common Salt., Copperas., Nitre, and others, might be diflblved in an 
equal Quantity in the fame Quantity of Water. And they would all 
likewife therein take up the fame Space. For be the Figyr^s of the Salts 
never fo various ; yet if the Atoms of Water were El^id and Alterable, 
they wou'd always fo conform to thofe Figures, as to fill up all Va- 
cuities : And confequently the Water would be Saturable with the fame 
Quantity of any Salt, which it is not ; and would always g^in the 
lame Quantity of Space, which it doth not j as I have defnonftrated in a 
Difcourfe read before the Royal Society, Of the Solution of Salts in 
Water. And if the Atoms of Water, then of all other Fluids j and 
mucli more thofe of Confident Bodies, are Unalterable. 

14. And that they fhou'd be fo, is both Congruous and Neceflary. 
It is Congruous, that as Motion is ftinted to certain Primitive and 
Unalterable Laws, fo that each Principle fliou'd be limited to fome Un- 
alterable Cize and Figure. And it is neceffary. For Ihou'd we fuppofe 
them to be Alterable, by fome one or more Motions : unlefs then there 
were fome other Motions , which upon the Innumerable Viciffitudes of 
Generation and Corruption, cou'd always give Security for their Refti- 
tution unto the fame Cize and Figure ; what wou'd become of them 
upon every Alteration ? Wc iliou a then have New Principles every 
Day ; New kinds of Generation j a New State of Bodies ; and a New 

15-. Now if there be no Motion which can alter the Principles 
of Bodies, that is, reduce them to fome other Cize or Figure ; then 
is there none, of it felf fufficient to give them the Cize and Figure 
which they have. That is to fay, if the Principles of Bodies are Unal- 
terable, they are alfo Unmakable, by any but a Divine Powei; 

16. The Regularity moreover of Corporeal Principles, fliewcththem 
^to come at firll from a Divine Regulator; Which Regularity is certain, 

where it is not fo apparent, as in all Fluids. For Regularity is a Simi- 
litude continued. Now though we cannot fee the Atoms, fuppofe of 
Water ; yet it is certain, that they are all qua. Watery, of that One Con- 
tinued or Repeated Figure, which is neceflary to make it a Liquid 
Body. And fo likewife that the Atoms of Air, qua Airy, are of that 
One Figure, which is neceflary to make it an Elaftick Body, 

17. So far too as there is any Senfe in fpeaking of the Occult Qua- 
lities of Bodies, they are to be underftood, the Effeds of their Occult 
Principles ; which are alfo to be reckoned among Fluids : That is to 
fay, luch Principles, whofe Atoms are ti that Disjundiive Nature, as 
not to be united in a fufficient Number, to make a Vifible Mafs. In 
all which, there mull of neceliity, though we fee it not , be fome 
one Identity of Parts, adapted to one certain and conftant Effed; ; and 
therefore a Regularity. 

18. The Figure of the Atoms of all Vifible Fluids, qua Fluids, feemeth 
to be Globular ; there being no other Figure fo well fitted, either to the 
making of Fluidity, or of that Vifible Rotundity, to which the Drops of 
Water and other Liquors do conltantly conform. 

E 19. Yet 

14 Of Princifles. Book I. 

19. Yet together with this Rotundity, common to the Atoms of all 
Fluids, there is fome difference in Bulk, or otherwife, by which the 
Atoms -of one Fluid are diftinguiftied from thofe of another : For 
elfe, all Fluids wou'd be alike in Weight, Expanfibility, and all other 

ao. If Common Water and Quick-filver be put a-part into two Bolt- 
heads of the fame Cize, fo as in the Neck of each to rife up to the fame 
Heigth ; and the Bolt-heads then let at the fame time and heigth in 
one Veflel of Hot Water: the Water and the Quick-filver in the Bolt- 
heads will both of them alcend j but in a very different Proportion. 
For whereas Water is near 14 times lighter than Quick-filver ; yet the 
Afcent of the Quick-filver, is at lead two Thirds of the Afcent of the 
Water. So that Bodies are. not Expanfible, in proportion to their 
Weight , or to the Quantity of Matter to be expanded. But 
according to fome Diverfity in their Atoms, whereby they are more 
or lefs crowded, or otherwife affedled , with thofe w hich are Ca- 

XI. But the Regularity of Principles difcovers it felf more appa- 
rently in Confident Bodies ; and that in all the Kingdoms of Corporeal 
Nature. Diamonds are often fexangularly pointed in their Native 
Beds. Chryflal is in its natural Growth a Sexangular Prifme,. Sexan- 
gularly pointed. Granates arc Multangularly Round. And befides 
Gemms, many other forts of Stones are regularly figured ,• the Ajieria 
in form of a Star ; the lud'tack Stone, of a Pear ; the Amianthus^ of 
Parallel Threads, as in the Pile of Velvet ; , the Selenites, of Parallel 
Plates, as in a Deck of Cards; and they ane of a Rhombick Figure,- 
Talk, of fuch as are Rhomboid ; with many other Diverfities. 

XI. Many of thefe Stones abound with Salt. From the different Spe- 
cies, and Mixture of which Principle, they receive their different Figures. 
And fome of them, as the Diamond, Amianthus, Talk^ either for their 
Hardnefs, or Immutability in the Fire, feemto have little or no Salt in 
them ; but to confift chiefly of Terreftrial Parts, or Stony, (Iridly 
fo called. Arguing, that the Atoms of the Lapidifick, as well as of the 
Saline Principle, being Regular, do therefore concur in producing Re- 
gular Stones. * 

13. Befides Stones, all the forts of Mundick, and fometimes Metals 
themfelves, both Gold and others, are naturally figured. And the 
Ores both of Silver and Lead, have the Sides of all their Flakes re- 
duced unto Equal Angles. Neither can we doubt but that all Stones, 
and Metals, yea, and all other Confident Bodies, had they always 
room enough, with a Bed, and all things elfe favourable to their 
Generation, wou'd be always Perfed: in their kind, and always Fi- 

z4. And we find, that witU«thefc Circumftanccs, their Salts are always 
fo : and always conformable to themfelves. The Figures whereof are 
very Numerous ; but all agree in being Redilinear, and compofed of 
Proportional Sides and Angles. 

X5-. The Salt of the Lake Afphaltites^ fliooteth into Pcrfedl Cubes. 
Common Salt ufually into little Chryftals coming near to a Cube. 
Sometimes into Square Plates. Sometimes into ihort Q.uadrangular 
Prifmes. Sometimes they are Pyramidal and Plain, without and with- 
in, like the Hopper of a Mill. And fometimes they narrow Step by 


Chap* HI. Of Vriuctfles. i j 

Step, from the Top, to the Centre of the Bottom* Yet all thefe.^Ei- 
gures thus far agree in being Redangular. ,, .|J,^ 

1.6. A good Strong Solution of Sal Armoniack carefully ordered, j]ioc^ 
teth as it were into tour Combs fet Back to Back, in a Redangular 
Crofs : From the Teeth of which, other Teeth Ihoot again at Right 
Angles, or very near. On the Sides of the VelTel containing this So- 
lution ; Sometimes only a Pair of Stria; (o decuflate, as to make .s^ 
Redtanguiar Crofs ; And fometimes more of them, fo as to make upon 
one larger, feveral lefler Crodes ; like thofe'in fome Coats of Arms: 
But in all thefe Varieties they ulually keep to.a Right Angle j partly by 
means of the Common Salt mixed here^^(itlL 

27. The known Figure of Nitre, is a 5exangular Prifme. And a 
flrong Solution hereof in Water willflioot upon the Sides of the Vef- 
fel, fometimes with three Stria^ which decufTate, or interfed: one ano-, 
ther, Starwife, at 6 Equal and Acute Angles. Which Stria, were they 
all joined at the Circumference, would alfo make a Sexangular Figure. 
And fometimes they are like a Quill, with the Plumy Part only upon 
one fide ; but flill keep to the fame Acute Angle. 

x8. The Chryftals which flioot at the Bpttom of a Solution of Green 
Vitriol, are Rhomboid. And the Strix on the Sides of the Glafs, 
either ftand like the Plumy Parts on both the fides of a Quill j or many 
Lefler Stri<e interfedt a Greater with the fame Sloap, To as to make A- 
cute and Obtufe Angles alternately. In both which Cafes the Stria are 
produced in the fame manner, as are the Sides of a Rhomboid Fi- 
gure. In the Latter, as the Sides of a Single one. In the Former, 
as of two fuch Figures joined together, but one of them inverted to 
the other. 

29. The Chryflals of Vegetahle Salts, are alfo very fine. The Muri- 
atick, which I have defcribed in a Difcourfe of the Effential Salts of 
Plants, have many Varieties. But all of them, as thofe of Common 
Salt, are Rectangular, and mofl of them come near to a Cube. The 
Effential, made together with the Muriatick, are mofl of them Sexan- 
gularly pointed, as are the Chryflals of Nitre. The Lixivial, of which 
the two former are produced, fometimes fhoot on the Sides of the Glafs, 
Jike the Brulhy End of the Plant called Equifetum. Thofe of the Volatile 
Salt of Wood-Soot have generally the exad: Form of a Little Shrub. 
And feveral Little Shrubs will grow up from one Horziontal Bed of Salt. 
And I have fliewed in the Anatomy of Plant s,m what manner the feveral 
Parts of Plants themfelves are figured by their Salts : That is to fay. 
That the Atoms of thofe Salts, having fuch certain Sides and Angles ; 
upon their various Application one to another, and thereby commanding 
the other Principles, as a Ruler doth the Pencil ; mufl of neceflity produce 
a fuitable Variety of Vifible Figures. And fome Mineral Salts them- 
felves, when very pure and fine, by means of their pointed or floaped 
Ends, will fometimes be applied one to another, at Acute Angles, fo 
as to be branched into Vegetable Figures. , 

30. A flrong Solution of the Volatile Salt of Harts-Horn, or of 
Blood, made with their own Phlegm or Spirit, aftejj .fome time exhibits 
certain fhortf^at Prilrnes; that is, with two broad,, and other two nar- 
row Sides, ffoaped at their Ends, to, as I take jt, an Acute Angle. On 
the Sides of the Glafs it fometimes Chryftallizes'into perfed: Rhombs, 
like the Spots in the Diamond Card. A Figure which is compofed of a 


1 6 Of Frinciflef, Book I. 

Pair of Points of the faid Prifmes, fet Bafe to Bale. In Diftillation, 
that of Harts-Horn is often Branched hke the Horn it felf. And that 
of Blood, formed like Nitre, Star-wife. In both which, the Stria are 
produced at the fame Acute' Angles. 

^i. The Salts of the Air, befides the Native, are a Mixture of all 
the kinds here below, which are Volatile. But there is fcarce any of 
•them, except one, viz. the Freezing Principle, which feemeth to be next 
of kin to Nitre, that exhibits it felf. And this it doth, under Various 
and Exadt Figures. 

3x. It hath been obferved by others, That in Snow there are many 
Parts curioufly Figur'd, comnlionly into little Starry Icicles of Six 
Points. But in a Difcourfe prefented to the Royal Society, and pub- 
iiihed in the Philofophical Tranfa^liom^ N", I have demonflrated. That the 
whole Body of a Snowy Cloud, confifteth of fuch, and other-like Ici# 
des regularly Figured. That is, that the very Small Drops of a Mifling 
Rain, defcending through a Freezing Air, do each of them flioot into one 
of thofe Figured Icicles. Which Icicles, being ruffled with the Wind, in 
their Fall, are moft of them broken, and cluflered together intofmall 
iParcels, which we call Flakes of Snow. 

• 3:^. The Agency of the fame Freezing Principle, is alfo very fine 
here below. In a Hoar-Froft, that which we call a Rime^ is a Multi- 
tude of Quadrangular Prifmes, exadly figured, but piled without any 
Order, one over another. In the firft Froft, upon a Snow, I have Teen 
the like Prifmes, fo piled one upon another, and joined End to fend, 
and equally encreafed in their Length, as to compofe a Sexangular and 
Inverted Pyramid, fomewhat like the Bowl of a Funnel. And 
fometimes a Company of Little Icy Clohules ^ that is, Mifly Drops, 
which have been fuddenly frozen by the Snow : will be fo piled one upon 
another^ as to compofe a Little Pyramid, terminating in one fingle 
Globule at the Top j not much unlike t6 a Lavender Spike, And 
fometimes feveral flat Icicles, will be fo compofed, as to refemble a Mal-^ 
low Flower. 

J4. The Dew upon Windows, and Water upon flat, fmooth, and broad 
Stones, will fometimes be elegantly flourilhed into a Vegetable Form. 
The Congealing Principle being aflilled herein, by the Volatile farts of 
Plants, which continually perfpire, and hover in this Lower Region 6f 
the Air in greater Plenty. 

35. In a freezing Seafon, if a Glafs-Plate, or a Window-Square, be 
made all over wet with warm Water, that it may not freeze too fudden- 
ly J it will, upon freezing, always (hoot regularly : one Parcel of Strice 
running Parallel, being Obliquely, and always at the fame Angles, in- 
terfeded by another Parcel, viz. the fame Angles as there wou'd be in 
Snow, if the feveral Icicles thereof, confifted only of a Pair of Stricc. 
Whereby it is plain, that not only in all the former Examples, but 
Wherefoever VVater is divided into fmaller Parcels, or lies in a very 
thin Body, iti proportion to its Surface, fo as the Congealing Princi- 
ple hath Power enough to command it ; and the freezing Stria have 
room enough to ihoot forth, and are not over-numerous, fo as to be 
confounded ; it will ftill be regularly figured. And that if enough of 
thefe Circumftances cou'd meet in Rivers and Seas ,• we fliou'd have Ri- 
vers and Seas, as well as Clouds, of figured Icicles. That is, in fumm, 
Whatfoever cou'd te generated with all due Advantages, in the Air, 
• or 

HAP. IV, Of Compomidf. ly 

or in the Water, upon, or within the Earth, would be Regularly 

^6. Itisalfo obfervable, that although fome of the Figures of Stones, 
vSalts, and other Bodies aforemention'd, are made with Right Angles : 
Yet the moft ufual, is that Acute Angle, whereby a Circle is divided in- 
to Six Equal Parts. Which Angle, is hereby the better adapted, either 
of it felf, or bv Addition and Subllradtion, for the Generation of all 
manner of Figures in compounded Bodies. 

37. From all which Inftances, it is evident, that the Principles of Bo- 
dies, are Regularly Figur'd. True it is, that Principles, flridly fo cal- 
led, are exhibited in none of the Bodies aforefaid. No, not in the Salts 
themfelves ; as being only the firft Vifible Mafles of Bodies. And may 
therefore poflibly, have a different Figure^ from that of the Atomes 
whereof they confift. For a Rhomboid, maybe refolved into Wedges 
and Cubes. And a Cube, may be refolved into Tables and Prifmes : 
And both thefe again, into Cubes : And fo of other Figures. But not- 
withflanding that we are not certain, of the precife Figures of Atomes : 
Yet the faid vifible Mades, and other Bodies, being Regular; we are 
from hence certain, tliat the Atomes which produce them, arealfo Re- 
gular. For as two Incommenfurable Lines, though divided, or multi- 
ply'd, Infinitely ; are ftilllncommenfurable : So if the Figures of Atomes, 
were themfelves Irregular; they would produce Irregularity in all their 
Mixtures. Wherefore, by the Regularity of Compounded Bodies, which 
we fee ; we are fure of it in their Principles, which we fee not. 

38. Now Regularity, which is certain ; cannot depend upon Chance, 
which is Uncertain. For that were to make Uncertainty, the Caufe of 
Certainty. Suppofe we then, that any Figures may be made by Moti- 
on, upon Matter. Yet Regular Figures, can never come, but from 
Motion Regulated. And therefore, not Cafually made. For then, it 
would be Cafually Regular, or by Rule by Chance, which is Nonfenfe. 
It is therefore evident, That as Matter and Motion-; fothe Cizes and Fi- 
gures, of the Parts of Matter, have their Original from a Divine Regu- 
lator. The curious and manifold Varieties of which, could we fee j 
they would doubtlefs make as fine a fliow, as all the Beauties of Nature 

fhxch lye before us. 


of Comfounded Bodies. 

JF we look upon the Effedsof Regularity, in th^ Compofition of 
Principles; they are every where extraordinary. 
2. In tiie Woody Parts of Plants, which are their Bones; the Princi- 
ples are fo compounded, as to make them Flexible without Joy nts, and 
alfo Elaftick, That fo their Roots may yield to Stones, and their 
Trunks to the Wind, or other force, with a power of Rellitution. Where- 
as the Bones of Animals, being joynted, are made Inflexible. That 
the Motion may be made exadly true. 

F ^ What 

iS Of Compounds- Book I. 

^. What can be more admirable, than for the Principles of the Fi- 
bers of a Tendon, to be fo Mixed ; as to make it a foft Body, fit to re- 
ceive, and to communicate, the Species of Senfc, and to be eafily Nou- 
riftied, and moved : And yet with this foftnefs, to have the Strength of 
Iron ? As appears it hath, by the Weight which the Tendon lying on a 
Horfe's Gambrel, doth then command, when he rears up with a Man 
upon his Back. 

4, What more wonderful, than to fee the feveral f^ifcera, obtain their 
feveral kinds of Subftance, as well as of Organifm. To fee every vifi- 
ble Part in each, compofed of the fame Materials, and by the fame 
Rule, exadly repeated many Thoufands of Times, till the (aid Part be 
fitted for its defigned Ufe ? The Liver, and Papps, to exclude the majo- 
rity of the Saline parts of the Blood, and to receive the majority of the 
Oily. The Kidneys, to exclude the greater part of the Oily, and to 
receive the Saline : And foof the reft. 

J. Or to fee, two Humors of equal ufe to true Vifion, bred fo near 
together; as to be conteined within one Common Coat,* yet one of 
them, as clear as Cryftal, the other as black as Ink. 

6. How great a comprehenfion of the Nature of things, did it re- 
quire, to make a Menftruum, that fliould corrode all forts of Flelli com- 
ing into the Stomach ; and yet not the Stomach it felf, which is alfo 
f lefli > And in doing of this, not, as Corrofives ufe to do, to make any 
Wind or Flatus. • All Erudtation, being the effed of a faulty, and not a 
true Concodion. 

7. How admirable alfo is the natural Strudure or Organifm of Bo- 
dies? The whole Body of a Plant, whether Herb, Shrup, or Tree, is 
compofed of two Species of Fibers, fo artificially managed ; that all the 
farts, from the Root to the Seed, are diftinguiihed one from another, 
only by the different Pofition , Proportion , and other Relations and 
Properties, of thofe two forts of Fibers : As I have made to appear, in 
the Anatomy of Plants. Whereunto I alfo refer the Reader, for his 
better underllanding, both the Geometry of Nature in the Strudure 
of their Parts ; and Tier Chymiflry, in the Preparation of their Li- 

^ . And herewith there is a great agreement in the Strudure of the 
Organs of an Animal. That the Mufculcs, Membranes, and Skin, are 
compofed of Fibers, is well known to Anatomifts. And I add, here, as 
I have done in the Anatomy of Roots, That Cartilages, and Bones 
themfelves , originally, and all the Fifcera , are compofed of Fibers, 
And it is probable, that thefe Fibers are or once were alfo Hollow ; 
for^the conveyance either of a Liquor, or an Aerial Spirit. 

9. It is alfo obfervable, that the Fibres of an Animal, as of a Plant, 
are of two general Kinds, In the Bones, and Mufculcs ; they are Hard, 
and Tough : As in the Hard, and in the fappy Wood of a Tree. In the 
Glands, and Glandulous Parts ; they are Soft, and Triable, as in the Pith, 
Fruit, ^c. And as in every Mufcule, the Tendinous Fibers are Tough j 
fo the. Upright Fibers, in the Wood of a Tree. But the Carneous are 
more i3rittle; as are the Tranfverfe Fibers, which in a Tree, run to the 
Pith; And as in Trees, there is a new Ring added every year, out of 
the Barque, to the Wood : So too, in Animals, while they grow, there 
is a new Periofteum^ added from rime to time, out of the Mufcular 
Membranes, to the Bones. So agreeable are all the Works of Nature ; 
■asfar as is agreeable to their Ufe. 10. To 

Chap. IV. Of Compounds. lo 

10. In the Hard and Tough Parts of Animals, there is a great Pro- 
portion of Salt, with refped to the other Principles. But in the Soft 

nd Friable Parts, a greater Proportion of Oyl: as by diftilljng the 
lones , Mufcules , Brains, and Liver, feverally, and by other ways, 

doth plainly appear. By which means, the parts are all dillinguiflied in 

their Subllance, one from another. 

1 1 . By the Pofition of either of thefe Two Kinds of Fibers, or the 
Compofition of botli together, theStrudlure of the feveral Parts is va- 
• y'd. 

IX. In the Cartilages which unite the Vertebra, they are Parallel and 
almoil Circular, lying in Rings one over another. They are alfo Paral- 
lel in all Bones ; as may befl: be feen in a very young Pectus. Afterwards, 
they are lefs diftioguiiliable, when loaded with the Saline and Earthy 
parts of the Blood, which in its Circulation, it throws off upon them : . 
As Waters do their Earthy parts, on the fides of the Pipes through 
which they run. The better performance whereof, is contrived ; by 
feparating the Oily parts at the fame time, into the Marrow. In like 
manner as in Fruits, the Tartareous parts of the Sap, are thrown upon 
the Fibers defigned for the Stone ; and the Oily, upon the Seed with- 
in it. 

13. TheViiiblc Fibers, are alfo Parallel in all Mufcules. Which Por- 
tion, as well as the Toughnefs of the Fibers, is oneCaufe of the Strength 
of a Mufcule. As hereby they are equally contracted, in the A<3:ion of 
the Mufcule ; which, in any other Pofition, they could not be. 

14. Yet are they Parallel, two ways. The Tendinous, are Parallel 
and Dired, between the two ends of a Mufcule. And upon thefe, the 
far greater ftrefs of the Mufcular Adion doth depend. The Carneous, 
are Parallel and Tranfverfe. Yet every where mixed with the Tendi- 
nous : As by cutting a Tendon tranfverfly, may be feen. Hereby bra- 
cing all the Tendinous, into one coherent Body. In the fame manner, 
as the Pithy Fibers, brace and flitch together the Lignous, in a Plant. 
And where the Tendon opens it felf, and makes a Belly ; 'tis fill'd up 
with the Carneous Fibers, making the Flefh of a Mufcule : As in a Plant, 
the Fibers which brace the Wood, meeting in the Centre, do there make 
the Pith. 

15. Yet are the Carneous Fibers, not Diredly, but Obliquely Tranf- 
verfe. Whereby it is evident, that they mufl needs be contracted toge- 
ther with the Tendinous. And therefore, though the Learned Stem 
thought otherwiib, that they give fome affiflance in the Attion of a 

16. Both the Skin which covers the whole Body, and all other Skiny, 
Parts and Membranes, whether of the Veflels, Guts, or Vtfcera, are 
more or lefs Mufcular. As having, upon Extenfion, a Motion of Re- 
ftitution, or a Tendency to it. Which I take to be the Property of all 
^ufcular Fibers, and of no others. 

17. But their Motion is Stronger or Weaker, according to the various 
•Pofition of their Fibers. For where they are Parallel, the Motion is all 
diredtbd unto one certain Term ; as in the Membranes of the Guts. But 
where they arc not Parallel, the Motion is much weaker, as being di- 
redcd unto feveral Terms, in feveral Parcels, interferring one with ano- 
ther.; as in the Skin. Wherein the Fibers are Matted, as WooU is in a 
Hat; which is a kind of Artificial Skin. And where the Skin is defign- 

20 Of Compounds, Book 1. 

fed to be more movable, as in Brutes ; it is fo made, by the affiftance of 
fome Parallel Fibers, or True, tho' very Thin Mufcules, underneath. 

i8. All Glands, and Glandulous Parts, do likewife confift of Fibers, 
but of the fofter Kind ; which Fibers, are their Proper Veflels. Neither 
exadly Parallel, as in a Mufcule, nor Matted, as in the Skin; but ra- 
ther Convolv'd : Somewhat after the manner, of divers Threds together 
in a Ball ; as may be feen in any Male Tefticle. More confpicuouny, 
in that of a Rat. Efpecially, if it be laid for fome time, in a llrong 
Solution of Alum : Whereby the Fibers or Veflels, becoming harder, are 
more eafily feparated. Which leads us to obferve the Convolution of 
the faid Fibers , in all other Glands , in the fame, or fome other 

19. It is obferved by Anatomifls, that there are two forts of Glands ; 
Conglobated and Conglomerated, as they are called. Of the former 
kind, the whole Body maketh one fingle Gland : Of which kind , are the 
Teilicles, and fome other Glands. Of the latter, each greater Gland, as 
by the Learned Malpighius is obferved, is compofed of innumerable Lef- 
fer ones ; fo very fmall, as to be hardly diltinguifliable by the naked 
Eye J as in the Pancreas, Liver, and fome other Glandulous Parts. 

20. But what I have many years fince faid in the Anatomy of Roots ; 
I here alfo affirm. That all Conglomerated Glands, are made up of Fi- 
bers. That is, that like as the Tefticle, fo each of thefe Leaft, and al- 
mofl: Invifible Glands, confifl;eth of the fame fort of Convolved Fibers or 
Veflels. Their Convolution being contrived, for the better feparation of 
the feveral Parts of the Blood, whereof the Humors are made, one 
from another : Viz. by this Convolution, Stemming the Rapid Motion, 

. which the Blood hath in the Circulating Veflels. As a Winding River, 
runs the Slowefl:, and the Cleereft : When one that is flrait and fwifter, 
carries Mudd and all before it. 

XI. So then, the Malerials and Structure of the Vifcera^ areas fol- 
lows. The Ttflicle, as is faid, is one large Conglobated Gland, con- 
* filling of foft Fibers or Vefl'els, all in one Convolution. The Liver, is 

one great Conglomerated Gland, compofed of innumerable fmall Glands, 
each of which confifleth of foft Fibers, in a diilindt or feparate Convo- 
lution ; and fo all of them, making a Congeries of little Balls of Fibers, 
or of Fibrous Glands. 

7.x. The Fieart, Stomach, Guts, Sanguineous, and other Membrane- 
ous Vefl^els; are now, all acknowledged to be Mufcular. The Lungs 
too, conlifl: of Mufcular Fibers. Not Parallel, as in a Mufcule ; and in 
the Lignous parts of a Plant: But compofed into Bladders; as the Fi- 
bers are in the Pith. Which Bladders, by their Contraction, a Motion 
proper to all Mufcular Parts, prefs the ufeful portion of the Air, into 
the Capillary Sprigs of the Arteria Fenofa^ ready to receive it, As the 
Bladders of the Pith, and Pithy Infertions, prefs lome part of the Air 
they contein, into the Liquor of the adjacent Sap- Veflels. 

23. The Spleen confifl.eth partly of Glands: Very vifible in the Spleen 
of a Moufe. But chiefly, ol Mufcular Fibers : All of them Matted, as 
in the Skin ; but in more open Work. With this defign, that fome of 
the Acid parts of the Blood, being depoflted into thefe Glands; may 
herein become a Juice, fit to acuate fome fort of Ferment ; or to aflilt 
in the Separation of fome Humor. Which Acid, fo foon as ready, it 
then irritates the Mufcular Fibers to contrad themfelves, and fquceze it 
thence. 2^. The 

Chat. V. Of Comfowidf. 71 

14. The Kidney is obferved to be a Conglomerated Gland. Which 

ri^s to be underftood only of the Outer parr. For the Inner parr, where- 
of the Pcipi//:S arecompofed, is undoubtedly Mufcubr. This Igatlier, 
partly from t!ie Toughnefs of its Subllancc. But efpecially, from its 
continuity with the Ureters, which are acknowledged to be Mulcular. 
The Middle Part of the Kidney, is compofed of the Glandulous and the 
Mufcular, curiouHy Indented one into another ; very confpicuoully, in 
the Kidney of a Cat. The Urinous parts of the Blood, being by this 
means feparated by the Glandulous Body ; and carryed off, by a Peri-^ 
ftaltick Motion in all Fibers of the Mufcular. Which is likewife the true 
reafon, v\hy Urine and Sweat, are fo near of kin. This Latter, being 
leparatcd in the fame manner, by the Cuticular Glands, and difcharged 
by the Mufcular Fibers, of the Skin. For which, all the Pores, efpe- 
cially thofe which are vifibJy Organized in the Palms of the Hands, and 
the Soles of the Feet, are as fo many little ftiort Ureters. 

z^. The Pancreas, confifteth wholly, excepting the open Veffels, of 
loft Fibers. The outer Part, confifteth of fuch as are Convolved into innu- 
merable Glands, \\ hich are Conglomerated : And ferve to make its £x- - 
crementitious Liquor. The Inner, of fuch as feem to be Parallel and 
Diredt, foritsdifcharge. 

z6. Much after the fame manner, as they have been obferved, in the 
Cortical and Medullary Parts of the Brain. Wherein, it may feem, that 
the former, ferves to make the Animal Spirits, that is, to feparate them 
from the Blood. The latter, to receive them, and as there is occafion, 
to convey them thence into the Nerves. That the Thalami Optici, 
Nates, Tejlicu/i, and the other Tuberous Parts, are fo many diftindt 
Harbours, of the faid Spirits, miniftring to the feveral Species of Senfe 
and Phancy. And laftly, that the Bafis of the Medullary Part, wherein 
the Fibers have a more dired: production, ferves as a Common PalTage 
to the Animal Spirits; either in their Ebb, whereby to Irradiate all the 
Organs of Senfe; or in their Flood, to convey the Species of Senfe to 
their feveral Harbours. , . ^ 

x". All the Organs now defcribed, are involved in one or more Coats ; 
confiding, as all others, of Tough or Mufcular Fibers. Intended, not 
only to protedthem, as hath hitherto been thought : Butalfo, by a due 
Conftri6tion, to affift them, in draining off their ieveral Contents. And 
therefore the Pancreas, Liver, and Spleen, which make but a fmall Dif- 
charge; have each of them, only a Single, and very thin Coat. Where- 
as the Kidneys, which make a plentiful Difcharge, have Two Coats, 
and bodi of them very Thick and Strong. And the Tefticles, which 
^ oftentimes perform a fuddain Excretion, and fliould at no time be Irapo- 
B tent, have Three like Coats. 

M x8. It is alfo reafonable to believe, that the Inner /W^w/wx, which e- 
H very where very clofely furrounds the Brain, performs the fame Office. 
B That is, by its Conftridion, upon Occafion, caufeth a more vigorous 
Efflux of the Spirits, and thereby the better Irradiation! of the Organs 
of Motion and Senfe. By the frequent Repetition of which Conftri- - 
(ifion, all the Day, being tired, as by Continual Action, all other Ahff-' 
cities ufe to be ; it is at laft, relaxed, that is, fufpended from its Adtion. 
Whereupon, the ElTlux of tlte Spirits into the faid Orgaiis, being nntade 
more fiowly, we fall afleep. . . 01 lo 

GR 29. The 

2 2 Of ComfOHnds. Book !• 

^9. The Regularity, we have hitherto obferved in the Structure of 
the Parts ; is alfo remarkable in their Figures. There is a Regularity, 
inconfiftent with Cafualty, in the fimpleft Figures ; as in a Circle, 
wherein the Line is Regularly continued ; Much more in thofe Figures 
which are Compounded ; as in the f/elix, wherein the Line is Regu* 
larly Varied. For tho* it confifteth of different Semicircles ; yet they 
all differ one from another Proportionally. 

^o. But the Certainty of Nature's Operation, is mofl: apparent in thofe 
Figures, which are neither regularly Continued, nor Regularly Varied ; 
but are Regularly Irregular. Being fo very Compounded, as to be 
reducible to no one particular Figure ; as in the Heads of feme Bones. 
Wherein neither the fame Line, or Figure, nor the fame Proportion, 
is continued ; but both of them varied throughout the whole. Yet, 
with refped to the Species, thefe Figures are admirably Regular ; as 
being exadly the fame in all the Individuals. And made with that 
Intent or End, to which no other Figure, tho" the moft Regular, would 
have ferved. So that the moft unfightly or mif-fliapen Parts of the Bo- 
dy, do more confpicuoufly than many of the reft, demonftrate a 
Certainty, that is, a Regularity of Intent. 

3 r. There is alfo an exadt Proportion, in the Dimenfions of the Bones, 
and other Parts. The Top of the Forehead, the Nape of the Neck, and 
the Tips of the Ears ; defcribe a Circle, whereof the Vertex is the 
Centre. In the Hand, the Triangle at the bottom of the Middle Fin- 
ger, being the Centre ; and the Fingers and Thumb all extended, and 
wide open ; a pair of Compafles will defcribe a Semicircle, taking in 
the Ends of them all. The Pofition and Length of the Fingers, being 
fo adapted one to another j as to ferve both their feparate Ufes, and thofe 
they perform, altogether. 

3x. This Proportion, is moft eminently feen, in the 'Qonts zni Muf- 
cules of the Face : both joining together, thofe as the Bafis, thefe the 
Raifed Work, to make a beautiful Figure. In which, all the Parts, in 
Heighth, Length, and Breadth, bear either a Duplicate or a Triplicate 
Proportion, one to another. The Dimple of the Upper-Lip, being the 
Common Meafilre of them all. 

33. Among all the Bones, none more deferves to be confidered, than 
the Labyrinth of the Ear. Not for the Decency of its Figure, but the 
Caft of its Strudiure : by which it becomes a moft apt Conductor of all 
Mufical Concords to the Brain. A Sixth, may be as Mufical a Sound, 
as a Fourth ; but is not fo Mufical a Concord : nor a Fourth as a Fifth ; 
nor a Fifth as an Eighth. . And the Seventh between the two greateft 
Concords, is the greateft Difcord. Which depends ah extra , on the 
diff"erent Proportions, between the Motions by which thefe Notes are 
made. But fo far, as we are Judges hereof, on the Strudure of this 
Bone. For the feveral winding Canales, wherewith it is bored, as with 
fo many Pipes, to convey the Sound, being probed with a fmall VVyer 
or Briille : it appears, that they are not diftindly continued from End 
to End; but that at certain Diftances, they run one into another. 
Nor are they all of one Bore : nor any of them of the fame Bore 
throughout. By which means, they are fitted to anfwer the moft Va- 
riable Harmony : two or three Pipes, to all' thofe of a Church Organ ; 
or to all the Strings and Fretts of a Lute. 

or J 44.1 

C H A P. V, Of the Vfe of Tbingr 2^ 

44. I fliall mention one Part more, the Chryflal of the Eye, The 
Figure whereof, is very curious, as Anatomifts and Mathematicians 
have obferved. That which I now further add, to what has been 
obferved by others ; is the Contrivance of the Variation of its Pofition and 
Figure, upon occafion, in the fame Eye. 'Tis evidently of a double 
Subllance. The ou ter fomewhat like a Gelly ; but much more con- 
fiftent, than the GlaiTy Humour. That in the Centre as confident as 
Suet or foft Wax a little Warm, By which means it is poffible for 
it to keep of the fame Thicknefs, at and near its Centre ; while upon 
occafion the Figure hereof is capable of fome Variation, towards, 
and on the Rimm. And this Variation may be adually made, by the Mem- 
brane wherewith it is cncompafled ,• to wit, the Ligamentum Ciltare^ 
which hath a confiderable Strength. Upon which account, I doubt 
not to afcribe to the faid Membrane the Office of a Mufcule. The 
Confiridion of its Fibers , about the Rimm of the Chryftal, ma- 
king it more Convex; or retracing it a little towards the bottome of 
the Eye as the Bulk , or Dillance of the Objed:, requireth a Left, 
o r Greater Refradiion. 

■^5. So many Arts, hath the Divine Wifdom put together j only for 
the Hull and Tackle, of a Senfible and Thinking Creature. 

C H A P. V. 

Of the Vfe of Organised Bodies, 

I .'I 'HE Ufe of Things, already touched in the Account I have 
\_ before given of them ; is further obfervable in fundry Re- 

z. And firfl:, it is feen every where through the World. The Wa- 
ter flows, the Wind blows , the Rain falls, the Sun fliines. Heaven 
and Eartii zSi and move, and all Plants live, and grow, for the Ufe 
and Benefit of Senfible Creatures. And all inferiour Creatures, for 
the Service of thofe above them. Nor is there any one of fo ma- 
ny Parts, which compofe every Creature j but what is either ne- 
ceflTary for its Being, or convenient for its better Being. As it hath 
nothing Hurtful or Redundant ; fo no agreeable Part is wanting to 
it. As it were eafie to fliew as in all Plants, from the Cedar , to a 
Mufliroom ; fo in all Animals, from a Man to an Oyfter ; and in 
all the Parts, from the Heart, to the Hair, which grows upon the 

3. And it is ftill better feen in the agreeable Variation of every 
Part. There is no one Species of Bones, Mufcules, or Bowels, but it is 
fo diverfified, as to be moft ufeful to the Creature whereunto it be- 
longs. All Skins are made for Safeguard and Senfe. But thole of 
Beafts alfo for Motion ; and in them are alfo Mufcular. And in an 
Urchan the Skin is ailiflied with a ftrong Mufcule clofdy ad- 
hering to it all along the Back , for the better Advance of its 

4; Not 

'?4 Of the L fe of Thinz^. Book I. 

4. Not only the Finns of Fillies, but their Swim-Bladders , are 
very diverdy fitted to the Variety of their Motions, and Stations in 
the Water. In a Jack it is Single ; in a Tench Double. From the hin- 
dermoft: of which, a flender Pipe is produced forward, towards the 
Throat, v\'hereinto it is at lad inferred ; and is there divaricated , 
after the fame manner, as the Spernriatick Veffels, the better to flint 
the Difcharge of the Air. In a Roche 'tis furniflied with a double Brace, 
one on each Side ; but that of a Gudgeon hath none. In a Bream^ 
the Braces are llrait ; but in a Bleak they are produced, in a Spiral 
Line, from the Bafe, to the Cone of the Bladder. In a Rochet^ there 
are Mufculcs in the room of Braces. Which Ihews, that the faid Bra- 
ces have every where, the Nature and Ufe of Tendons, in contra- 
(Sting the Swimm ; and thereby transfufing the Air out of one Blad- 
der into another, or difcharging it from them both, as there, is oc- 

5. The Chryftalof the Eye, which in a Fifli, is a Ball ; in any 
Land-Animal, is a Diflk or Bowie. Being hereby fitted, for the clear- 
er Sight of the Objedt ; either in the Air, a thinner Medium^ at a 
greater diflance, by a lefs RelVadion ; or in the Water, a thicker Medi- 
um^ at a lefs diflance, and by a greater Refradion. 

6. Among many Varieties both in the Inner, and the Outer Far; 
thoTe which appear in the Paffage into tlfe Rock-Bone, are remarkable. 
For in an Owle^ that pearches on a Tree or Beam, and hearkens after 
the Prey beneath her ; it is produced further out, above, than it is 
below ; for the better Reception of the leafl: Sound. But in a Fox^ 
that fcouts underneath the Prey at Roofl: ; it is, for the fame reafon 
produced i'urther out, below. In a Polecat, which hearkens flrait 
forward, it is produced behind, for the taking of a forward Sound. 
Whereas in a Hare, which is very quick of hearing, and thinks of no- 
thing but being purfued ; it is fupplied with a Bony Tube ; which, 
as a natural Otocouftkk ; is fo direded backward, as to receive the fmal- 
Jeft, and moll diflant Sound that comes behind her. And in a Horfe, 
which is alfo quick of hearing, and receives the Sound of the^ Driver's 
Voice or Whip, behind ; the Pafiage into his Ear is not unlike to that in 
a F3are. ■ 

7. Both Beads and Birds, having one common Ufe of Spittle ; are 
therefore furnilhed with the Parotid Glands, which help to i'upply the 
Mouth with it. But of the Woodpecker and other Birds of this kind, it 
is obfervable, that becaufe they prey upon 1 lies which they catch with 
their I'ongue : Therefore, in the room of the faid Glands, they have a 
couple of Bags filled with a vifcous Humour, as it were a Natural 
Bird-lime, or Liquid Glew. Which, by fmall Canals, hke the Sali- 
val, being brought into their Mouths ; they dip their Tongues herein : 
and -• foj -with the Help of this Natural Bird-lime , attaque the 
Prey.',-' -• 

8J Among the Varieties of Teeth, in the Rahhit and Hare, this is 
fmgular,- That within, or behind the Fore-Teeth of the Upper Jaw ; 
there (land two other Teeth, which may be called Incudes. 1 hefe, by 
receiving the AppuKe of the two Incijors or Chizels in the nether 
Jaw ; do thereby lecure, both the Gooms of the Upper from being con- 
tufed ; and the Mufcules of the Nether, from being drained by over- 

9. The 

Chap. V, Of the Ofe of Tbinof. 2% 

9. The Variation of the Wind Pipe, is obferv^able in every Crea- 
ture, according as it is necefTary for that of the Voice. In an C/r- 
chart, which hath d very fmall Voice, 'tis hardly more than Mem- 
branous. And in z Pic/geoft, which hath a low and (oA: Note, 'tis part- 
ly Cartilaginous, and partly Membranous, wz. where the Rings meet. 
In an Owle, which hath a good audible Note, 'tis more Cartilaginous. 
But that of a Jayes, hath hard Bones, inftead of Cartilages : and fo, of a- 
Litset. Whereby they have both of them, a Lowder and Stronger Note, - 
than other Birds of the fame Bignefs, which have only a Griflly Windpipe. 

10. The Rings of the Wind-pipe, are fitted for the Modulation 
of the Voice, For in Dogs and Cats, which in the Expreflion of di- 
vers Pallions, ufe a great many Notes, as Men do : they are open and 
flexible, as in a Man. Whereby all or any of them, are dilated or con- 
tradted, more or lefs, as is convenient for a higher or deeper Note ; 
which they ferve to make as the Finger on the Fretts of a Viol. 
Whereas in fome other Animals, as in the Japan Peacock, which ufeth 
hardly more than one fingle Note ; they are entire : and fo the Wind- 
pipe is always, and in every Part, of one Bore. 

11. The Lungs of fome Birds have certain Apertures, for the Air jo 
pafs out of each Lobe into the Belly. Either for the fpinning out of 
a longer Chatter, as in the Linet and J ayes ■ or a'more eafie Flight, 
as in the Cuckow. In which Bird there is alfo a fort of Valve, which 
Ihuts againft the (aid Apertures, the better to keep the Air from return- 
ing back again. But many other Birds have the Surface of their Lungs 
every where whole, as having no occafion for a great Stock of Air, for 
either of the faid Purpofes. 

iz. Befides the Figure and Number of Organical Parts in the Brain 
of a Man ; how much fuperiour is it, with refped to its Bulk alone, com- 
pared with his Body, to that of any other Creature ? And hereby, how 
much more capacious a Treafury of the Images* of Things ? And the 
like Regular and Ufeful Variations, may be obferved, in all the other both 
Inward and Outward Parts of Animals. Whereby it is evident, that the 
Spring of all, is a Steady, Immutable, and Unbounded Realon ; which 
can never be fruftrated of its End or Intent. 

1:5. Moreover, as the manifold Variation of the Parts, fo the Multi- 
plicity of the Ufe of each Part, is very wonderful. The Nofe ferves , 
not only to ennoble the Figure of the Face, but alfo for the Safeguard 
of the Eyes, for the Conveyance of Scents, and the Lodging of them 
for fometime ; for Refpiration, when we fliut our Mouths, and for 
Speech, in the forming of fevcral Letters. In Brutes, it is as much 
more nice and critical, than in a Man ; as the Diftance from their Noftrils 
to the Brain, is greater. Whereby, inftead of Reafon, they judge exadly, 
of whatfoever they hunt after, eat or refufe. 

14. What a Stupendious Machine, is the Eye, if we furvey the Mu(- 
cules. Membranes, and Humours, whereof it is compofed ? And fliall 
then confider, how aptly it is by the Mufcules, either Moved or Fixed: 
How purely, by the Perfpicuity of the Humours, the Rays of Light 
are tranfmitted : How Regularly, by their Figures, the fame Rays are 
Refraded : And how effedually, by the Black Lining of the Sclero- 
tes., their being confounded by Refledion, is prevented. How many 
Objeds it is fitted to take in at once, or fucceflTively, in an Inftant. * And at 
the fame time, to make a Judgment of their Pofition, Figure, and Colour, 

H And 

26 ^/ the Vfe of ^I hings Book L 

And fo far alfo, of their Diftance, and Magnitude, as in fome fort, to be a 
Micro/cope and a Telefcope both in one, 

15. By thefe means, 'tis a watchful Sentinel, againfl: all Dangers; 
in Ad:ion and Bufinefs, a faithful Guide : And in the mean time, enter- 
tains us, with all the pleafing Variety of Vifible Things, Nor is it only 
a Window, whereby a Man lets all the World about him, into hira- 
felf : But alio a Door, whereby one Man lets himfelf into another. Love 
and Hatred, Courage and Fear, and all other Paflions, by fome certain 
Motion, or Pofition of the Eye, or the Eye-Lid, may be difcovered. 
And in all manner of Converfation, what ever is faid, or done, the Eye 
is every where Mafter of the Ceremonies, 

16. What a Catalogue of Ufes, hath one fmall Part, the Tongue ? 
Sundry whereof, Anatomifts take no notice of. It is fo neceflary unto 
Speech, as toalliflin the making at leall 18, of the X4. Letters. And 
in all Vocal Mufick, helpeth the Windpipe to modulate the Sounds. 
Tis the Tailing Teft,of all the kinds of Meats, Drinks, and Medicines. No 
fort of Teeth, would ferve us to Eat, without a Tongue : Which rowls 
the Meat from one fide of the Mouth to the other, and puts it between 
tlie Grinders, as it needs them. Children, and others, could not Suck, 
without it: For in drawing any Liquid into the Mouth, it doth the fame, 
as the Sucker of a'Syring or Pump, Nor therefore could we Supp, or 
Swallow, without it : While it helps us, with the Tip end, to take 
what we eat and drink, into our Mouths : And by the middle or Verti- 
cal Part, and the Root, to convey it down the 1 hroat. As alfo it doth, 
to cleanfe our Lipps and Teeth, when we have done. No Man could Spit 
from him, without it ; but would be forced to Drivle, like fome Para- 
liticks or a Fool : The Tongue being as a Stopcock to the Air, till upon 
its fuddain Removal, the Spittle is thereby driven away before it. Nor 
would any one be able to fnite his Nofe, or to Sneeze : In both which 
Adions, the Pallage of the Breath through the Mouth, being intercepted 
by the 1 ongue ; 'tis forc'd, as it then ought to do, to go through the 
Nofe. Belides the Ufes it hath in other Creatures : As in the Wood- 
pecker, to catch the Prey, as is before defcribed. In Dogs, to Lick, 
and to Lap, which is their Drinking, And in Catts, for fcratching, and 
combing their Hair. The Tongue of a Cat, being furniflied with crook- 
ed Prickles, like the VVyres of a Card, for that purpole. 

17. Never was there made an Inilrument, fo curious, as is a Man's 
Hand. That is, fo well fliaped, and fitted, together with the Senfe of 
Feeling, for fo many forts of Ufeful Motions. The Motions of the 
whole Hand, as Anatomills ule to mean by the Hand and Arm together, 
are, as I would diflinguilli them, either Strait or Circular. The Strait, 
are Simple, and Compounded. The Simple, are Six ; Upward and 
Downward ; Backward and Foreward, and to the Right and Left, Thofe 
which are compounded of the 4 lall, anfwer to all the Points of the 
Compais : Of the % firft and x lail, to all the Degrees of Altitude or De- 
clination : Of the 4 firft, to all Meridians, The Circular Motions are all 
Compounded, and are alfo Six, That compounded of the 4 lall, an- 
fwers to the Horijon : Of the 2 firft and x lall, to the Equator : Of the 
4 firft:, to the firlt Meridian. The ^th, to the Ecliftick : The 5//?, to 
an Imaginary Line Tranfverfe to the Ecliptick. Both thefe two laft, 
compounded of all the Six Simple Motions, The 6th ^ is that Motion, 
wliich the Hand makes upon its own Asu. And befides the Motions of 


Chap. V. Of the Vfe of Things. 27 

the whole Hand together, the feveral Parts of it, viz. tht Arm, Cubit, 
Hand and Fingers, have all their proper Motions. Now as Letters are 
the Elements of Speech ,• fo thefe Motions, are the Elements of Opera- 
tion. In which, as Letters in VVbrds, they are variouHy mixed : As 
in Lifting, Hammering, Sawing, Shooting, Weaving, Spinning, and 
other innumerable ways. And in fome of them, exad;ly true to a hairs 
breadth ; as in Fencing, and Grinding of Optique-Glafles, the Motions of 
the whole Arm ; and in Writing, thofe of the Hand and Fingers. 

18. To give one more Inllance. Tho' Galen^ and with him, other A- 
natomifts, have named 4 or f , yet who ever mention'd all, or half the 
ules of thofe Parts, which feem, in comparifon, to be very contempti- 
ble, the Mukules of the Belly? Without the help whereof, as we could 
not continually Breath, with that eafmefs, as we do: So neither could 
we Blow with that force, as is neceflary on fome occafions. In both 
which Adions, as the Windpipe, and Cheft, are aililled with the Dia- 
phragm : So this, by a continuation of Preilure, with the Mufcules of 
the Belly. Nor therefore, could we fpeak, without the joynt help of 
thefe, with the fame freedom, as we do ; efpecially, not long together, 
nor Lowd. Nor do we ever Groan, without their help : Nor Laugh 
with a Noife : Nor Sing any Long, or Deep Notes. Neither could we 
Hough or Spit from us: Much lefs could we Sneeze, or Cough, or Blow 
ourNofes, to any purpofe, and with that force, as is often requifite. We 
could not fo eafily Belch ; but it were impoilible to Vomit without them. 
Or to break Wind downward: Or to go to Stool, efpecially when we 
are Coftive. Or well to make Water, fo as to empty the Bladder. Nor 
would one Labouring Woman of a Thoufand, if any, be ever delivered 
of a Child. Without thefe, no Man that lies upon his Back, with 
his Hands upon his Bread, can raife up himfelf. No Man could At, or 
fland uprightly, one Moment : Much lefs walk in an eredt podure, for 
the fpace of one Yard. For as the Trunk of the Body, is kept from 
tilting iorward by the Mufcules of the Back : So, from falling backward, 
by thefe of the Belly. An eafie proof of all which, may be rnade by 
any one. For if in the performance of any of the forementioned Adi? 
ons, we hold our Hand upon our own Belly; we (hall hereupon feel, the 
contemporary Adtion of thefe Mufcules. 

19. Nor is the Manifold Ufe of one Part, more admirable; than to 
fee, how many Parts con fpire and ferve together unto one Vk. ASy fpr 
Example, to the Bufinefs of Animal Nutrition. For fir fl:, the fubacid or 
feculent part of the Animal Spirits, like the Lees of VVine, which fall 
to the bottom of the VefTel ; being caft off by the Lower Nerves, upon 
the Coats of the Stomach : For want of Food to work upon, do velli- 
cate the Fibers, and thereby produce the Senfe, we call Hunger. This 
tempts us to eat at convenient times, and fo, to ufe our Hands to bring 
the Meat to our Mouths. Where, the Lipps, Tongue, and Teeth, all 
ferve to grind it .- And the Salivary Glands, to imbue it with a ferment- 
ing Spittle. By the Tongue, and Gulet, 'tis tlien conveyed down into 
the Stomach. In which, the fuitable part of it, being converted into 
Chyle ; it is thence difcharged, by the Conilridion of its Mufcular Fi- 
bers, into the Guts. Wherein the Chyle receives a double Seafoning, in 
the proportion of Salt to ones Meat, from the Liquor of the Pancreas^ 
and from the Gall. Being thus qualified, 'tis next {trained through the 
Guts, into the Milk- Veins : And by thefe, is carry 'd iflto the Common 

58 of the Vfe of 7 hings. Book 1. 

Lake ; into whicli the Lympha^ brought thither by its own Veflels, alfo 
runs. The Chyle being mixed herewith, partly, for its better convcrfi- 
on into Blood, by a Liquor of a middle Nature between them both; and 
partly, for its more ready adhefion to all the nourifiiable Parts. In this 
condition, it is transferred through the Thoracick Canal, into the Great 
Vein, the Right Belly of the Heart, and the Lungs. Wherein it is invi- 
gorated, with certain Etherial or other Volatile parts of the Air. And 
in this eflate, is conveyed into the Left Belly of the Heart, and thence 
into the Arteries, and fo to all the Parts of the Body. 

20. How many contrivances meet together, for the performance but 
of one fingle Ad: ? The eafie expanfion of the Wing of a Bird ; the 
Lightnels, Strength, and Shape of the Feathers, (o as to make a Fi- 
gure Concave beneath ; and its oblique Motion, partly downward, for 
her fupport, and partly backward, to row her forward at the fame time j 
are all fitted for her better Flight. Her iharp Bill, ferves as a Keel, to 
cut the Air before her. Her Tail, when flie gathers it up, fo as to fland 
Vertically, flie ufeth as her Rudder. But if Horizontally , flie fpreads 
it more or lefs, according as flie w ould raife her Head in Soaring, or de- 
prefs it, in {looping at the Prey. Her Vifcera likewife, are very exactly 
poys'd. For as the Heart, as in other Animals, is plac'd in the middle 
of the Cheft : So the Gizard, being faften'd by a (Irong Membrane to 
the PeritoncBum^ Hands fixed in the middle of the Belly. Nor doth the 
Liver lye on one fide the Belly, as in Beafis; but with one Lobe on 
each fide the Gizard, as its Saddle. And fia the Pancreas^ on each fide 
the Guts. By which Equilibration, her Flight is made much more cafie. 
Her Legs too, for the greater Lightnefs, are furniflied only with finall 
Tendons, inftead of Mufcules. And her Bones, for the' fame purpofe, 
are all very Spungy : And more remarquably thofe of a Wild Bird, which 
flies much, and long together: As by comparing them with thofe of a 
Domeflick Fowl, is apparent. In many Wild Birds, as the Japan Pea- 
cock, the Diaphragm is extended almoit to the Rump. And may eafi- 
ly be huffed up with Air, blown in at the Wind-pipe. And as eafily, 
by the Bird her felf, in fetching her Breath. By which means, the Dia- 
phragm performs the (ame lervice to Tome Birds ; as the Swimm Blad- 
der to a Fifli. 

XI. VVe cannot fo much as Talk, without the concurrent Ufe, of iz 
or I"? feveral Parts ; viz. the Nole, Lips, Teeth, Palate, Jaw, Tongue, 
VVeafan, Lungs, Mufcules, of the Cheft, Diaphragm^ and Mufcules of 
the Belly. Which are likewife fo many Syftemes of other Organical 
Parts: All ferving to make, or to modulate the Sound. Befides the 
Ears, which by CommiHTion from the Chamber of Audience in the 
Brain, fet all the reft on work. 

zi. No lefs than 40 or 50 Mufcules, befides all other fubfervient Parts, 
go to execute that one Ad of Laughter. Divers of thofe in the Nofe, 
Lips, Cheeks, and Chin, for figuring the Face. Of thofe in the Wea- 
fon, Cheft, Diaphragm^ and Belly, for making the Noife, by the Explofi- 
on of the Air. 

z3. We cannot, in fome Cafes, execute a fingle Thought, without 
this Retinue. Forfuppofe one fitting in a Room, has only a mind to 
look at fomething out of a Window. Befides the Nerves, by which the 
Order is lent to all the officiating Parts ; the Bones, as Under-Servants, 
with the Mufcules of the Belly and Legs, are employed to r^aife him up. 

. , Thofe 

Chap. V. Of the Vfe of Things, 29 

Tbofe of the Legs, Belly, and Back, to keep him upright. Thofe df 
the Bread, Arms, and Hand, to open the Cafement, Thofe of the 
Neck, to turn his Head : And thofe of the Eyes, to pitch them on the 
Objed: In all, 70 or 80, waiting upon that one Thought or Intent. So 
that there is not a Monarch upon the Earth, who is ferved with that Ma- 
jefty, as every Man is, within the Territory of his own Body, 
' Z4. In the Ufe of Things, is feen that Relation, \Vhich anfwers iil 
fome fort, unto Geometrick Proportion. So, thofe Creatures, whole 
Motion is flow, are Blind : But thofe which have a quick Motion, havfe 
Eyes to govern or determine it : That is, as Blindnefs, is to a flow Moti^- 
on ; fo is Sight, to a Quick. So thofe Animals, which have Ears j have 
alfo Lungs : And, Vice verfa, thofe *hich have no Ears ; have no Lungs. 
For as Eyes, are to Motion ; To are Ears, to Speech. So likewife thofe 
Animals which have Teeth, on both Jaws ; have but one Stomach : But 
mofl: of thofe which have no upper Teeth, or none at all ,• have Three 
Stomachs : As in Beads, the Panch, the Read, and the Feck ; and in all 
Granivorous Birds, the Crop , the Echinus^ and the Gizard. For a5 
Chewing is to an eafie Digeftion ; fo is fwallowing whole, to that which is 
more Laborious. A Man, who hathiaoigger Brain, in proportion to his 
Body, than any other Creature ; hath alfo a better Hand. A Monkey 
hath a Hand, but with an Arm, not fo well fitted to a Hand, as to a 
Foot. Nor can he put his Hands and Feet to their diflindt Ufes, at the 
fame time j as a Man, whole pofture is erecSt. As therefore Ears, are to 
Speech ; or Eyes, to Motion ; fo is Keafon, to Operation. 

25. Tliis Relation is likewife feen, in the agreeablenefs between Man, 
and other Parts of the Univerfe : And that in fundry refpedts. With 
refpedl to* his Generation, being a fenfible and fociable Creature, he is 
not made productive of his kind, as a Plant, within himfelf; but by 
Coition with a Female. A way of Generation, which requires a great 
deal more of Art and Contrivance, in order to it. With refpect alfo 
to his Senlcs : Which are all gratify'd with their proper Objedts, Tafta- 
ble, Vifible, and other fenfible Things. With refpedt to his Figure. For 
he might as eafily have been made, a Reafonable Beafl:, or a Reafonable 
Bird. But had he been a Quadruped , his Figure would have wanted 
that Majelly, which is (uitable to his Dominion over all other Creatures. 
His Forefeet would alfo have hinder 'd his Amicable, and his Conjugal Em- 
braces. Had he been a Bird, he had been lefs Sociable. For upon every, 
true or falfe ground of fear, or difcontent, and other occafions, he would 
have been fluttering away to fome other place : And Mankind, indead 
of cohabiting in Cities, would like the Eagle, have built their Neds up- 
on Rocks. And in both Cafes, he mud have wanted Hands. As alfo 
with refped to his Bulk. For had he been a Dwarf, he had fcarce been a 
Reafonable Creature, For he mud then, have either had a Jolt-Head j 
and fo there would not have been Body and Blood enough to fupply his 
Brain with Spirits; Or he mud have had a Small Head, anfwerable to 
his Body; and fo there would not have been Brain enough for his Bufi- 
neft. Certain it is, that no Man, Mondroufly Great or Little, was e-. 
ver known to be very Wife, Or had the Species of Mankind, been Gi- 
gantick, he couki not have been fo commodioufly fupply'd with Food.- 
For there Would not have been f ledi enough of the bed edible Beads,- 
to ferve his turn. And if Beads had been made anfwerably bigger, there 
would not. have been Grafs enough. Boats and Shipping likewife, mud 

I haVe 

^o Of the 'Ofe of Things, Book 1. 

have been anfwerably bigger : And fo, too big, for mofl Rivers and Sea- 
Coafts. Nor would there have been the fame Ufe and Difcovery of his 
Reafon. In that he would have done many things by meer Strength, 
for which he is now put to Invent innumerable Engines : And fo far, he 
had been Reafonable in vain. Neither could he fo conveniently have 
ufed a Horfe, the Noblefl: of all Beafts ; nor divers other Creatures ; had 
he been much lefs, or bigger, than he is. But being of a middle Bulk, 
between the Largeftand the Leaft; he is the better fitted to manage and 
ufe them all. For no other Caufe can be adigned, Why a Man was not 
made Five or Ten times bigger than he is ; as well as Ten times bigger 
than a Fox, or a Monkey ; but his Relation to the reft of the Univerle. 

26. Now for every thing to have its own diftind: Eflence , and to 
have this Eftence projected or defigned ; are two things. Should any 
Man then, that knows not the Admirable Stru(3:ure of an Eye, or of 
an Ear ; be fo very weak, as to think it podible, for Matter fortui- 
toufly moved, or mixed, to hit upon the making of an Eye , or an 
Ear ; yet did Wings defign the Making of an Eye > Or did Lungs 
defign the making of an Ear ?^ Did no Teeth, that is, Nothing, de- 
fign the making of Three Stomachs? Did the Eye take care, there 
fliouldbe Light for it to fee by? or the Light forecaft, to match it felf 
with an Eye ? Or the Male Parts, which ferve unto Generation, to fit 
themfelves with a Female ? Or Man, to be furnifhed with the World 
about him ^ Nothing can be more vain, than fb to fpeak or think. We 
muft therefore conclude, that there is a moft Perfed Reafon or Mind, 
Infinitely above the Operation of Matter and Chance, which is ap- 
parent, both in the Make or Structure, and in the Ufe and Relation of 

■Lj. And as the Eflence, and the Relation of every Thing, in being fit- 
ted, beyond any Emendation, for its Adion and Ufe ; fhews it to pro- 
ceed from a Mind of the FJigheft Underftanding : So the Nature of this 
Adion and Ufe, in not being any way Deftrudive, or Troublefome ; 
I but tending in each thing a-part, and confpiring in many together, to 

Conferve and Gratifie : is an' Evidence of their proceeding from the 
Greateft Goodnefs. For there be many who are very cunning and fub- 
tile in the Invention of Evil. And Engines have been fitted, with a 
great deal of Art and Contrivance, for the Tormenting of Men. In 
like manner, it had been altogether as eafie for the Maker of the World, 
to have flocked it with all forts of Creatures, had he fo pleafed, which 
fhould never have moved fo much as one Limb without Pain : which 
fliould never have Seen, Heard, Smelt, Tafted, or Felt, any one thing, 
but tc^ether with the greateft Torment : Nor have conceived any one 
Phancy, but with Melancholy and £3orror. And the Greatnefs of his 
Uhdcf'ftanding, would have been demonftratcd in the Contrivance, 
though of fuch Creatures as theie. But in that he hath made, fo many 
kinds of Creatures, and beftowed among them,fo many forts of Motion, 
and of Senfe, and Cogitation j all of them, fo far, as Natural, A- 
greeable, and Delightful : He hath herein given a moft Noble Inftance, 
That his Goodnefs is equal to his Underftanding. That he hath employ- 
ed his Tranfcendent Wifdom and Power ; that by theie, he might make 
way for his Benignity ; as the End, wherein they ultimately acqui- 
^feij ^T^jBS fajr of die Corporeal World, 

fiHrn .:•..." t:lii ""^r;;;.: « 

?vci5 THE 



J . 1 ^ ■;-■■ I 

Wherein is ihewed , That there is 
• a Vital World, which God hath 
made : And what it is. 



C H A P I, 

[HE Univerfe confifteth, of the Corporeal 
and the Vital World : the Latter of which, 
is next to be confidered. And firft,! fhall 
prove, That there is a Vital Subftance in 
Nature, diftincSt from a Body. 

X. The being hereof, is Poffible, Rea- 
fonable and NecefTary. It is Poflible. That 
is, the fuppofing of an Incorporeal Sub- 
ftance , inferreth no Contradidlion ; Be- 
caufeGod, who as he is the Caufe of all 
other BeingSjis the moft Subftantial Being : 
is Himfelf a Subftance Vital and Incorporeal. For to make God, and 
with him all other Things, to be Corporeal : is to make him no more, 
than a Limb of the Whole. And is as much as to fay, that this Limb, or 
Part of the Whole, made the Whole. And in other refpeds, is the 
sreateft Nonfenfe that can be fpoken. 

■\. Neither is it impoffible, but that this Incorporeal Subftance may 
have ibme fort of Exiftence, analogous to Corporeal Extenfion : tho' 
we have no adequate Conception hereof ; nor therefore any proper 
Word, whereby to exprefs it. For every Motion, is in lome fort co- 
extended with the Body moved. Yet we cannot fay, that Motion is 
Thick or Thin, or otherwife Great or Small , as is a Body. For if it 
were, then the fame Quantity of Motion, muft always have the 
fame Extenl'ion ; which it hath not. For all the Motion in a Great Bo- 
dy, may be given at once to a lefs. Nor can Motion be laid, to be Long 
or Short, as a Body. For then it would have a Permanent, and not a Suc- 
cellive Length. And Time and Place would be riie fame thing. 

4. But whatfoevcr fort of Exiftence it is, which belongeth to a Vital 
Subftance : our not having an Adequate Conception of it, is no Argu- 
ment againft the Poikbility of its Being. For a Worm or a Man born 


:^2 Of Life. Book I. 

Blind, can have no true conception of Light. Is there therefore no 
fuch thing, as Light or Colour ? A Fifli, that hath no Ears, can have no 
true Conception of Sound, Doth it therefore follo\i^ that there is no 
fuch thing as i>f«/?c^ ? 

. 5. It rnay be faid, :That were there any fuch Incorporeal Subflance ; 
then, being one part of our felves, we fhould know it better, v But this 
doth not follow. All that we can infer from- hence, is only thus much ; 
That as he who hath an Eye, knows what it is, to fee : So a Man too, 
if pofltfled of a Thinking Subflance ; fliould know, what it is, to Think. 
And fo he doth. But there are Millions, who can fee very well, and 
yet know not the Strudure of an Eye : That is, in Truth, they know 
not what an Eye is. As therefore Men may fee, without a true and ade- 
quate Conception of an Eye : So may we think, without a true and a- 
dequate Conception of the Subftance by which we Think. So abfur'd it 
is, to argue, from our not Comprehending, to the Non-being of 

6. And if the Exiftence of an Incorporeal Subftance be Poffible : It is 
alfo Reafonable, that it fliould Exift. Becaufe the being of fuch a Sub- 
ftance, implyeth the being of a more Excellent Thing, than any Cor- 
poreal. Since then, God was pleafed to Make, that which is lefs Excel- 
lent : It is reafonable to believe. He hath alfo Made, that which is more, 
and nearer in Likenefs to Himfelf. 

7. And it is Neceflary, that it fliould Exift. That is to fay, without 
a Subftantial Principle, as the proper Subjed: of Life, diftind from Bo- 
dy : There could be no Living, much lefs any Senfible, Thinking, or 
Reafonable Thing : Whereof I fliall make proof, in the Defcription of the 
feveral Species of Life. 

8. And firft, if we will not look confufedly, butdiftindly on Things, 
it is evident. That Body cannot be Vital. For if it be, then is it lo, 
either as Subtilized, or as Organized, or as moved, or as Endowed with 
Life, a proper and immediate Adjundi hereof, as well as Motion. But 
Body, can in none of thefe ways be Vital : And therefore, no way. 

9. Not as Subtilized. Some indeed, as the Acute Defcartes^ and after 
him, Dr. Willis, and others, have fuppofed, That a very Subtile, Aerial, 
Etherial, or Igneous Fluid, conteined in the Blood, Brain, or Nerves, or 
in them "all; is the Life of an Animal. But if we go to the bottom of 
this Conceit, how vain is it ? For though the faid Hqid be attenuated or 
fubtilized, as far as we can conceive , or beyond Conceit , infinitely : 
Yet the Atonies uhereof it confifts, are ftill no more, than Parts of the 
Common Stock of Body. That is. Body, by being fubtilized, can loofe 
nothing, of its Corporeity. 

: 10. Neither can it hereby gain any thing, but Exility. For all degrees 
of Subtility, are Eftentially, the fame Thing. The greateft degree, as 

well as any lefler, depending folely upon the Divifion of the Subtilized 
Body. And doth the dividing of a Dead Whole, give Life to the Two 
Halvs? Or doth Life confift in Numjjer, arifing trom Infinite Divifion 
and Subdivifion? 

II. Again, the Corporeity of all Bodies, being the fame,* and Sub- 
tility, pi all degrees, and in all Bodies, being Eftentially the fame thing : 
could any Body, by Subtility, become Vital; then any degree of Subti- 
lity, would produce fome degree of Life. As a greater degree, would 
produce more Life,- fo any lels degree, would produce fome. That is, 

» as 


C H A p. L Of Life. ^55 

as a parcel of Ether ^ or fuppofe of Animal Fir e^ being; very fubdie, uill 
have more Life : So the Steams of Animals, the Drops of a Mifl, a Heap 
of Sand, or a Sack of Corn, will all have iome Life; but being lefs and 
lefs fubtile, will have lefs : Which is all Subtile Nonfenfe. 

11. Neither can Body be Vital, as it is Organized. For to the Orga- 
nizing of a Body, tliefe Three Things are required, and no more ; viz. 
Bulk, Figure, and Mixture : Or, that the Parts of the Organ, be fitly 
Cized, Sliaped, and fet together. 

i^. That Cize can never make a Body to be Vital, is already proved. 
Neither can Figure do it. For if it could, then Bodies, qu^ Figur'd, would 
have Life. And confequently, not only all Bodies, having fome Figure, 
would have fome Life : But thofe Bodies, which are of a more Com- 
plex Figure, would be more Vital, A Square Body, for inftance, would 
by virtue of its Figure, be more Vital than a Triangular : Becaufe every 
Square, conteineth two or more Triangles. 

[4. Nor can any poifiblc Mixture of Cize and Figure. For as the 
Mixture of Numbers, can beget nothing but Number : So the Mixture 
of Cize and Figure, can beget nothing but Cize and Figure. For all 
manner of Mixture, is Eilentially the fame thing ; Ais in a Difcourfe of 
Mixture, I have formerly proved. If thereiore it were in the Power 
of Mixture, to produce Life; then every thing that is Mixed, y/w Mix- 
ed, would be Vital. 

15. The Variety of the Mixture, will not fufSce to produce Life. If 
it would, tho' a pot of Honey be a dull thing, is there any more in a 
pot of Mithridate ? Nor will its being mechanically Artificial. Unlefs 
the Parts of a Watch, fet, as they ought to be, together ; may be faid 
to be more Vital, than when they lye in a confuted Heap. Nor its 
being Natural. There being no difference, between the Organs of Art 
and Nature; faving, that thofe of Nature, are moft of all Artificial. 
So that an Ear, can no more hear, by being an Organ ; than an Artifi- 
cial Ear would do, had we Materials, and Skill, to make one Ike the 
Natural. And although we add the Auditory Nerves to the Ear, the 
Brain to the Nerves, and the Spirits to the Brain ; yet is it Hill, but 
adding Body to Body, Art to Subtility, and Engine or Art to Art: 
Which, howfoever Curious, and Many ; can never bring Life out of 
themfelves, nor make one another to be Vital. 

1 6. Neither can Body become Vital, in being Moved. For what theri 
could have more Life, than Light, the moft moveable of Vifible Bo- 
dies ? And any the felf fame Body, having a Qiaick Motion, would for 
that very realon, have more Life ; and having a flow Motion, would 
have lefs. Nor can the fined Engine made by Humane Art, or by Na- 
ture, become Vital, in being moved, any more than a Paper Kite. Nor »^. 
in being Regularly Moved; that is, in a manner fuitable to itsCompo- 

fure : No more than a pair of Organs, in being dexteroufiy play 'd upon. 
For all Motion, Regular or Irregular, Simple or Compounded, Quick 
or Slow, is Eflentially the fame thing. Were then, a Man, or other .A- 
nimal, nothing elfe but an Organized Body ; let his feveral Organs be 
never fo artificially made, jind Varioufly and Regularly moved : i et af- 
ter all, he would be no more, than a finer fort of Bartholrneiv Baby. 

i-j. Neither can Body be endowed with Life, as another proper and 
immediate Adjund thereof, fuperadded unto Motion. For body, is nei- 
ther Produdive, nor immediately Receptive, of fuch an Adjund. Not 

K Pro- 

5 4 "^' ' Oj life Book a 

ProducStive. That is. Body is not Vital, as it is Subftantial : Or, it is 
not Produd:ive of Life in it felf, by virtue of its being a Subflantial 
thing. For if Body cannot produce Motion, which is the lefs; and 
which, in the firft: Chapter of the firfl Book, concerning God, I have pro- 
ved , it cannot do : Much lefs , can it produce Life, which is the 

1 8. Nor is it Receptive of Life, as its proper and immediate Ad- 
junct. For if Life be a Thing, diflindi from, and more excellent than 
Motion ; as I have a little before fiiewed, it is : It then requires a more 
Excellent,- and fo a diflindt Subjedt, to which it belongs. And there- 
fore fomething, which is Subftantial, yet Incorporeal. 

19. Again, the Modification of Body, having nothing to do, in the 
Produdion of Life j as I have even now alfo fliewed : Were Life, an 
immediate Adjund: of Body, as Motion is; then, as all forts of Bodies, 
are capable of all forts of Motion ; fo they would be capable of all 
forts of Life ; even of Intelledion it felf. That is, every Atome, as 
an Atome, would be capable of being Intelledual. To avoid which 
Abfurdity,we muft allow the being of a Subftantial Principle, diftind from 
Body, as the proper and immediate Subjedt of Life. Or, that as Body, 
is the proper and immediate Subjed; of any Species of Motion : So there 
ought to be fuch a Subftantial Principle, as may be the proper and im- 
mediate Subjed, not of one only, but of any Species of Life. 

ao. What therefore Motion is, to all Bodies ; that Life is, Suo modo^ to 
all the Species of Vital Subftance. By mediation of which Two Adjunds, 
there is an eafie Commerce between Things Corporeal and Incorporeal. 
That is to fay, as all Corporeal ImprelTions, are tranfmitted by Motion 
unto Life, and by Bife to Vital Subftance : So, vice "verf^^ all Vital 
Impreflions, are tranfmitted, by Motion, unto Body. 

XI. And from hence arifes the Conformity, between the Impreffions 
of the Mind, and the Motions of the Body. In an Argument, we Think 
orderly ; and fo, we Ad and Speak. But in a Paflion, we throw eve- 
ry Thought, Word, and Thing, out of its place. And all other Simi- 
litudes, whether in Conceipt, or Speech, between Things Mental and 
Corporeal, are grounded hereupon. 

zx. Wherefore, theOrganifm of a Body, although it hath nothing 
to do, in the produdion of Life, as hath beenlhewed: Yet is itnecefta- 
ry, that every Body lliould have its Organifm, agreeable to the Speci- 
es of Life, in the Vital Principle, wherewith it is endowed. So as 
hereby to befitted to receive from," and transfer unto Life, all manner 
of proper Motions and Impreffions. Life and Motion, being, as is faid, 
the Two Inftruments of Commerce, between the Vital and the Corpore- 
al Worlds. 

13. Whence alfo the Union of Soul and Body, and of all Things Vi- 
tal and Corporeal ,• is nothing elfe, but the Congruity between the Life 
and the Motion, which they either have, or are capable of. 

X4. Now the feveral Species of Life, feem to be reducible unto thefe 
Three ; viz. Vegetable Life, Senfe, and Thought. 

x$. The Loweft Species of Life, whereof we can have any Concep- 
tion, is fuch a fort of Life, as is without Senfe. The being whereof, 
is not impoffible. For Intelledion, v\ hich is one Species of Life, is ab- 
folutely diftind from Senfe ; as fliall be proved. But a Diftindion, on 
any one hand, fuppofeth a pofhbility on either. And it feems as eafie, 



Chap. L Of Life. 55 

to conceive the being of fome fort of Life, without Senfe : As the be- 
ing of any one Senfe, without another. 

x6. Yet neither by this Life, nor the Subjeft of it, do I mean, a 
Principle of Motion. The Univerfal Stock of Motion, as that of Mat- 
ter, being neither encreafed, nor diminilhed, but only transfer 'd. But 
I mean, a certain Power to determine the manner of its being transfer 'd j 
or of returning an Imprelfion upon Bodies , fuitable unto that which it 
receives : And more efpecially, upon the "Principles of Bodies, where- 
with it feemeth chiefly to correfpond. 

xj. By virtue of this Power, 1 fuppofe it is, That all Bodies have their 
Sphere of Adivity, whereby they operate one upon another, more or 
lefs. That there are Dark Rays, as well as Light ones. That the O- 
dors and other like Effluvia of Bodies, which waft, and tend to diP 
Iblve them; depend upon an External force, viz. the Air. But that 
the Radiations, by m hich Bodies are United ; depend upon a force In- 
ternal, And therefore, that as the Congruity between Life and Moti- 
on, maketh the Union between the Soul and Body : So the Congruity 
between Motion and Motion, maketh or promoteth the Union, or In- 
clination, of one Body to another. 

x8. This aforefaid Power, from whence arifeth the Speer of Adtivi- 
ty ; is more conlpicuous, in all the forts of Magneiick Inclination , 
jlnd in the Gravitation of all Bodies. But is that alfo, wherewith eve- 
ry Corporeal Principle may probably be Endow'd : Or, to fpeak proper- 
ly, may be Animated. For fmce the mod /Implc Bodies, having a 
certain Regular and Immutable Cize and Figure; are hereby made Or- 
gans or Inftrum.ents, truly and properly fo call'd : It is as congruous, to 
aflign fuch a Vital Principle, to each of thefe, as is fuitable to its Sim- 
ple Organifm; as another fuitable one, to any Organ more Compoun- 
ded. That is to fay, to allow like to like, as well to an Atome, as to 
a. Man. 

x9. Neither can we fo reafonably afcribe unto Atomes, any Innate 
Motion, as lome do ; as a certain Principle of Life. For although it 
be true. That all Bodies are fome way or other in Motion, or that there 
is no State of AbfoIuteRefl; : Yet a Relative Reft, there is, and muft 
be ; without which, there could be no Union of Bodies. So that any 
one Atome, having loft its proper Motion, by its Union with another : 
Whatever Motion it receives afterwards, from without ; is 4iive»tious 
and cannot be called Innate. Much lefs, can it be fuppofed to be Suitable 
and Regular ; without fuch a Vital Principle, as aforefaid, to determine 
it. Of which Principles, we muft then allow a Stock, anfwerable to the 
Corporeal , as one Moiety of the Univerfe. 

50. On the Diredive Power of the former, and the Regularity of 
the latter, whereby it is capable of Direction; depends the Generation 
of all Bodies. The faid Power, being one and the fame Vegetable Life, 
infufed into all the Parts of Corporeal Nature ; but more remarquably 
into Plants and Animals. 

31. In the confi deration of Plants, I have fet down the Metliod of 
Generation, ftep by ftep, as far as the Regularity of Principles will 
go. But for the performance of this Work, a Vital or Diredive Princi- 
ple, feemeth of ncceility to be aluftant to the Corporeal. For as no Ge- 
neration can be made, without Principles regularly figur'd : So , it 
feemetli, that no Principles, without being alfilted to a determinate Mo- 

'z6 Of Senje. Book II. 

tion, can be Regularly, that is, in due Order and Proportion, bronghtartd 
united together. 

^z. Nor are the Works of Nature, ever the lefs Artificial, becaufe 
of the Cooperation of the Vital Principle, with the Corporeal. For as 
the Corporeal, cannot meafure their own Motion and Mixture: So 
neither could the Vital do it, were not the Corporeal thereunto fitted, 
by the Artifice of their Figure. 

tjV •'^nd the like Method, is alfo necefTary , unto Augmentation 
and Nutrition. Thefe being only the primitive Generation, multiply'd, 
or continu'd. 
' 34. And it is the fame Vegetable Life, whereby thefe Operations are 

performed in Animals, as well as in Plants, And which are dill going 
on, while we are afleep, and all our Senfes locked up. And is alio the 
reafon, that while we are awake, we feel none of all thofe Motions, 
which are continually made, in the difpofal of the Corporeal Princi- 
ples Subfervient herein. 

3f. There are Sundry Motions, both in Plants and Animals, depend- 
ing upon this Vegetable Life. The Motion of Rellitution, in the Blad- 
ders of the Barque and Pith, for the exprefflng of their Liquors, may 
hereby be promoted. And may alfo be allowed to the Air-Veffels. Tlie 
better to affift, at fome Seafons, in the advance and diftribution of the 
Sap. And in all thefe Parts, may have fome refemblance, to the Perf- 
l^alrick Motion of the Gutts : Wherein it is of like Ufe, for the diftri- 
bution of the Aliment. A Motion, wliereof we have no perception, as 
depending on the Vegetable Life in an Animal. As alfo doth, the Pe- 
riftaltick Motion of the Arteries. And inftill a higher degree of Vi- 
vacity, the Syftole of the Heart. From which Vegetable Lile, it like- 
>A'ife is, that the faid Mtitiort of the Heart, often continues, a great 
while after the Animal is dead. As doth alfo that of the Gutts, or of any 
Mufcule, if excited therein by cutting, or other hard Touch. And is 
imitated in a fainter degree, in thofe Plants, which are commonly, 
tho' unaptly, called Senfitive. As then. Hairs and Feathers, are Plants 
growing upon an Animal j So thefe, are Vegetable Motions, in an 
Animal. And therefore, though Vital, yet have nothing to do with 

36. In all which, a mofl Wife and Benevolent Forecaft, is apparent : 
whereby the Vegetable Life, is made fo far independent on the Senfible: 
< That notwithftanding the perpetual Motion and Clutter in all the 

Rooms of the Houfe, viz. our Bodies ; yet we take no notice at all 
of it, nor are in the leaft, hinder'd or diverted, from any thing we have 
to do, as Animals, or as Men. 

C H A P. II. 

, Of Senfe. 

»• I H E next Species of Life, above the Vegetable, is that of Senfe- 
J_ Wherewith fome of thofe Produdions, which we call Plant- 
Animals, as the l/rfka Marina^ and the like, are endowed, as their 


Chap. 1L Of Senfe, 37 

their higheft Species of Life. In uhicfi rank, we may alfo place the 

Aurelias of all Creeping Infed's. And thofe invifible Aurelias, into 

ttiwhich all forts of Sperme Infcits, are probably converted, upon their 

Hbeing transformed from one Species to anotlier ; as from a Canine or 

Humane Tadpole^ to a Canine or Humane Foctiis, 

z. In all thefe, Senfe feemeth to be a Species of Life, diftind: from 
^ny above, or below it. And fo, to be the Adjund: of a diftindl Prin- 
R:iple. That it is diflind from any above, is plain. In that the Parti- 
culars aforefaid, are all of them Senfible, without Thought. And 
therefore, it is alfo diftinft from that below. That is, it is fuch a Me^ 
dification of Life, as renders it . a dilVind Species from the Vegetable, 
and mud alfo depend, upon a diltindt Principle. Nor do I fee any rea- 
fon at all, why the Vital Principles of Things, as well as the Corpo- 
real, may not be compounded. Provided, that as the Mixture of the 
Corporeal, is fuitable ro the Nature of every Part : So the Union of the 
Vital, to that of the whole. 

3. All Senfe, is a certain Mode of Life, in a Vital Subftancej an* 
fwerable to a certain Mode of Motion in a Body. The difference be- 
tween Vegetable and Senfible Life, feemeth to be this; that in the 
former , the Imprcflion arifing from the Motion, is entirely re* 
fleded , and loll in an Inllant. In the latter, it is Immerfed and 
retein'd. • 

4. The Modes of Motion, on which the Modes of Senfe depend ; 
are Simple or Compounded. The Simple, are Two Generals ; Magni- 
tude, and Celerity : That is, as any one Motion, is made in more or 
lets fpace, or in more or lefs Time. The Compounded, are likewife 
Two in general ; either as one Mode of Motion, is repeated over a- 
gain ; or as (everal Modes, of Magnitude, Celerity, or both, are mixed 
together. Which are all the Varieties , that Motion is capable of; and 
are the grounds, of all the'Varieties of Senfe. 

5. Every Motion llrong enough to afTed the Organ, produceth fome 
Senfe. But all 6tnk^ fo far as Grateful, dependeth upon the Equali- 
ty, or the Proportionality, of the Motion or Impreflion which is 
made.* ' 

6. To inllance, firft, in Hearing or Sound. The Magnitude of the 
Motion, maketh a fuller or a broader Sound. For albeit^ the Bafe and 
Treble firings df a Viol, be tuned to an Unifon : Yet the former 
will flill make a bigger or broader found, than the latter, as making a 
broader beat upon the Aer. 

7. The Celerity of the Motion, makes a Stronger or Lowder Sound j 
and withal, a Sharper or Higher Tone or Note: As is obvious in tune- 
ing any flringed Inflrument. 

8. But it is the Equality of the Motion, that is, the repetition of 
the pulfesof the String upon the Aer, at Equal diflancesof Time, whe- 

t ther the Motion be great or fmall, quicker or flower, which maketh 
the Sound to be Mufical. 

9. And it is this Synchronifm in the Vibrations of a String, which 
continues the famenefs of the Tone or Note which it makes, lo long as 
it makes any Sound. For though the Sound grows weaker and weak- 
er, till it ceafeth: Yet ft: keeps to the fame Tone, from firfl to laft. 
Which is alfo a plain and fufficient demonflration, of the Synchronifm 
in the V^ibrations of a Pendulum. And the lame is to be underflood, of thofe 
in the fides of a Pipe or Bell. L lo. And 

^8 OfSenfe. Book 11. 

n- - I ■ <>-, • ■ - .— ; : — _ . — — — 

lo. And as the Equality in the Motion of the fame firing, niaketh 
the Sound to be Mufical : So is it either an equal, ot a certain Pro- 
portional Meafure, between the Motions of Two Strings, which maketh 
a Mufical Concord. So, if Two Strings, are tuned to an Unifon ; the 
Celerity of the Vibration, will be the fame in both. If to an Eighth, 
the Celerity will be double in the one, to that in the other. If to a 
Diapafon and a Diapente^ or an Eighth and Fifth together, that is a 
Twelfth , it will be treble : As may be obferved by a Momchord. 

11. Whence italfo feems, That a Mufical Difcord, as a Seventh, is 
made by fuch Motions, as are neither Equal, nor Proportional, but In- 

12. Upon the fame ground, the Sound of a Drum, tho' lefs Mufical, 
as to every fingle Beat : Yet is fo far acceptable, as in making the feve- 
ral Beats, is kept a proportional Time. , 

i:}. The Objeds like wife of the Eye, -viz. the Figures of Things, are 
fo far Beautiful, as they are Uniform ; that is. Equal, or Proportional. 
Or as the fame Line, or Surface, is Equally, or Proportionally repeat- 
ed j and fo, a hke ImprelTion made upon the Eye. 

14. And it is therefore reafonable to believe, That fome certain Equal 
Motion, is the Caufe of all Beautiful Colours, as well as of Beautiful 
Figures, and of Mufical Sounds. I do aflent, That Colours, as our 
Learned Mathematick ProfefTor Mr. Newton^ hath well ihewed, are not 
Qualifications of Light, depending meerly upon Refradtions, or Re- 
flexions : But that there are feveral forts of Rays, adapted to produce 
feveral forts of Colours. But to what Mr. Newton hath faid, I add. 
That there is a certain Equal Motion, in the Atomes of each Ray, or 
in the Rays of each Colour, by which it is exhibited a Beautiful Co- 
lour. And a certain Proportional difference, between the degrees of 
Celerity, in their Motions, by which the faid Colours are diftinguilh- 
ed one from another. I fay then. That while the feveral Species of 
Rays, as the Ruhifick , Qerd'ifick, and others, are by Refradtion fepa- 
rated one from another ; they retein thofe Motions, which are proper 
to each of them. But when they are made to Converge, and ,fo are 
mixed together ; though their Lucifick Motion be continu'd , yet by 
interfering one with another, that Equal Motion which is the CoUri- 
fck^ is interrupted. And that, as a Higher Note is produced, by more 
Celerity in the Motion; and a Lower Note, with lefs: So a Red, the 
Higheft and Strongeft of all Beautiful Colours, is made by Rays leaft 
Refrangible, becaufe leaft Refiftable, or the Quickeft and the Strongeft : 
But Blew, which is the Loweft or Fainteft ; by Rays, though alfo E- 
qually moved, yet of a fainter Motion. Or, in Ihort, as Sound and 
Light, fo a Mufical Sound and a Beautiful Colour, the Key of a Note, 
and the Refra^ion of a Colour, have all the fame Ratio. 

15. What the Vifible Figures of Bodies are to Sight; that the Fi- 
gures of their Principles are toTafte. Wherein, as it is the Similarity 
or Equality of the Atomes of each Principle, and of their Mixture , 
which determines every leaft Molecula of Principles, in the fame Bo- 
dy, to the producing of one and the fame Tafte : So it is the Mixtiire 
of the faid Principles, in different Proportion ^n divers Bodies, which 
produceth the feveral Species of Tafte : Whereof, in a Difcourie of the 
Taftes of Plants, I have given Inftances at large. 

16. And 

Chap- II. Of Senfe. ^g 

16. And hereunto anfwerable, are the Caufes of Scent, which is a- 
nother way of Tafling Bodies, by their Effluvia. All the Folds in the 
Griftle of the No(e, being cover'd with a Lining made of a Stuff, 
which differs from the Facing of the Tongue, 

1 7. The Pleafure likewife or Pain, arifing from all forts of Touch, 
depends upon the Equality or Inequality of the Motion, which is made 
in the Touched Parts. For the Lining of the Pudenda^ both in Male 
and Female, is compofed of Mufcular Fibers, which fland Parallel one 
to another. By which means, the foft Touches, which are given theni 
in the Adt of Coition, produceth not only a gentle Vibration, and 
therefore an Equal Motion, in each Fiber ; but alfo an Uniform Moti- 
on in all the Fibers, in relation one to another. 

1 8. On the contrary, Tickling, thougli it cometh alfo from a foft Touch, 
yet is very Troubiefom and Difpleafing. For that the faid Touch, pro- 
duceth a Deformed Motion, anfwerable to the Pofition of the Fibers in 
the Skin. Which is not Uniform, as in the Parts aforefaid, but Con- 
founded and Irregular ; almofl: like to that of Wool in a Hat, as in the 
Chapter of Compounded Bodies, is obferved. Wherefore alfo a Hard 
Touch , tickleth lefs, than a Softer. The former being of force e- 
nough, to carry the Motion of the Fibers more one way, that is, to 
make one Motion, fomething Uniform in the Skin. Whereas a Softer 
Touch, being only fufficient, to put every Fiber into its own proper 
Motion : There is made, a Multitude, though of foft, yet very Irregu- 
lar and Interfering Motions, anfwerable to the Texture or Pohtion of 
the Fibers of the Skin, wherein they are made. Which is alfo one rea- 
fon, why the Lips are turned outward, fb as not to be cover'd with the 
Common Skin. Lead the Soft Touch, often ufed in a Kifs, fliould 
tickle the Lipps, as it will the Forehead, and thereby take away theac- 
ceptablenefs of that Conjundtion. 

19. But in all Pain, there is a Deformity, not only in the Motion 
of the Fibers, but alfo of the Principles whereof they confill. Either 
by a Solution of their Continuity, as in Burning, Cutting, Contufi- 
ons; or by any great Tendency to that Solution, as in Convulfions, or 
Strains. For neither of thele can be, but by the Deformed Motions 
of the faid Principles. And as a Solution or Difunion of the faid Prin- 
ciples, or a Tendency to it, caufeth Pain : So a Difunion of the Corpo- 
real Principles and the Vital, caufeth Death ,• and a Tendency to 
it , caufeth that we call Heart Sicknefs , which is a Tendency to 

20. By what hath been faid, it appears, how aptly, not only the Do- 
meftick Inllruments or the Organs of the Body ; but alfo the Forreign, 
viz. the Aer, Light, and other Principles, are all contrived, to alFift in 
the Variation of Senfe. Particularly, it may here be obferved, That 
as thofe confident Bodies, which by means of their Subflance or Figures- 
are the mod capable of Vibration, make the mod Mufical Sounds : So 
the Air it (elf, which by its Eladicity, is capable of the like Vibration j 
is the mod proper of all other Fluids, for conveying of fuch Sounds ; 
that is, of fuch Motions, as are fit to produce them. Which diews, 
that the Keys, as well as the Locks, were all of them fitted Ward to 
Ward, by the fame Wifdom, and comprehended in one entire Scheme 

•of the Univerfe. 

Til. \i 

40 Of Senfe. Book 1F- 

' — ' : ^ : .^ 

xr. Itfeemeth alfo, that if the Divine Architedt had made more Or- 
gans i there would have been more Species of Senfe. But thofe we 
have, are as many, and of thatfort, as lie thought fit for the Condition 
he hath here fet us in, with relation to the World about us. 

^z. And the Excellency of thofe we have, doth herein further appear. 
That though, for reafons hereafter to be mention'd, they are made ca- 
pable of Painful, as well as Pleafing Impreflions: Yet whether Plea- 
ding or Painful, Grateful or Ungrateful ; the Notices which they give us 
of Senfible Things, are not Deceitful, but True and Juft. 

x:}. Toinftance in Sight, I fay, that though the Images of Things 
made in the Eye, are not Equal to the Things themfelves: Yet in that they 
are always made by a Regular Refradtion ; their Figure and Colour, are 
always Similar, and they are always Proportional in their Bulk. And 
are therefore alfo Proportional, to the Ufe we make of Vifible Things. 

24. True it is, that the Apparent Bulk, may be divers by means of 
different Refradions. The fame Body through a Glafs , may appear 
a thoufand times bigger, than through the Eye. And being the Eye 
it felf reprefents every thing by Refrad:ion ; tlie fame Body, .or Part 
of a-Body, may alfo ' appear a thoufand times bigger, through the Eye 
- of one Animal, than through the Eye of another. Or than it would 
appear, through an Optique Glafs, which fliould make the Rays of 
Light as much to Converge, as by a Mkrofcope, they are diffufed. Of 
which diverfities, though we know not the nearefl: unto the Real Quan- 
tity of Things : Yet the Images the Eye receives, are always proporti- 
onal to the Things themfelves, and one to another. And therefore, to 
the ordinary and common ufe we make of them. 

X5-. Now as that which is Similar, Co whatfoever is Proportional, as 
well as that which is Equal, is True. And God hath made Senle, not 
to deceive US; but to be a faithful and fufficient Guide, fo far as be- 
longs to its own Province, in the Judgment whicli we make of Sen- 
fjble Things. 

26. But atbeit the Inftruments of- Senfe, both the Foreign, and the 
Domellick, or thofe which are corapofed together in out own Bodies 
are admirably hereunto fitted : Yet are they net fufficient of themfelves' 
to produce Senfe. For if fuch a certain Motion or Impreffon, on the 
Organ, were it felf the Senfe : Then any Body, having the fame Moti- 
on or Impreflion, as the Organ hath ; would alio have the fame Senfe, 
A Bell, which by the Air gives its own Motion to the Ear; would it 
felf alfo hear : And a Wall in a dark Room, \^hich receives a Land- 
skip, as the Eye doth ; would alfo fee. Which to fay, if it be very ab- 
furd ; then is it as abiurd, to fuppofe any Domeftick, as well as For- 
reign Inflrumenr, Iclf fiifiicient to the production of Senfe. The Ufe 
hereof, being only to minifler to the Modification of Life in the Viral 
Principle, u herein the Eflcnce of Senfe doth confifl ; as in the forego- 
ing Definition of Senfe, hath been faid. 


Chap. Ill, 4' 


Of Mind. And fir fi, ofPhancy, 
or Thantafiic\Mmd, 

j.'Tn'HE Vital Principle, which we call Mind, is that 'Ji'hich hath 
j[^ the power of Thought. Diftind from Senle, and above 

it. 'Tis true, a Thinking Creature, cannot Feel, without Thinking. 

But to Feel, and to Think, are Two things. For tho' a Man's Finger 

Feels ; yet it doth not Think it Feels. 

X. The Two general Species of Mind, are Phantaftick and Intelledtu- 

al. Of Phancy, we mufl; diftinguifli, The Organ, the Images, and the 

Vital Ads. 

3. The Organ of I'hancy, is the Brain. And therefore, as the Ima- 
ges of S'enfe, are model'd according to the Nature of the Senfbries : 
So the Images of Phancy, according to that of the Organical Parts of 
the Brain : The feveral Prominences whereof, being the Shops or Store- 
Houfes for that purpofe. 

4. The Images of Phancy,' are either a fort of Copies of thofe of Senfe ; 
or certain Signatures, or other items, whereby they are repreferrted. 

5. The Ads of Phancy are Vital. And therefore altogether diftind, 
from the Figure, Pofition, or Motion of the faid Images, or any thing 
elfe hereunto belonging. But imply a Power, both of Ufeing, and 
Making thefe Images ; as will hereafter appear. 

6. The Power and Ufe of Phancy, is great, even in Brute-Animals ; 
in which, it is the chief Faculty. Mod of them, have a good Memo- 
ry. And withal. Tome kind of Forefight. For a Dog will run, when 
he fees a Cudgel ; that is, Forefees, Beating. They are not without 
their Hope and Fear, Love, Anger, and other Paffions.' A Cock Threa- 
tens, when he fets up nis Crefl; ; and Triumphs, when he Crows- Their 
•Works are alio very Curious; as the Bags of Silkworms, the Honey- 
Cooms of Bees, the Nefts of Birds ; in which there is much Variety of 
Artifice, for the Conveniency of the Dam, and the Safety of lier Brood. 
Principally in thofe Countries, where Noxious Creatures abound. All 
which, and other likeAdions, Pa(fions, and Operations, are under the 

iovernment of Phancy, as their Supream Faculty. V ' 

7. For firfl:, thfey are not Improvable beyond their own proper Ge- 
iius. A Dog, will never learn to Mew; nor a Cat, to Bark: Altho' 

their Voc^l Organs, are made well enough for either of thofe Notes. 
So a Singing Bird, will not learn to Talk; nor a Talking Bird, to 
Sing. Nor will flie be taught, to make any other Neft, but her own. 

8. Again, they work not Eledtively, or upon propofing to thern- 
felvcs an End of their Operations. A Bee, doth n6t deiign to lay 
up Honey for a Winter Stock: But fuelling her delicious Food to a Sur- 
charge, is forced to vomit up the greater part of it in the Hive. Nor 
is t\\t Silk-worm concerned for the Silk-Trade: But talces, it may be, 
as much pleafure in drawing out her Silk ; or a Spider, her Web ; as 
another Animal, in ejeding his Sperme. A Cow, confults not the 
better Concodion Qf her Food, by chewing the Cudd : But lies dowrv 

M quietly;* 

42 Of Mind '^ and Book il. 

quietly, only to enjoy the Tafte of it. And Men thcmfelves, do many 
things, which though materially, the means to a certain End ; yet for- 
mally, that is, in the Intent of the Doer, they are not. Who almofl:, 
in Eating, thinks of any thing further, than to fatisfie his Hunger ? 
Whereas the chief End of Eating, is the maintaining of Life, for which, 
Hunger, is but a Bait. So Coition, is the way to get Children : But 
how feldom is the getting of Children thereby intended ? Which fhews, 
that Men, much more other Creatures, may do many things, which 
very aptly ferve to fome certain End, whereof they have no confide- 

9. Their Operations likewife, in fome refpeds, are fuperior to thofe 
of Men. For they perform them, without Teaching or Imitation. A 
Silk-Worm makes her own Monument, which fhe never faw done. 
And without Difquifition. A Bird never tryes, by way of Eflay, to 
make or mend her Neft ; nor a Bee, her Cell : But ufeth one and the 
fame certain Method, from the beginning, and that the beft. If then 
their Operations proceeded from Reafon ; the Reafon of Brutes, would 
be Superior to that of Man : Who maketh nothing perfect at the firfl: j 
but Tentando^ learns to do that which is well and fit. 

10. We fee alfo Mad People, in whom Phancy reigns, to run upon 
lome one Adion, as Reading, or Knitting of Straws, without variati- 
on. And that which depends upon a difeafed Phancy in Menj may 
be the effed of a Natural one, in othet Creatures. 

11. I fay then, xkm. Silk-Worms va2!&s. their Bags, Bees their Cooms, 
and Birds their Nefts ; not from any Forecaft, or regard to their being 
commodious for the Ends, to which they ferve: But as they are di- 
reded and conflrained to it, by a Strong and Immutable Phancy, which 
they have of thofe Works, and the Adions thereunto belonging. So 
a Silk-Worm^ though, having no Eyes, (lie can have no conceit of 
Light and Colours : Yet by Feeling, may have the true Senfe and Con- 
ceipt of any Figure. So a Bee's Eye, being made like a Multiplying 
Glafs , may multiply to her Senfe and Phancy , every thing Ihe 
fees ; and thereby difpofe her, as to a numerous Society, fo to her work- 
ing upon a Coorti, which confifleth of a numerous pile of Cells. So 
the Phancy of a Bird, may be fo difpofed, as to conceive a Cleer and Per- 
fed: Draught of her Ned : Which, from fome hint of Senfe, or of Senfe 
and Phancy combin'd, flie is irrefiftably moved to make. For which 
purpofe, thofe Protuberant Parts of the Brain, called the Chambers of 
the Optique Nerves ; are in all Birds, made very large. Not to give 
them a Quicker Sight, as fome Learned Anatomifts have thought : For 
it is the advantagious Organifm of the Eye, by which that is procu- 
red; But to be the means, of their conceiving a Stronger Phancy of 
Vifible Things, By which Strength of Phancy, the Specifick Colours 
of Wild Birds, are likewife preferved conftantunto every Species. As 
are alfo the Specifick Colours of Fifties : In which the Bulk of the faid 
Chambers, is very Confpicuous, as well as in Birds. 

IX. The Genius of Birds and other Animals, as aforefaid, is a great 
demonftration, of that Supream Wifdom, by which they were made. 
■ Where, the Modification of Phancy, and its Combination with Senfe 
and Senfible Things, is with fo much Art contrived ; as in very great 
variety , to imitate the Intelledual Operations of Mankind. The 
Divine Reafon, running like a Golden Vein, through the whole Leaden 
Mine of Brutal Nature. i ? , But 

Chap. llf. firft^ of Phancy, ao 

13. But Human Phancy, as it is much more Copious; fo for the 
moft part, ennobled with a Mixture of Reafon : Upon both which ac- 
counts, it challenges a particular Defcription. 

14. Phancy, ftridly taken, is Mind immediately occupy 'd about Sgo." 
fible Things, and its own Ideas of thofe Things. 

15-. The Ads of Phancy, in general, are Two, Perception, and Vo- 
lition. Firft, we Perceive theObjed:; and then, we are fome way or 
other Affeded with it. 

16. With refped to the former, Phancy hath its Species, Modes, and 
Schemes. The Species of Phancy, are jufl: as many, as thofe of Senfe, 
For tho' the Faculty be one ; yet the Ad or Conceit, is divers. And there- 
fore there can be no Senfm Communh, which fome talk of. For we can- 
not Phancy, that we fee a Sound, or Hear a Colour, 

17. Every Species of Phancy, hath its Modes. In general, Three, 
viz. Recognition, of a Thing, as Prefent; Memory, of a Thing, as 
Part ; and Forefight, of a Thing, as to Come. 

18. Recognition, is the Internal Senfe or Phancy of Things, as Pre- 
fent. Or a Power of Making or Conceiving fuch Images, or Tokens, 
of Senfible Things, as are fome way or other anfwerable to the Origi- 
nafs. Whereby we are able to Phancy, that we See, and Hear thofe 
things, which we do not, as if we did. More evidently in Dreams : 
When the Phancy hath full Power to create them in the Senfories them- 
felves, then unoccupy'd by External Imprefllons. But as truly, when 
we are awake. The Thought of a Triangle, is a Triangle. Its ordina- 
ry, to make a Ring of Bells, to fay what we will. No Man could draw 
a Pidure, or compofe a Tune ; if he had not every Stroak of his Pen- 
cil, and every Note, drawn and fung in his Phancy beforehand. It is 
the Phancy of Sweetnefs in a Flower, or Apple, which tempts us to 
Smell or Eat. And the Phancy of Pain, is Pain : For fome have fwoon- 
ed, only at the Sight of a Wound. 

19. Memory, is the Conceit of a Thing, as Paft. By Recognition 
we Phancy, that we Do See : By Memory, that we Did. Recognition, 
eminently called Phancy, may be Strong, when Memory is Weak : And 
I'o the contrary. Becaufe Phancy, hath refped to Continual Quantity ; 
as in a Painter, who hath an Entire Conceit of all the Parts of what 
he intends to Draw". But Memory hath refped alfo to Succeffive 
Quantity, that is, Time. 

20. It is either Natural, or Artificial. The latter, is properly cal- 
led Reminifcence. « By the former, a Thing comes to Mind : By the ^ 
latter, we call it to Mind j that is, by fome certain Method of Think- 
ing, hit upon the Images of Things paft. By which Faculty, we are 

alfo able, to take notice of the Order of Precedence and Subfequence, 
in which they are pafl. 

21. When we forget Things; tither the ImprefTions are oblitera- 
ted, or the Images diflblved into their firft Principles, or Extermina- 
ted from the Brain, with the Current of the Animal Spirits into the 
Nerves. The reafon, why Men of much Bufinefs, forget more than 
others of the fame Age ; the Elder Images of things, being deftroyed, 
or excluded, by the Crowd of new ones. 

2x. Forefight, is the Conceit of a Thing, as to come. As real and 
diftind a Mode of Phancy, as Memory of what is paft. For other- 
wifCj no Man could Hope or Fear, upon the profped or conceit of 
Good or Evil to come. Subfcrved, as Memory, partly by Extempore 


44 Of Phancy. Book II. 

ImpreflTions, and partly , the permanent Images of Things; having 
a power to diftinguifliing them, from thofe of Things Prefent and 

xV Mr. Hohsy with the like reafon as he doth many other Things, 
denies tlie being of any fuch diflind Faculty. Becaufe, faith he, no- 
thing can be phancyed, which is not : But Time to come, is not. But 
by the fame Argument, we may deny the being of Memory. For 
Time paft, no more. Is, than Time to come. And we may as well fay, 
that there is no iuch thing, as Time. For neither Time paft, nor 
Time to come, now Is ; and Now, is but a Poynt, which is no Part of 
Time. But therefore, as we have a Conceit of Motion, coming, as 
well as by-gone : So have we of Time, which dependeth thereupon. 

24. As Forefight, when it is Natural, anfwers to Memory ; fo when 
Methodical, it anfwers to Reminifcence ; and may be called Forecaft. 
All of themexprefled in the Tenfes given to Verbs. Memory faith, I did 
See; Reminifcence, I had Seen: Forefight, IftiallSee; Forecaft, I ftiall 
have Seen. Wherein two Future Times, are fo compared together ; 
as the nearer of the two, exprelfed by the Particle Have, is looked 
upon, as paft. The Creeks have given their Paftive Verbs, Nine Tenfes. 
Yet the Radical Letters of the feveral Forms, by which they are expi-ef- 
fed ; fliew, that they are all derived of Three ; viz. The Prefent, the 
perfectly Paft, and the firft Future : the reft ferving to exprefs the mix- 
ed Conceits of thefe three Times. 

15. The Schemes of Phancy, are its Defigns or Compofures. Some- 
times the Images only of one Species, are compounded ; as of Two or 
more Colours, or Figures. Sometimes, of divers Species, as of Sight, 
Sound, and Touch ; that is, of a Man, Groaning, with Pain. Some- 
times the Modes are alfo compounded; as of the fame Man, alfo Laugh- 
ing at a Jeft. All which, may be over and over decompounded; as in 
the Phancy of a Feaft, a Cavalcade, or-a Battel, 
i ■x6. The Power of Phancy appears, not only in Drawing the Schemes 
of Things according to Senfe : But alfo in fuch a manner, as they ne- 
ver were in Senfe : As of a Horfe, eating a Lobfter. The parts indeed, 
of this Image, the Horfe, and the Lobfter, are both derived of Senfe. 
But this Compofition, never was in Senfe, nor ever will be, but only 
in Conceit. 

xj. Every Scheme of Phancy, hath its Parts, and its Lights or Co- 
lours. With refpe(a: to the former, it is Entire, or Mutilated. To 
the latter, Lively, or Faint. For a Scheme, though truly drawn, yet 
for want of its due Colours, may look Flat. 

z8. Thefe Schemes, are the Materials of Wit and Ingenuity. One 
that conceives a ftrong and cleer Scheme, of the Kinds, Meafures, and 
Proportions of Sounds, hath a Mufical Genius ; if the like, of Flat 
Figures, one for Painting ; if of Figures and Poftures, for Defigning ; 
if of Solid Figures, for Sculpture; or for Architedure ; if of Figures 
and Motions, for an Engineer. And one that hath the like Schemes of 
Senfibles and Infenfibles, with the Art of reprefenting one by the other; 
may make an Orator, or a Poet : Whofe Bufmefs it is, to give Draughts, 
of the Virtues, Vices, and AfTedions of Mankind. 

29. Of the Perceptive part of Phancy, now defcribed ; Recognition, 
Memory, and Forefight, as hath been hinted, are in (bme degree, com- 
mon to Men and Brutes. But Reminifcence, and Forecaft, or the Or- 

m i_ 

H Chap, ill Of Phancy, 45 

I V ^^^^y Profped: of Things, and the Arbitrary Compofition of the Ima- 
ges of Things, are proper to Mankind. And fo are Ingenuity and 
|B Wit J even the lowed kind, which lyeth in the Imitation, or pro- 
Ik pofed refembling of fome Senfible thing by another. A Parret fpeaks 
the Words ftie hears, but not by Imitation. For to Imitate, is not on- 
ly, to do lilce another; but to propofe to do it; which a Parret doth 
I not do. No more than a Man that yauns, when he fees another yaun, 
may be faid to Imitate him. Much lefs have Brutes any of that Wit, 
which maketh ufe of Senfible Things, whereby to reprefent things In- 
30. Upon JPerception, follows Volition. For all Affedions and Padi- 
ons, are the Volitions of Phancy. Thefe are Two in general, Appe- 
tite or Inclination, and Averfion. For we Will to Avoid, as well as to 
Enjoy or Obtcin. Love, is an Appetite or Will to fome Good, abfo- 
lutely confidered : Delight, to that Good, as Prefent : Defire, as Ab- 
fent ; Flope, as Atteinable. On the contrary. Hatred, is a Will to a- 
void fome Evil, as Evil : Grief, as Prefent : Fear, as Abfent : Defpair, 
as Unavoidable. 

31. There are, fome Mixed Affedions; as Anger and Shamefacednefs. 
Anger, is Hatred of fome Prefent Evil, with Hope of overcoming it. 
For if it be Infuperable, the Anger ceafcth, 4:ho the Hatred remains. 
Shamefac'dnefs, is Hatred of Difgrace, with Hope of avoiding it. Whence 
it is, that the Blood rilqth in the Cheeks, bothofithofe who are Angry, 
and of thofe who are Abafli'd. And if they defpair of overcoming that 
they Hate, they both look Pale. 

^z. Befides thefe, there are many other Symptoms of Humane Af-* 

fedions ; as Laughing, Weeping, Dancing, Trembling, Sighing, and 

cfpecially Palpitation, or fome other Unequal Motion, orUneafinefs of 

the Heart. Which hath given occafion, not only to the Unlearned, 

but to fome Philofophers, to think the Heart. the Seat of all our Affe- 

dions and Paflions. But we may as well make our Eyes, the Seat of 

our Afledions, when we weep ; or the Lungs , when we laugh ; or 

our Hands , when we fight ; or a Horfe^s Ears , when lie pricks 

them up ; or a Dogs Tail, when he waggs it ; as the Heart, when it 

i aches or beats. The Affedions themfelves, being feated only in the 

i Mind or Phancy : While the Vifible or Senfible Motions of the Parts 

, aforefaid , are made the Signs and Inftruments of the Vital Power 


3}. The Afiedions, by the repetition of thofe Conceits from wl;ence 
they arife, turn to Habits. And when they are Irregular or Difproportion'd 
to the Objed, are then properly called Paflions. 
\^ 34. Sometimes, as they are Supernumerary ; as in thofe which oc- 

4 cafion Madnefs. Wherein the Images of fome one Perfon or Thing, 
are fo cxtreamly multiply 'd ; as not to allow room enough for the re- 
ception and due difpofal of the Images of other Things. And fo like- 
> wife in vehement Anger, or vehement Concupifcence ; feveral forts of 

Madnels for a fliort time. 
I 35-. And forhetimes, as they are Ill-compounded ; as in Envy, or Ma- 

j lice. Wherein the Images of Perfons and Things, are falfe and fiditi- 
: ous; like that of z Centaur. A fort of Monflrous Conceptions in the 
I Brain, like thofe w;hich happen in the Womb. 

N 36. The 

^5 Of Fhancy Book II. 

^6. The Power of Phancy, in making the Images of Things ; and 
the great Ufe hereof : fliew the Wifdom, and Goodnefs of its Author. 
The faid Power, being above the Force, and the Ufe of it, above the 
Defign of Body, howfoever qualifi'd. 

57. For fuppofe thefe Images, to be of Vifible Things. . They muft 
then be Drawn, either in the Eye, or the Brain. Say, they are Drawn 
in the Eye. The Eye, can fee nothing, without Light. But we can 
Phancy, when afleep, or with our Eyes fliut, that we fee a Square Fi- 
gure, or a Blew Coat, though we fee them not. Now the Images of 
thefe Things, thus phancy 'd to be feen, cannot be Drawn in the Eye, 
but byfomeCaule, equal to that, by which is made a Real Vifion : 
that is, able to make the fame Regular Impreffions upon the Eye. But 
it is impofTible for any Organ, or any part of it, to regulate it felf. 
Much lefs, may we refer the power of this Regulation, to the Animal 
Spirits, an Unorganized Fluid. Nor therefore, to any tiling inferior to 
the Vital Principle, which we call Phancy. 

^8. Or fay, that thefe Images are formed in the Brain. Yet they are 
Jndicatively, of the fame Species with thofe of Senfe. The Phancy of 
a Triangle, is not a Square ; much lels is the Phancy of Figure, a Co- 
lour. But the Organifm of every part of the Brain, particularly, of the 
Chambers of the Optique Nerves, in which, if any where in the Brain, 
the Phantaftick Images of Vifible Things are made ; is altogether diffe- 
rent from that of the Eye. And confequently, the Motions and Imprel^ 
fions, which are made in a manner fuitable to the faid Organifm ; mufl 
be altogether different, from thofe made in the Eye. Of which diffe- 
rence, Tince the Brain cannot be a Judge, fo as to make the Images in it 
felf, Jndicatively, the fame with thofe in the Eye : We mufl: of neceffl- 
ty, have recourfe, to fomething Superior to the Brain or any Organifm ; 
and that is, unto Phancy. 

59. The Power of Memory and Forefight, or the Thought of Pafl: 
and To come, proves the fame. For fuppofe a Thought, to be nothing, 
but a certain Motion, communicated to the Animal Spirits, or the 
Brain ; as fome Men conceit. This Thought, mufl: of neceflity ceafe 
with the faid Motion. And confequently, were a Thought, nothing but 
Motion ; there could be no Thought or Conceit, of a Thing Palt, or 
To come, but only Prefent. As being always and only fome certain 
Form of Motion, which is either Prefent, or not at all. 

40. Or fuppofe, the Thought of Prefent, Pafl, and To come, to be 
the fame Motion, or alike Image or Impreffion, transferred from one 
part of the Brain, to another : That which is in fuch a certain part, to 
be Prefent, and that which is cis vel citra^ to be Pafl, or To come. 
Now this cannot be, without a Comparifon made between them, and 
To a Judgment, whether they are in the Prefent, Pafl:, or To come part. 
But to fay, the Motions, Images, or Imprellions, compare themfelves, 
is ridiculous. So that we mufl; come at laft, to a Vital Principle, 
able to judge of them, in determining where they are, and what they 
are apt to fignifie. 

41. The Power likewifeof Compounding the Images of Things, de- 
raonftrates the fame. For thefe Images, are Corporeal, or Incorporeal- 
He that faith the latter, granteth the Exiftence of Incorporeal Beings fo 
Real, as to be the Caufeof moftof the Bufmefs of the World: For fo, 
the Phancies of Men, are. But if Corporeal, I then ask, Do they Reft, or 

Move ? 

Chap. III. Of Phancy 


Move? If they reft, it were TmpoflTible for them to be Compounded. 
For how can two Images, as of a Man and a Horfe, be brought toge- 
ther, fo as to make a Centaur, without being moved ? And fo, Ten 
Thoufand other ways. If then in Motion, I ask again, How come 
they now, to be Compounded ? As they chance to meet together ? 
That is equally Impoflible, For nothing that comes by Chance, can 
come by Direction, But every one knows, he can compound thefe 
Images, in what m.anner, and as often as he pleafes. The Power 
therefore of Compounding thefe Images, fliews, That there is a Power 
of Moving them, and the Materials whereof they are made : That is, 
the Power of a Vital Principle, called Phancy. Without which, Body, 
howfoever qualift'd, could no more produce one Single Thought, than 
make a World. 

. 4x. The Office of Phancy, is eminently feen, in its being fo related 
to tlie Brain, and the whole Body ; as with the greateft eafe to make 
u(e of them. And firft. Generation it felf, doth in a great meafure, 
hereupon depend : viz. as a Man or other Animal, is hereby, partly, able 
to beget his own Image. It being very probable, that the firft Concep- 
tions or Rude Draughts of the Sperme- Animals, are begun, either in the 
Brain, or Tefticles, by the Power of Phancy. And that after a certain 
convenient time, they obtein a Vifible Bulk, in the Form of Humane 
Worms or Tadpoles. This is argu'd, from the Marks, which Longing 
W^omen, and they who happen to be affirighted, give their Children. 
Which fliews the Power of Phancy, in making the Images of things : 
And that thefe Images, may be transfer 'd from the Brain, though by a 
very long Circute, to the Womb. As alfo doth the Refemblance, which 
Children bear to either of their Parents, as the Phancy of one, or the 
other, is the Stronger. And fometimes, their relembling of neither; 
but feme other Perfon , more agreeable to his or her prevailing 

4:5. All Animal Motions, properly fo called, and all Corporeal Ha- 
bits, do alfo; more or lefs, depend upon Phancy. As for Inftance, that 
of Speech. It is wonderful toconfider, what a multitude of Motions, 
in the Lipps and Tongue, go to make all the Letters of Words in our 
common Talk; while we have no diftincSt Thought, fcarceof one Let- 
ter, but onlv of the Senfe of riie whole. Which fliews, both the fit- 
nefs of the Parts, for their joynt Service herein ; and the near Relati- 
on of Phancy to thefe Parts, in dired:ing all their Motions with fo lit- 
tle concern. For as a Man, only by blowing now and then, into a Pair 
of Bagpipes, fo by a blaft of Phancy, now and then into the Organs of 
Speech, he keeps both the one and the other in play, without any in- 
terruption, in the Mufick, or the Talk. And fo, in Singing, Dancing, 
Writing, Playing on the Lute, and other Artificial Motions, confider'd 

Corporeal Habits. 

44. And the fame Vivacity of Phancy, is feen in Mental Habits. In 
nothing more, than in Difcourfe : Which differs from Talk or Speech, 
as a Man doth from a Statue. If the Eye be fo rare an Engine, as to 
fee, all that Light can reprefent to it : How Excellent a Faculty of the 
Mind, is Phancy, that can fee, without Light ? Can Hear , without 
Sound ? And hnitate all the other Senfes, without the Ufe of the Or- 
gans of Senfe. Can at once, perceive, what the Senfes perceive di- 
Itindtly, and at feveral times ? Can Travail through the World, while 


____________ 1. v — i 

^8 Of Intelle&ual Mind. Book 11. 

we fttftill? And drawing aLandskipof the fevcral Countries, Perfons, 
and Things, ieen or heard of by us, in their proper Time and Place, let 
it all, into its little Dark Room ? All which, is adtually done in Common 

4f . And Phancy perceives, what the Eye, and other Senfes, never per- 
ceiv'd, nor ever ftiall ; as in Hieroglyphkks, and in Heroick^ and other 
Poetick Schemes. Nor ever can. For in all Adions, proceeding from 
the Phancy ; we fee, with the Adions, the PaflTions alfo, of another. 
For otherwife, thofe Adions, which are the Tokens of any Paffion, and 
thofe which are only Mimical, would have the fame Operation. Which 
Perception, as well as Speech, is one principal Bond of Human So- 

46. Lallly , the Phancy is of great ufe, in the Difcurfive, and Exe- 
cutive Ads of Reafon : As will befl appear, in theDefcription of Intel- 
tedual Mind. 


: Of IntelleUml Mind. 

I. \.S Senfe, is Subfervient unto Phancy? fois Phancy, unto Intel- 
^nj^ led i So that they are commonly mixed together, in their Ope- 
rations. Yet they have their Proper Objeds, and their Proper Ads. 

t. The Nature, not only of the Deity ; but of all Vital Beings, is 
utterly out of the reach of Senfe. And fo, of Phancy flridly fo called, 
or as depending upon Senfe. 

3 . And the Nature too, or Eflence of all other Beings : As the Defi- 
nition, iuppofe, of a Point. Which, in regard it is no Part of any 
thing. Body, Space, or Line ; cannot properly, be either Seen or Phan- 
cy 'd J but only Underflood. 

4. And fo Jikewife is the Eflence of any Figure, or Body under that 
Figure : As the Definition of a Cube. Wherein, tho' Phancy is em- 
ployed about a Body with a Cubick Figure : Yet the Intelled alone, 
about the Eflence of this Figure, whereby it is difl.inguilhed from all 

5. Or only in conceiving of any Figure perfcd to a Poynt. Such as 
never was, nor can be adually made. Nor therefore can belong to 
Senfe ; nor unto Phancy, thereupon depending. 

6. Nor hath Senfe, or Phancy, any thing to <3o with Proportionality, 
or Commenfurability : Which few People have Intelledion enough to 
underftand. Or with the Indefinite Divifibility of Bodies. Which 
goes beyond all Conception in Phancy, and yet is demonflrable. 

7. Nor with any other Univerfal whatfoever. The forming of which, 
is peculiar unto Intelledual Mind. And upon this ground it is, that a 
Man only, is capable of Language : Which could notpoflibly confift, 
without Univerfals. If you fliew a Dog, a Houfe, by the Name of 
Houfe ; whenever you fay, Houfe, he will know it again, as that Indivi- 
dual piece of Building, he is direded to look upon. But the Houfity of 
that Building, whereby, when you fay, Houfe, you underftand any o- 

• ther 

Chap. IV. Of IntelleBual Mind. 4.9 

ther Houfe in London, as well as that h he can have no Conceit of: Nor 
therefore of any Difcourfe, concerning a Houfe. Nor doth a Dog, as he 
is bid, becaufe he underflands the Ratio of the Words ; but only re- 
members fuch a certain Sound, which the Words make altogether. 
For fmce he wants neither a Tongue, nor any other Vocal Inftruments j 
could he, by forming of Univerfals, perceive the Ratio of Speech, he 
would prefently learn to fpeak. 

8. Wherefore, Intelledtion, is the Operation of the Mind, about Irt- 
fenfible Things, and its own /s'l?^/ of tnofe things. 

9. The A6ts of Intellecfl, as cf Phancy, are Two in genera!, Percepti- 
on, and Volition. 

10. The Modes of Intelleflual Perception, are alfo Two, viz. Dubi- 
tation, and Invention. 

11. Dubitation, may be called, a Negative Perception. That is, 
when I perceive, that what I fee, is not, what I would See. Phancy, of 
it felf, and where it is the fole Judge of Things, never Doubts, nor can 
doit: But takes every thing to be, what itleemstobe. It is therefore 
the Prerogative of Intelled-ual Mind, That it can, and doth Doubt. And 
the firft point of good Underftanding, or Ratiocination truly fo call'd, 
is, To Doubt, in order to the finding out of Truth. By virtue where- 
of, we have likewifc this advantage. That though we may oftentimes, 
in our Enquiries, come fliort of Truth : Yet we can never be compell'd, 
to believe , what is not evidently True. And fo, we are ftill in the 
way, of^finding Truth in the End. 

IX. Dubitation, is attended with Difquifition. Whereby, we recoi- 
led the Simple and Complex Ideas, we have of things. And with CoN 
lation ; whereby, we compare them together; till, from the Refemblance 
of Truth, we come at lafl to Truth it felf Meer Phancy, Compounds 
Things; and fometimes, with great Variety and Pomp: But doth not 
always exadly Collate or Compare them. It compares them, as they 
arePoiTible, or as they Appear; but not always, as they Are, So that 
upon every Step taken by Pliancy ; Collation goes along with it. Be- 
ing as a Guard, by which the Populacy of Senfe and Phanty, are kept 
Irom crowding in upon Reafon, in its Operation. 

13. VVherefore, in the Difquifition of Truth, a ready Phancy, is of 
great ufe -; provided, that Collation doth its Office. Without which, 
the better Phancy or Wit, any one hath, he is fo far from finding out 
of Truth, that he lies the more open to Error. 

i^. That v\ hich follows upon Collation, is Invention. Judgment or 
Opinion, if duly formed, in a remote and lels proper Senfe, may be 
called Invention. As when a Judge, or a Phyfician, makes an exac5t 
Enquiry into any Cafe : And fo, in mod Human Affairs. Wherein, 
through innumerable Circumftances, known and unknown, it'feldom hap- 
pens, That any Wife Man, can or will go further, than to give his Opi- 
nion of Things. Which, if done, upon all the Circumftances which are 
Examinable; he may be faid to have found out, though not certain, 
or dcmonltrable Truth ; yet the neerefl Approach that can be made to it, 
in things of this Nature. 

1 5. No Man therefore, can be a proper Judge of an other's A<flions, 
much lefs of thcfe of Princes, that omits any one Circumftance rela- 
ting to than. An exad: Judgment, being fo far, like a Mathema- 
tick Demonftration. The making whereof, may poffibly depend uport 

O Twen- 

tfo Of Intelle&Hal Mind. Book 11, 

Twenty Propofitions to be predemonftrated : the omitting of any one 
of which, will make the whole Operation to be foolifli. 

1 6. Invention, properly fo called, is the Termination of the Mind 
upon Truth. Which we come to. Three ways ; By Senfe, By firfl: The- 
oremes, or by Confequence upon both or either of thefe grounds. 

17. By Senfe : For though fome Men's Senfes are flronger, than of 
others : Yet the different degree of Strength, alters not the Species. 
What one Man fees to be White, or Triangular ; feems not to an other , 
to be Black, or Square. All OlServations in Anatomy, and divers other 
Arts and Sciences, are from the Evidence of Senfe. And what are all 
Mechanick W'orks, but the Senfible Exhibition of Mathematick De- 
monflrations ? No Man therefore, can be more fure of any Senfible 
Thing, than of that, wherein all Men's Senfes agree. 

18. By firfl Theoremes: as, the Whole, is greater than a Part; and 
others alike. Some of which, are alfo grounded on the Perceptions of 
Senfe. For, to fay, the Whole, is greater than a Part; is the fame, 
with refped: to Quantity, as with relpecft to Figure, to fay, a Triangle, 
is not a Square. Therefore thefe, and other like Theoremes^ are Com- 
pendiums of the particulars of Senfe. 

19. Or by Confequence upon both, or either of the former Grounds. 
Taking in, not only Theoremes^ whjch are grounded upon Senfe; but 
fuch alfo, as are Originally and Purely Intelledtual : As, There never, 
could be nothing. For all manner of Mathematick Proof it felf, is 
Confequential ; either on the Senfe, or the firfl Theoremes we have of 
Things. So that Things are as certainly knowable, by any fort of 
good Confequence, as by the Mathematick. 

20. Therefore alfo, the received ^/"/^oa-z/w, ^od facit tiotum^ eft ma^ 
gis mtum; is an Error. For, to fay, that one Thing, is lefs known, 
than another : is to fay, it is not known, but fuppofed. For there can 
be no Magis and Minus, in the Certitude we have of Things, whether 
by Mathematick Demonflration, or any other way of Confequence. Of 
which Confequence, if there be no Doubt ; then nothing can be more 
known : And if there be ; it can be no Confequence, to him that 

21. Whence alfo, to deny or queflion the Being of every thing, 
whereof we have not a Senfible, or a Mathematick Proof: is abfurdly 
to Limit the Operation of Reafcn. The Exiflence of the Deity, and 
of many other things, being as firongly proved, by one way of Con- 
fequence ; as any Mathematick Propofition is , ot can be, by an 

2x. But albeit there is an Equal Certitude, in all Knowledge truly fo 
call'd : Yet the Compafs it takes, is very different. That is to lay, 
Demonflration and Comprehenlion, are two Things. So, for Exam- 
ple, in Bufinefs; the Knowledge of any one Way, to attein a propofed 
End; may be called, Demonflration. But Comprehenfion, istheKnow- 
legeof all the Ways, and of that among them, which is the Befl. So 
likewife, in Speculation, one may know the Truth, or Demonflrate the 
Being of a Tiling; who doth not Comprehend either the Reafon, or 
the Nature of it, or of its Relation unto other Things. The Proof of 
that Propofition, that the three Angles of every Rectilinear Triangle, 
are equal to two Right Angles; depends upon a Series of prece- 
dent Propofitions. But the Reafon of it, in fliort, is becaufe the An- 

Chap. IV. Oflntelle&HalMwd. 51 

gles of every two fucli Triangles, are equal either to thoie of a Square, 

ror equal to thofe of a Parallelogram, equal to thofc of a Square. Yet 
the Propofition may be proved, without knowing the cleerefi: and mofl; 
kpparent Reafon of it. 
23. The 35^/7 Propofition of the \fl o't Euclid, That any two Paralle- 
lograms, made upon the fame Ba{e, and within the fame Parallel Lines, 
are of equal Content: Might be hinted to the Author, in feeing, that 
in drawing out the Parallelogram, what it gains in Length, it lofes in 
Breadth. But whether it was, or noj the Propofition, is nevertheless 
True, nor everthelefs Demonilrable. So like wife the Truth of any 
Rule in Arithmetick, or of any Operation according to it, may be 
proved, by one who underflands not at all, how the Rule comes to ope- 
rate as it doth. 

1^, In like manner, theDemonftration of the Nature of the Deity, 
fb far as contained in the firft Cliapter of this Work: is neverthelefs 
True, though it be a Demonftration of the Being of that Nature, which 
is Incomprehenfible. We can Demonftrate the Being, of God's Eter- 
nity. But who can Comprehend it ? So likewife, we can Demonftrate 
the Being of his Eternal Ideas ; and their Coexiftence with him ; as I 
have there alfo done. But who can Comprehend the Manner of it ? 
Cr any Mode of Infinity, or of Divine Exigence, unlefs we our felves 
were Infinite .■^ 

25. Put the cafe further, thatfomefuch Objedions, fliould lie againft 
thefaid De.monftration, as are Infolvable. Yet is it, on the account of 
thefe Objedions, neverthelefs Valid. Becaufe every Demonftration , 
comes from certain Knowlege : But thefe Objedions, if there are any 
fuch, from Incomprehenfion, that is, from Ignorance. 

xL Upon Perception, follows Volition. As our Affedions, are the 
Volitions of Phancy ; fo Volition, may be faid to be the Afledion of 
the Intelled. 

xj. The Mode of the Will, which anfwers to Dubitation ; may be 
called, Sufpenfion. That which anfwers to Invention, Refolution. And 
that which in the Phantailick Will, is Obflinacy; isConftancy, in the 

x8. It mud needs therefore be,, that as the Affedions are fubordinate 
to the Phantaftick Perception ; fo the Intelledual Will, is to the Un- 
derftanding. That is, we can have no Free Will, properly fo called ; 
fo far as we can conceive, and exprefs our felves. The Will being al- 
ways at the Command of fome Reafon, or Appearance of Reafon, 
great or fmall. One cannot fo much as phantaftically choofe. Even or 
Odd, he thinks not why. Some Perception, anfwerable but to the zoth 
part of a Grain, may turn the Scale, that is, the Will, on either hand. 
And it is a more apparent Contradidion, to fuppofe the Will to be In- 
ledual ; and yet not to follow the didate of the Intelled. 

29. The Will may feem, at fome times, to be Superior to the Un- 
derftanding, or at leaft to lead the way. For before we underftand a 
thing well, we Refolve or Will, to ufe our Reafon, or to Confider. But 
ftill It is Reafon or Underftanding, that determines the Will in that 
Refolution , to confider , that is , to Doubt and Enquire. So that 
the Will, is no more but Plenipotentiary to the Majefty of Rea- 

30. But 

^2 Of Science, Book II. 

30. But becaufe the Acfts of Phancy, and of Intelled:, are often mix- 
ed, as hath been faid : Whenever the Phantaftick Will, prevails o- 
ver the Intelledual ; it takes away Dubitation, wherewith all Right Rea- 
fon begins. And confequently, the due Eftimation alfo of Good and 
Evil. As will further appear, in fpeaking next, of the Three chief En- 
dowments of Intelledual Mind, Science, V Vifdom, and Virtue : Where- 
of in their Order. 

C H A P. V. 

Of Science.^HE Proper, and the Neceflary Objedb of the Underftanding, 

J_ is Truth. It is the Proper Objedl; becaufe the Mind, can 
therein only acquiefce. For one may perceive a Hundred Fallhoods, 
without perceiving the Truth. But if Truth be once perceived, we 
do thereby alfo perceive, vvhatfoever is Falfe in contradiction to it. 

■L. And it is the Neceflary Objed: of the Underflanding. Even' in 
the Perception of Falfliood : Which cannot be faid, to have a con- 
nexion with the Underflanding. For that is as much as to fay, a Thing 
may be underftood Falfly. 

9. Truth, is the Agreement of Things. Whether Verbal, Mental, 
or Real. When Words agree with Conceptions, they make a True 
Speech, When with other Things, a True Propofition. When 
Conceptions agree with Words, they make a True Intent. When 
with other Things, a True Theoreme. When Things agree with 
Conceptions, they make a True Operation. And fo likewife doth the 
agreement of Things with Things. 

4, Theoremick Truth, or that which lies in the Conceptions we have 
of Things, is Negative, or Pofitive. That Gold is heavier than Quick- 
filver ; is Truth : And feems to be a Pofitive or Definitive form of 
Speech. But doth indeed exprefs no more, than Two Negative Con^ 
ceptions : wz, that Gold is neither Lighter than Quickfilver, Nor of 
Equal Weight. But if wc fay, or know, that the Weight of Gold, 
to that of Quickfilver, is as 9 to 8 ; it is Pofitive or Dehnitive Truth. 
And is that chiefly, of which Science and Wifdom are produced. 
The fornier, as it is feen in the Eflcnce of Things ; the latter as in their 

^. The Eilence of a Thing, is the Ratio of its Being. And the Idea 
or adequate Perception of this Ratio, is a Definition of it. Which 
/^ftf, ought there! ore, to have thel'e two Conditions; To be Precife, 
and Comprehenfive. That is. To take in, nothing more, nor any 
thing lefs, than what belongeth to the Nature of every Thing. 

6. In every Eflence, is contcined, a G(f»«a ; or that Part of the Whole, 
which it hath in common, with other Eflences. And a Difference j or 
that Part of the Whole, which it hath in Special to it felf, and where- 
by it is diflinguilhed from all others. 

7. Where- 

Chap. V. Of Science. 55 

7. Wherefore the Genus of a Thing, however fome may think the 
contrary, is really exiilent in the thing defined. And is the foundation 
of that, which is properly called, Generality ; which exil1:eth only as a 
Conception of the Mind. And therein it really doth, or thaf Word 
had never been thought of. As for Example ; the Animal Nature, 
quateniu Animal, is the fame Nature, Eadem Natura^ in a Bead, or a 
Bird, as in a Man. But it is Unica Natura^ or Animality, only as we 
have one Numerical Conception of it. 

8. Of thofe things, which are more Simple, or Senfible, we are able 
to think more adequately. That is, to allign the Eflential Agreement, 
and Difference, that is between them : And fo to form and exprefs a 
more perfed Definition of their Entire Eflence. As in Geometry; 
wherein we have little more to confider , befides Quantity and 

9. In the confideration of Quantity, we abftrad: even from Corpo- 
reity. We can, and we mud do it. We can, in Conception, di- 
llinguifli between the Quantity and the Matter. That is, though we 
cannot conceive a Body to exift, without Quantity; yet we can con- 
ceive of Body and Quantity, as of two Things. For neither can we 
conceive a Body to cxifl, without Figure. If then Body and Quanti- 
tit)', are one Thing, becaufe Body cannot exift without Quantity : 
then alfo, for the fame Reafon, Body and Figure, are one. That is. 
Quantity and Figure, are one. But who will fay that ? 

10. And we muft do it. For otherwife, we could have no true Con- 
ception of a Surface, or a Line, or a Poynt. For a Surface, to give it 
a Pofitive Definition, is a Broad Uhi : That is. Quantity having Breadth, 
without any Thicknefs ; And confequently, without any Corporeity. 
A Line, is a Long C//5/ : Having no part of Thicknefs, or Breadth. And 
a Poynt, is <in Unextended uli. But without a true Conception of 
thefe, neither can we have a true Conception of any one Demonftrati- 
on relating to Continual Quantity. But on the contrary, fuch as would 
lead us into infinite Error. For the Leafl: Error in a Small Quantity, as 
in a Small Circle ; will, in a great one, as in the Circles of the Heaven- 
ly Orbs, be proportionally Magnify 'd. 

1 1 . The Regular Relation of one Quantity to another, is alfo Defina- 
ble. This is Threefold ; Equality, Proportionality, and Commenfurabi- 
lity. Equality, is the Identity or (amenefs of Quantities. So, in Right- 
angled Triangles, the Square of the Hypothenufa^ is equal to the Squares 
of both the other Sides. The Equality, is Real Truth : And theDemon- 
ftration of it, is Mental Truth, or a True Theoreme. 

I X. Proportionality, is the Equal Syntaxis of Quantities or Numbers 
Unequal. Either by Addition, as in z, 4, 6 : Or by Multiplication , as 
in X, 6, 18 ; or in z, 6, 4, 12. In all which, there are Unequal Numbers, 
Equally augmented. 

I ^. Commenfurability, is when two or more Numbers or Quantities, 
are Divifible into Equal Parts, by one Common Number or Meafure. So 
9, 21, and ^o, are all divifible into Equal Parts by Three. 

14. Quantity and Pofition, make Figure. Which is bounded either 
Entirely, or in Part. A Figure may be faid to be bounded in part, when • 
it is comprehended between two Lines, without refped: to the ends of 
the Figure, or the Lines, which may be drawn out Infinitely. Either 
at an Equal Diftance, as in a Ribband : Or from a Poynt, as in an 

P Angle. 

j-^. Of Science, Book II. 

Angle. The feveral Species of Regular Figures Entirely enclofed, both 
Plain and Solid, are all in a manner very well defined. 

If. The Relation of Figures, is Twofold, Similitude, and Coex- 
iflence. The Similitude of Figures, lyeth in the Equality of their An- 
gles, and the Proportionality of their Sides. They may therefore be Alike, 
tho' they differ in Quantity, Infinitely. 

1 6. Coexillence, is when one Figure is refoluble into another j as all 
Re(fJilinear Figures, are into Triangles. 

17. The Compounded, Invifible, and Vital Effences of Things, are 
none of them Definable. For Inftance : we know, that the Fibers of a 
Mufcule, are divifible from greater to lefs, beyond the fmallnefs of a 
Spiders Thread. And by a Glafs, may podibly difcern where the Divifi- 
on ends. We know too, hy xhtChymkal Analy ft s of a Mufcule, that 
it is compounded of divers kinds of Principles. But of w hat juft Num- 
ber they are, or in what precife manner, they are Mixed together, To 
as to give a Fiber, Extenfibility , and all its other Qualities, who 
can fay ? 

18. In the Chapter Of Principles^ I have proved, that the Atomes of 
every Principle, have a certain peculiar and Immutable Cize and Fi- 
gure. But the jufl; Cize of any one ; or how far the Cize of one, may 
differ from that of another, we know not. And fo of their Figures ; 
we know, that all Salts are Angular ; with Obtufe, Right, or Acute An- 
gles. Some making, a Prifme, others a Table, and others a Cube. But 
whether the Salts which appear with thefe Angles and Figures, are com- 
pofed of Similar Atomes, we know not, as in the end of the aforefaid 
Chapter is alfo faid. 

19. And for the Eflence of Vital Principles, we are yet more in the 
dark : As having little more know lege hereof, than of their Operations. 
So that the Definitions, as they are called, of Compounded, and Vital 
Eflences : Are, in truth, no better, than certain Titles or Marks of Things, 
whereby they are diftinguiflied one from another. 

xo. To inftance in that celebrated one, of a Man, that he is^ Ani- 
mal Rationale. Which is fo far from being a Definition, that 'tis hardly 
a good Mark. In that Brutes have a fort of Fhantaftick Reaibn. Upon 
which account, 'twere a better Title, to fay, he is Animal Intelleduale. 
And it alfo includetli, his being Religious : which he therefore is, be- 
caufe Intelledual. 

XI. Neither is, Intelledual, any more than a good Mark. A Golden 
Bell, hung about Animal's Neck ; but not the Definition of a Man. For 
fmce we have not a Definitive Knowlege of his Vital and Corporeal 
Parts: Neither can we have it, of the Whole. That is to fay, an /^e^, 
as adequate to the ElTence of a Man ; as the Idea of a Solid, compre- 
hended between Plain Figures produced from a Plain to a Poynt, is a- 
dequate to the Eflence of a Pyramid, 

XX. Am I then asked fertile Definition? I anfwer. That where the 
Knife ends, Glaffes begin ; and w here Glalfes end, the Fire begins, and 
all other Chymical ways of Analyfs ; and where thefe end, Reafon be- 
gins : wherewith we mud go as far as we can, towards an Idea of his 
, Corporeal Parts, as the one Half of it j and of his Vital, as the o- 
ther. Aiid fo of every other Vital , Invifible, or Compounded Ef- 

x3. And 

C H A P. V. Of Science. 55 

x^. And as for Figure and Quantity themfelves; albeit the Ideas we 
have of them, come nearer to perfe^ion, than thofe we have of modt 
other Things, as hath been faid : Yet are they not abfolutely perfedt and 

24. Not of Figure. We cannot conceive, how the Perimeter of a 
Circle, or other Curve-Figure^ can be or confift, without being Infinite- 
ly Angular. For the Parts of a Line, are Lines. But we cannot con- 
ceive, how thefe Lines, can have, as here, a different Diredion ,• and 
therefore an Inclination; without making an Angle. And yet to fup- 
pofe a Circle to be Angular ; is to deftroy the Definition of a Circle, and 
the Theoremes hereupon depending- 

x^. If two Circles be defcribed upon one Centre : tlie Perimeters^ by 
this Conflrudlion, are in every Part, Equidiftant. Therefore, to eve* 
ry Part, in the greater Circle, there is an anfwerable Equidiftant Part 
in thelefs. And therefore, the lefs would be inferr'd, equal to the greater. 

x6. Tangent Lines, are luppofed, and faid, toTouch onlyin aPoynt. 
But to fay, two Lines Touch, and yet in no Part ; is fo far a Contra- 
didlion, that no Mathematick Grammar will explain it. We have a 
conceit of it; yet not fo clear, as that a proper word has ever yet been 
invented for it. 

xj. It is certain, that the Angle of Contad, is lefs than anyRediili- 
near Angle can be, how fmall foever Infinitely. That is to fay, lefsthan 
Infinitely fmall. 

28. Afymptote Lines ^ though they may approach ftill nearer together, 
till they are nearer, than the leaft ailignable Diftance : Yet being ftill pro- 
duced Infinitely, will never meet. 

zp. Let a Radius be moved, as a Radius^ upon a Circle. Whetlier 
we fuppofe it to be wholly moved, or in part; the Suppofition will 
bring us to an abfurdity. If it be in fome part wox;^»^, and in fome part 
quiejcent; it mufl: needs be a Curve-Line^ and fo, no Radius. If it be 
wholly movent ; then it either moves about, or upon the Centre, If it 
moves about it, it comes Ihort of it; and fo again, is no Radius. Nor 
can it move upon it ; becaufe, all Motion having Parts, there can be no 
Motion upon a Poynt. 

30. By which, and other like Inftances, it is mofl: evident. That al! 
Mankind are in the dark, as to the Ultimate Parts, not only of Curve- 
Lines^ but of Quantity, and of Motion, as it hath Succelfive Quantity. 
And therefore , that we have no Adequate Conception of their 
Nature. For if we had, we fhould then be able to folve all thofe 
Difficulties relating to them. So that there is hardly any one 
Thing in the World, the Etlence whereof, we can perfedly com- 

11. Flow much left, can we comprehend the Firfl: Caufe of every 
Thing ? Or any of thofe Perfedions, which are of neceflity belonging 
to him ? For the 'Being whereof, we have, neverthelefs, as good Evi- 
dence ; as we have tor the Being of Quantity, Figure, or Motion, 
or any thing elfe whatfoever, though we cannot comprehend them* • 

■\ 1. But albeit, we are able perfedly to comprehend, neither the De- 
ity, nor any other Being : Yet fo far as we can go, in the certain 
Knowlege of Things, Corporeal or Vital, Finite or Infinite : So far, 
we attem unto I'rue Science. And we Ihall go the farther, if ha- 
ving fixed the due Marks of Things ; we reft not here, as the Schools^ 


<r6 Of IVifdom. Book 11 

__J__ I _ _ . . ' II III - -- m-ir- I [ ■' I ■ I — I -r 

to the great hindrance of the Advancement of Knowlege, have done; 
but come as near as we can , to their True Definitions ; exiftent only in 

the Divine Ideas. 


Of Wifdom, 

I. A S Science, is properly that Knowlege, which relateth to the Ef- 
jt\ fences of Things : So Wifdom, to their Caufes and Operations, 
z. The Caufes of things, are ufually reckon'd, Four ; the Efficient, 
Matter, Form, and End : But not well. There is no Material, or For- 
mal Caufe, in the Senfe wherein thefe are taken. The Matter and Form 
of a Thing, being its Eflence. If then, the Matter and Form of a 
Thing, were the Caufes of it : It would be its own Caufe. And the 
Caufes and EfTed, would be all one. The End, 'tis true, is a Caufe. 
But no otherwife, than as it operates to the ufe of Means. But what- 
foever operateth to fome EfTedt, is an Efficient Caufe. And therefore, 
there can be no Caufe, but what is fuch. 

3. Of all Operation, there are Four Cardinal Caufes; Body, Senfe, 
Phancy, and Reafon. And the Quadruple Conjundion of each of thefe, 
produceth in all. Sixteen General Ways, of Operation. 

4. The iji Four Ways, are thofe of Body : viz. of Body upon Body, 
Body upon Senfe, Body upon Phancy, and Body upon Reafon. 

5-. The zr/ Four, are thofe of Senfe : vh. of Senfe upon Body, upon 
Senfe, upon Phancy, and upon Reafon. 

6. The 3<^ Four, are thofe of Phancy : viz. of Phancy upon Body, 
upon Senfe, upon Phancy, and upon Reafon. 

7. The 4//; Four, are thofe of Reafon : viz. of Reafon upon Body, 
upon Senfe, upon Phancy, and upon Reafon it felf. 

8. In the diftind Obfervation, and the Regular, and Ready Ufe, of 
thefe Operations, confifleth all the Wifdom of the World. 

9. The firfl kind of Operation, is that of Body upon Body. Which 
is performed three Ways ; by Bulk, Figure, and Pofition. Bulk operates, 
both to Motion, and to Refl. It operates to the Dire<5lion, and Acce- 
leration of Motion. For that which is greater, gravitates more : That 
is, tends more fteadily, to fbme one Poynt or Centre. And that which 
is greater, gives a Quicker Motion, to that which is lefs. For if the 
Quantity of the Motor , be double, to that which is Moved : the Ce- 
lerity of the Motion, in the Body Moved, will be double to that in the 
Motor. Becaufe, the Motion, which is fpread through all the Dimen- 
fions of a greater Body ; in a lefs, is Spun out in Length ,• that is, be- 
comes Quicker. 

10. Figure likewife operates both to Motion and Refl. A round Bo- 
dy, moves upon its Centre, with lefs refiflance from any contiguous 
Body, than one that is angular. An empty Bladder, though it gravi- 
tates no more, than when it is blown up, but fomewhat lefs : Yet des- 
cends more eafily, becaufe with lefs refiflance. 

II. And 



Chap. VI. Of mfdom. • 57 

II. And foPontion. For a le{$ Weight, being placed at a greater 
Diftance from the Centre of Gravity; will move a greater Weight, at 
a left. Becaufe, the Celerity of the Motion, in the lefs Weight; is 
Equal to the Bulk of the Motion, in the greater. On thefe Three, are 
grounded the greater part of Mechanick Operations. 

III. As are alfo the Motions of Animals. Where weareto confider, 
not only with a Phyfician, how the Strudure of the Parts, operates to 
the faid Motions, in every Man : but how the Mechanifm, that is, the 
Bulk and Figure of the Bone and Mufcules, and the Infertion of the 
Mufcule into tiie Bone, are more advantagious to fome certain Moti- 
ons, in one Man, tlian in another There being as much Variety, in« 
^ the other Parts of tlieBody, as in the Face it felf. And by Ufe, may 
j Wbe as eafily difcerned. From a due obfervation whereof, efpecially in 
' the Cheff, Arms, and Legs; we may learn to make a True Judg- 

' ment, for what fort of Corporeal Adtionor Employment, any Man is 

! bed made. 

I i^. On the Vifible Co-operation of thefe, with other Caufes, many 

I pifeafes likewife depend. As on the Straitnels of the Cheft, a Phthifts : 
On the Largenefs of the Veins, an Atrophy: On their Smallnefs, Obe- 
fity : On the fmallnefs of .the Jugular Veins, an Apoplexy : Of thofe 
near the Joynts, the Gout : Of the Emulgent, the Stone. And the 
Thinnefs of the Mufcules of the Abdomen, or of the Peritoneum, may 
be the occafion of a Rupture. And it is very probable, that moil 
Difeales, partly proceed, from Ibme either apparent or occult failure, in 
the Strudure of the Parts. 

14. Bulk, Figure, and Mixture, whereof Pofition is a Part, being the 
fame things in fmall Bodies, as in great; they have the fame Operation 
(uomodo^ in Atomes, oxthc Moleculaol Atomes themfelves. And there- 
fore in the Separation and Union, and in the Alteration and Generation 
Bof all Bodies. And fo too, of all Difeafes, whether from Caufes with- 
in the Body, or without in the Air and tieavens. 
15-. But the certain Modes of their Operation, for the mod part, are 
very obfcure. As, for inftance, in that of Rhuharh. Whereof, it may 
be asked. How it purges ? Whether only by Irritation in the Stomach 
and Guts? As only holding of ill-tafted Things in the Mouth, will 
make a fmall Salivation. Or alio, by pading thence into the Blood ? 
As from the yellow Colour it gives to the Urme, it is evident, that it 
doth, in fome part. Or by operating alfo upon the Nerves ? With the 
help whereof. Excretion, as well as other Animal Fundtions, is per- 
formed. Whether this Excretion, be performed by a bare Precipita- 
tion? Or alfo, by a Fermentation precedent to it? In regard, thatmoft 
Purees, Heat a little. And all of them. Work bell, that is, caufe the 
Blood fo to do, as do Fermenting Liquors, in warm Weather, or in a 
warm Room. Whether it operates firit, upon fome one Humour, and 
by that, upon the whole 'Mafs ? As Nitrous Acids do, upon the Salt 
conteined in the Bezoar Stone, and thereby diflblve the whole Sub- 
fiance. Whether on the Chyle, or the Gall, or the Lympha, or chiefly 
on the Arterial, that is, t\\Q Aerial Blood > As there it meets with Cer- 
tain finer and more adive parts of the Air, fo necelTary unto all Fermen- 
tation : With other Query's of the like kind. The refoktion whereof, 
whether relating to this, or any other Medicine, we can no further rtach ; 
than we can the E(Iences of Bodies, whereupon their Operations do depends 

Q^ 16. Bui 

Of Wifdom Book II. 

16. But it fufficeth to denominate a Man Wife or Prudent, if he is 
fo far fure of the Operation of this, or other Body ; as to know how 
to ufe it, and herein to anfwer his End. If he hath no further In- 
tent, than meerly, to Purgtf: 'tis enough, though he knows no more 
of Rhuharh^ but that it will Purge. But if he would have fuch a 
Medicine, as will Bind, as well as Purge: He muft know too, that 
Rhuharh will do both. And if he would Purge more, and Bind lefs ; 
or Bind more, and Purge lefs; he mufl further know, how to fepa- 
rate the Purging Parts, from the Binding. That by one ihort Infufion, 
the Menjlruum will imbibe little more than the Purging Parts. But that 
this Tindture being thrown away, by a Second and longer Infufion, 
another Tindture may be made, of thofe Parts vuhich are Binding : Or^ 
that the Rhuharh it felf, after it has been Infus'd, will have the fam^ 
effed: : which is enough, to anfwer the End he purpofeth to himfelf. 
And fo in the ufe of any other Medicine, or of any other Body. Of 
the Operation whereof, though the putting of all the Queries we can 
think of, as it promoteth the Search or Inveftigation of Truth, is fo far 
commendable ; yet the Style of Wifdom, belongeth to that only, which 
terminateth xipon Truth it felf. 

17. The Second general way of Operation, is that of Body upon 
Senfe : which I have already explain'd, in the Chapter of Senfe j where- 
unto, to avoid Repetition, the Reader is refer'd. 

18. The Third general way of Operation, is that of Body upon 
Phancy. Either by Mediation of the Organs of Senfe ; or by imme- 
diate Impreffions from the Images of Phancy, Apt to make thefe Im- 

, preflions two ways. Partly, by the Humors, whereof they are made ; 
fuggefting anfwerable Conceits of Fire, or Water, Anger, Mirth, or 
Melancholy, according to the Conftitution, or the Difeaie of every 
Man. And partly, by the Brain, the Shop of thefe Images: by the 
Bulk, and Strudure whereof, they are differently qualified. 

19. By thefe means, Phancy is more or lefs Confufed, or Cleer; 
W^eak, or Strong J Plentiful, or Jejune. Cleer, from the Purity of the 
Humors. Strong, from the Dominion of fome one Humor. Copious, 
from the Bulk of the Brain ; whereby there is more room for Stow- 
age. Thofe therefore, who have a Head of a larger Cize, cteteris pa- 
ribus^ may be fuppofed, to have a greater Memory, or fome other 
more plentiful Phancy. 

10. The Cleernefs of Phancy, dependeth not only on the Cleannefs 
of the Humors ; but alfo, on the Regular Strudure of the Brain, hs 
being, hereby fitted, for a more Regular Reception and Compofition, of 
all Impreffions. For as in Rickety Children, the Limbs, and loraetimes 
the Vifcera are deformed : So in Fools, the Brain it felf. And though 
the Deformity is not eafily noted in other People : Yet as every Exter- 
nal r Part, fo undoubtedly the Brain it felf, is more or lefs regularly 
formed with great Variety. And as the fmalleft difference, almoft of 
a Hair's breadth, will alter the Vifible Symmetry of the Face : So the 
like difference, mufl in an equal degree, abate from the exad Symme- 
try of the Brain : And fo, from the Perfpicuity of the Phancy. And 
fo far as this difference extends, every Man is born, a Wit or a Wood- 

XI. Yet fome there are, who though they were Blockheads, when 
Boys ; have become Men of great AbiUties. As fome Children, Itrangely 



Chap, VI. Of mfdom 5^ 

out-grow the Rickets. And fome Ill-favour 'd Girls, being grown Wo- 
men, have been famed for their Beauty. So the Afymmetries of the 
Brain, as well as the Deformities of the Leggs or Face, may be rediify'd 
in time. 

%%. The Fourth general way of Operation, is that of Body upon 
Reafon. Yet this way, is only by xVIediation of Senfc and Phancy. For 
though we may have tlie Conception of a Body, without the prefent 
Sight of it : Yet we cannot argue of a Body, without a prefent Con- 
ception of it. So far therefore, as Body operates upon Senfe and Phan- 
cy ; it may likewife operate by thefe, upon Reafon. ' Yet not thefame 
way; but according to their (everal Natures: as in fpeaking of the Ope- 
rations of Senfe and Phancy, will appear. 

x^. The next Cardinal Caufe, is Senfe: which hath alfo Four ways of 
Operation : The Firll, is that of Senfe upon Body. Not only by Me- 
diation of Phancy ; as when a Man falls a Vomiting, in feeing another 
Vomit : but in returning the Impreflions it receives, Natural or Preterna- 
tural, upon Body it felf. So any llrong Pain, caufeth Groans, Cold Sweats, 
Lipothymies; alters the Pulfe, and foroetimes puts one into zFeaver, 
So likewife Tickling, will caufe a Convulfive Laughter, and other In- 
voluntary Motions. And therefore, fuch as are not the eiiecl; of the Will 
or Phancy, but of meer Senfe. 

x4. Senie alfo operates upon Senfe. For the mofl part in Co-opera- 
tion with Phancy : So, as one Senfe may alter, or weaken another, and 
fometimes extinguidi it. A Difh of Meat, well Dreft; that is, if it Looks 
■well, will Tafte the better. A good Voice, or a graceful Mien, will 
compound for the Faults of a Face. Mufick or good Company, will 
eafe Pains. That is, Hearing, or Seeing, will call off the Phancy, from 
the Senleof Touch. And in the Tooth-ach^ the Sight of a Barbar, will 
have the fame Effed. Phancy or Fear, doth indeed co-operate ; but 
is not ftrong enough to produce that EffedJ, without the prefent Sight. 

2-^. Hither may be refer'd, the force of Long ulage, upon any kind 
of Senfe. VVhich may alter it fo far, as to make that, which was at 
firft Intolerable, to be Grateful, or at leafl Tolerable ; as fome Tafls and 
Scents. And fome Men, have hereby brought th^mlelves, to endure any 
fort of Pains. 

7.6. That Senfe operates upon Phancy, appears in the precedent In- 
mces. Every Senfe operates to Conceptions of the fame, or a diffe- 
3nt Species. Of the fame ; as Sight doth, to the Phancy of Colour ; 
whereof one may have a true Conception, when he Sqgs it not. Or of 
a different ; as when, upon the Sight of a Man, we remember his Name, 
wl'iich we have formerly heard, but had forgot. 

7.J. But every Senfe, doth not operate upon Phancy, with the fame 
force. The Conceipts of Vifibles, are Cleerer and Stronger, thanthofe 
of Audibles. By reading a Word or Sentence, we can remember it 
better, than only by hearing it. And they are much flronger, *than 
thofe we have of any other Senfe. And hence it is, that no Man ever 
Dreams, he is in Pain : Except he is, and finds he is indeed, when he 
awakes. But we often Dream, that we Hear and See, what we do not. 
So too, one that is Hungry, or goes to Bed failing, may Dream, he 
fees a fine Dinner; but not that he is Eating and Tailing the Sweetnefs 
of it. 

* *8i Senfe 

6o Of Wffdom. Book IJ. 

z8. Senfe likewife co-operates with Pliancy, upon Reafonit felf ; ei- 
ther in hindering, or furthering the Ule of it. Eating, Drinking, Spor- 
ting, Mufick, Vetiery, give us Inftances every where, that Senfe is 
many times of that force, as to controul, or fufpend it. Whereas the 
Privations of Senfe, as Stilnefs, Darknefs, Eafinefs, are all ufeful to it. 
And fo is Senfe it felf, if kept within bounds. Good Mufick, or Com- 
pany, a Convenient Room, or a Pleafant Walk, will fometimes help ' to 
compofe ones Thoughts. Becaufe, Senfe it felf, if grateful, and 
bounded, confifteth, as all Right Reafon, in Uniformity and Pro- 

29. Hereupon, in part, dependeth the force of Beauty. For in every 
good Face, as each Part hath a Symmetry of its own ; fo there is a 
Symmetry of double or treble Proportion, between one Part and ano- 
ther, and between one and every other Part : Which together, in the 
feveral Parts, make an innumerable Variety of proportional Mca- 
, 50. Nor are Cloathes without their Effed:. The Symmetry whereof 

Phancy appropriates to the Wearer ; tacking them to the Body, as if 
they belonged to it. As Nature hath done Hair and Feathers; the 
Cloaths which Beafts and Birds do wear^ And the Garbs and En- 
figns of Power and Honor, have this Operation ; that they help Peo- 
ple to look' upon Power and Honor, as Sacred Things, whatever they 
think of thofe that have them. And they operate upon thefe too 
as well as the People : Minding them, that they ought to diflinguilh 
themfelves from the Vulgar, as much by the Habits of their Mind, 
as thofe of their Body. From the Confideration whereof, Prudent 
Men became the Authors of fuch Diftindtions. 

31. The Operation of Speech is alfoflrong. Not only from the Rea- 
fon or Wit therein contain'd, but by its Sound. For in all good Speech, 
there is a fort of Mufick; with refped to its Meafure, Time, and 
Tune. Every well-meafured Sentence is proportional Three ways ; In 
all its Parts, To other Sentences, And to what it is intended to exprefs. 
And all Words, have that Time allow'd to their Syllables, as isfuitableto 
the Letters whereof they confill, and to the Order wherein they fland * 
in a Sentence. Nor are Words without their Tones or Notes, even in 
Common Talk : which together, compofe that Tune, which is proper 
to every Sentence : and may be prick'd down, as well as any Mufical 
Tune. Only in the Tunes of Speech, the Notes have much lefs Va- 
riety, and have all a lliort Time. With refped alfo to Time and 
Meafure, the Poetick is lefs Various, and therefore lefs Powerful, than 
that of Oratory. The former , being like that of a fliort Country 
Song, repeated to the end of the Poem. But that of Oratory, is va- 
ried all along, like the Divifions which a skilful Mufician runs upon a 

32,. The Behaviour or Gefture, is alfo of force: as in Oratory, fo 
in common Converfe, Confifting of almofl: as many Motions, as 
• there are moveable Parts of the Body. And all made, with a cer- 
tain agreeable Meafure between one another. And at the fame time, 
anfwerable to that of Speech. Which, when eafie and unafieded, is 
, becoming. 

33. The Third Cardinal Caufe, is Phancy. Which alfo operates 
Four Ways. Firft, upon Body ; as in all manner of Voluntary Moti- 

Chap. VI Of Wifdom. ^ 6i 


bns. Unto which, Phancy diredls us, whether we are awake or afleep. 
It hath likewife fome Power over thefe, which are fnvoluntary. So 
Love and other Paflions, will .fometimes alter the Pulfe. And fome 
find an Inclination to make water, when they are in Fear. 

^4. It likewife aiTifteth in the bufinefs of Generation. Always in 
order to Coition. And in the Formation of the Fcetus. And fome- 
times in ftigmatizing it v\ith feveral forts of Marks. 

35'. As alio in the Produdion of Difeafes. Confumptions often come 
with Grief. From Venereal L.ove, Madnefs , and Hyfterick Fits. 
Which many times happen, not becaufe the Phancy, is vitiated by the 
Humours ; but the Humours, by the Phancy. For neither a Dog, the moil 
obfcene, nor a Horfe, the moil Luftful of Quadrupeds, having none of 
thofe Phancies, which Men and Women have, is ever fubjedt to 
thefe Difeafes. Some Children have become Fools, or Mad, with a 
great Fright. There is fcarce any fort of violent PafiTion, but there 
arc Inftances, therein it hath been the Occafion of fudden Death. 
Sometimes the. Effect of Joy it felf. Probably, not of that alone, 
but when befet with Fear, left the Joy (hould arife upon a falfe 

36. Nor is Phancy unconcern'd in the Cure of them. A Fright 
alone, hath fometimes put by an Ague-fit. And mitigated a Fit of 
the Gout. The Diforders which arife from Melancholiy, by Chear- 
fulnefs are amended, Mofl Medicines operate, and Difeafes end, the 
better, when the Patient is Calm, and of a good Courage. For 
moft of the Internal Parts, the Heart, Lungs, Stomach, Guts, and 
Urinary Bladder ; Arteries, Veins, and the Canales of all the Vifcera ; 
one half of the Spleen, and of the Reins, being in fome fort Mufcu- 
lar , as in the Of Compomded Bodies Bodies, hath been fliewed : It 
Ihould not feem llrange, that Phancy, which hath fo great a power 
over the Mufcules of the External Parts; may fo far alfo govern the 
Internals, as thefe are Mufcular; and coniequently the Humours, which 
are under their Command. 

37. Phancy alfo operates upon Senfe. Not only in the forementio- 
ned Cafes, wherein it mediates between Senfe and Senfe : but of it felf 
alone. Sometimes to the Diminution of Senfe. So a ftrong Conceit 
of Eale or Pleafure to come, will" diminifh Pain. And fometimes to 
the Encreale of Senfe, as of Pain : For a ftrong Conceit of Pain, is 
Pain. So that when it comes, it is doubled ; both phancied and felt. 
From whence it is, that Brutes and brutilli Men, are commonly more able 
to bear Pain, than others. 

38. In fome Cafes, Phancy may operate to the Creation of Senfe. 
It may be as ftrong in Men, awake, as in a Dream. When through 
Fear, or Surprize, they may think they fee, what they fee not. 
Whereunto, we are to refer, the far greater Part of fuppofed Appa- 

. ^9. But it fhews the wonderful Goodnefs of the Creator, in fo con- 
triving the Communication of Senfe and Phancy ; that the Conceits of 
Pain and Pleafure, are nothing near fo ftrong, as thofe of Hearing and 
Sight. Which if they were, we fliould either have been vexed uith E- 
verlafting Defires, or tormented with intolerable Fears ; and the whole 
World would foon have run mad. 

R 40, Phan- 

62^ OfWijdom. Book a 

,1 ■ ... — - .. . . ■■ ■ . 

40. Pliancy likewife operates upon Phancy. Oftentimes to its Dimi- 
nution. As when Children are tempted to take Phyfick, by the pro- 
mife of a Bawble : the Conceit of a fine Sight, extinguifliing that of 
an Odious Tafle. 

41. Hereupon is grounded the befl Cure of any Paflion. For few Peo- 
ple having Reafon enough to maftcr their Conceits : the ready way, is to 
fet one Conceit, to mailer another. So if a Man would marry his 
Children xo his Mind, let him fliew them all the Town : thereby keep- 
ing their Conceits at an. equal Poize, till his own Advice turns the 
Scale. And it is the principal Means, whereby prudent Men govern 
the Phancies of People in moll other Cafes. 

4z. And Phancy will many times beget and enlarge Phancy. By Con- 
nexion ; if one would call to mind a forgotten Name, in running over 
the Alphabet, we are fure to meet with the firft Letter, which will bring 
in the reft. By Similitude, one Conceit will introduce many more ,• and 
each of thefe, the like : as st Tree, that divides it felf into innumerable 
Branches : The Conceits too of Senfible Things, beget anfwerable Con- 
ceits of Infenfibles : atid fo, vice verfi. The matching whereof, is the 
Touch-ftone of all true Wit, 

43. The ftrengthof Phancy, likewife operates to its Agility. That is. 
Confidence, operates to Wit. Therefore fome bold Men, tho' they begin 
with Infinite Ignorance and Error ; yet by fpurring on, refine them- 

44. Hence alfo, even an underftanding Man, may be modeft to a finlt. 
He may have Wit enough, to obferve, 1 hat lefler Errors, may be forgot 
in time, or amended by Ufe : Vet cannot prevail with hifnfelf, to ven- 
ture on. 

45. The Phancy likewife of one Perfon, operates on that of another. 
So l.ove and other Palfions, beget their kind : without the Knowledge 
of which, Senfe alone will not do it. A Lover, may be extreamly plea- 
fed, with the Leave of his Miftrefs, to put off her Bodice, or put on her 
Shoes : But a Shoemaker, or a Tailor, is not at all concerned at it ; be- 
caufe he knows, there is nothing of Favour in the Cafe. 

46. This being confidered, and withal, the Subtilty of Body, and 
the Nicety of Motion, beyond all Thought : and that Phancy and 
Body, do Co-operate and Sympathize, as well as Senfe and Body; 
as hath been fhewed: It feems not impoflible, that the Phancy of 
one Perfon, though not difcovered, may by means of fome Subtile 
Intervening Fluid, bind the Phancy of another. Provided, that the 
Phancy of the Agent be ftrong, and the Reafon of the Patient weak, 
and the diftance between them not over-great. And hereupon depen- 
deth tU Natural Magick, fo far as we can fuppofe it to have any 

47. Nor is Phancy, without its Operation upon Reafon : and that 
fundry ways, both to the Improvement, and the Diminution of it. Phan- 
cy may improve Reafon, by its perceptive Adts : or, as it furnifheth 
us with plenty of Materials, that is, of Conceits, for Reafon to work 
upon. \et plenty of Phancy, doth not always operate to plenty of 
Reafon : but if falfe, or confufed, unto Errour. And therefore tho' 
a big Head or Brain, cceteris paribus, may be a Mark of a well-fur- 
nifht Phancy : Yet is no certain Argument, of an exad Judgment : 
which depends more upon the Regular Structure, than Bulk of the Brain. 


Chap. VI. Of Wifdom, 65 

. - — — — . — . — : — ' ; — ■ 

48.- And Phancy may operate upon Reafon, by its A&.5 of Volition. 
As Reafon is, in a fort, held in cuftody by thofe Things, which are 
more pleafing to the Phancy. Reafon and Phancy feldom failing to 
bear one another Company, as Husband and Wife. 

49. Whence, as every Man hath his Faculty or Talent ; Co alfo his 
Phancy, by which he governs hiaifelf more or lefs ; and by which he 

is therefore to be governed, or made ufe of. That is, as his Faculty is » 

the Edge, that makes the Work : fo his Phancy is the Handle, by which 
he is to be held. ; 

50. Among other Phancies, Four efpecially, are many times fuperior 
unto Reafon. Wit, Opinion, Love, and Pride. •,..•; 

^i. As Pronunciation and Figures are the Mufick of Speech :fo 
Tropes, and other Modes of Wit , are the Mufick of Phancy. 
Wherein the Conceptions of Things, are placed, in their feveralDe^ 
grees of Similitude, as in feveral proportions, one to another: In 
which harmonious Chimes, the Voice of Reafon is often drowned, 

5 i. Hence it is, that few Men of extraordinary Judgment, affed In- 
ventive Poetry. Hethat pleafeS himfelf over-miich, with Surface and 
Colour ; his own Wit, or anothcrs : \\\\\ feldom look, w^iin^ n^uch lefs 
to the Centre of Things. ,' - r ' 

5V On the other hand too, it may often be prefumed. That one 
who can artificially manage the Similitudes of Truth, is alfo Mafter 
of Truth it feU. Whether therefore. Wit be ufed in the behalf of 
Reafon, or againfl: it ; it ufually proves, in all Diifcourfe, the Artillery 
of a good Argument ; and in all Bufmefs, the Equipage of a good 

54. Opinion, whether of a Man's felf, or another, of Perfons or 
Things ; may have more Force, than Wit. Becaufe it always pretends 
to Reafon, which Wit fometimes doth not. In fo much, that fome, 
will think well of themfelves, in that , wherein they are univerfally 
condemned. And the felf-fame Words and Adlions , may be ap- 
plauded or cehfured , as the Perfons are elleemed, to whom they 

5 J. Many things beget Opinion. So doth Novelty. Wit it felf, 
if Hale, is lefs taking. A State-Device will often pafs for Novelty's 
fake, tho' it be underftood. -So doth want of Experience: as alfo ear- 
ly or long Cullom. Therefore, of all Opinions, fome of thofc, we lay 
up in our Younger Years, are m6fl prevailing. As being firfl: fown, 
having time to take root, and Room to fpread themfelves. So as not 
only to abide the Encounters of Reafon; but by thefe, to grow 
the ftronger : as fome Knots hold the fafter, the harder they arc 
pulled. A point of great Confideration, in the Education of Children. 

56. Cuftom is of that force, as to make us to think well of any 
thing. What can be more indecent now , than for any to wear 
Boots, but Troopers and Travellers? Yet not many Years fince, it was 
ail the Fadiion. What is more uncouth to us, or more lamiUar to fome 
other Nations, than writing towards the Left-hand? Theabfurd pro- 
nouncing of Greek Profe, is fo common, that no body takes notice of 
it. The Accents given to Syllables, fhould have nothing to do with 
their Meafure, as fliort or long; but to denote their Tune, as Grave or 
Acute. And if accented with a Circumflex, as both Grave and A- 
cute ; like the Graces of foriie Mufical Notes. And was, no doubt^ 

^ the 

^4 OfWifdom. Book II. 

the Tinging Tone, which the Native Greeks, gave in their Common 
Talk, to all fuch Syllables. And is the Reafon, why a -Circumflex, muft 
needs make a long Syllable ; a double Note, requiring a double Xime.' 
Which not being confidered, by the firft Teachers of Greek amongft 
us ; occafioned their introducing the way of reading Prole now in 
ufe. Wherein, we often make thofe -Syllables, fliort, which by the 
coming of two Confonants together, are naturally, long. Whereas, 
the Poetick, being the true Meafure, it ought to be obferv'd in Profe, 
as well as in Verfe. 

57. What but Cuftom, could make Nonfenfe it felf to look fine ? 
as in the devout Addrefs, which our Poets now make to their Mule .■> 
It was indeed ufual for the befl of Heathen Poets to do it. And in 
Them, it was Senfe ; who believed, or pretended to believe, the Being 
of fuch a Deity. But what fliould make any Man now, to addrefs him- 
felf to that, wiiich he knows, and fays, is a Nonentity ? Except his 
Pliancy, be that Divine Thing, which he worlliips. 

58. TheDefcentof Eftates, in fome few Places of this Kingdom, to 
the younger Sons J fo- contrary to the Ufage of the red, and of all 
the World ; hath nothing elfe to plead, but ancient Cuflom, There- 
fore underftanding Men, confider. That much of the Common Law, 
which here obtains, hath no other Sandion : That we cannot forefee, 
all the Confequences of an Alteration. And the People feem to be con- 
tented with the Cuftom, as it is. 

59. The force of Love, that is, of the Pa/Iion, or Fantaftick Love^ 
is alfo great : there being many things, which meet together to produce 
it. Of Senfibles, befides the Beauty of . the Face and Shape, the 
Voice, Air, Mien, and Drefs, with borrow'd Colours and Scents. Of 
Infenfibles, Humour, Wit, Difcretion. And what is more than all. 
Youth, and Vigour. Thofe may glow and fparkle, but 'tis this, which 
lets all on fire. 

60. The lead of thefe Caufes , in the vigorous Age, will beget 
Love. One Curie, fometimes, like a Screw, will work its way into 
Heart of Oak. A Lock of Hair, will draw more than a Cable-Rope. 
And a Love-Hood, will catch Phancies, a hundred times fader than a 
Cobweb does Flies. A Word, a Look, a Tread, will fometimes do it ; 
as they are Appendents to acternal Synfimetry, or Indications of the 
Beauty of the Mind. How much more, when all of them meet, and 
co-operate ? And there is an Artificial Mixture of them together : 
When even a little ill humour, skilfully manag'd, like a Difcord in 
Mufick, will grace all the red. Till Phancy forms at lad, fo gay an 
Image, that Reafon it felf is often forced to bow down to it. All 
things being fo infallibly laid, to fulHl the Defgn of Propagation ; 
That no Man of Low tdate, or High, of Leifure or Bufinefs, Merry 
or Melancholly, Foolifli or Wife • but one time or other, hath had a 
Sweet, or an Aching Tooth. Some, who have begun in jed, forget- 
ting their own Altitude, have ended in earned, and courted them- 
felves into Love. And Ihould the Men forget, the Women would be- 
gin firft. 

61. But notwithdanding the force of this Phancy ; that of Pride, 
is above it. Both are grounded upon falfe Opinion. 1 he former, on 
the Opinion Men have of Another : This, on the Opinion they have 
Themlelves. And v^hereas the former, is encreafed by Converfation, 



Chap. Vi. Of Wifdom, 65 

which cannot always be had : this, wherein a Man is his own Dar- 
ling, lies down and rifes up with him, till it grows into an Invinfible 
Habit. And in breeding Envy and Malice, begets, if not a greater 
Pain, yet much more lafting, than any Venereal Pleafure, can be, or 
be pliancy 'd : And therefore, more vehement Projects and Attempts, tov 
be rid of it. So that Men, having once got, a Monflrous Conceit of 
themfelves, and others, and of wiiat they call Honor : Will dellroy 
any thing, to preferve that. Not only fet the World oh fire, but Sa- 
crifice their mofl adored Mifl redes upon the Pile. 

6x. The Fourth Cardinal Caufe, is Reafon. Which, in all refpsds, 
is Superior to the three former. For fird, every Man's Reafon, hath an 
abfolute Command, diredly or indiredly, of all the Motions of his 
own Body. In the dired: ufe of Phancy, of all the voluntary ,• andin- 
diredly, of all the reft. That is, though he cannot hinder the Moti- 
on of his Heart, or Lungs, or Gutts, bythe ufe of Phancy : Yet he 
knows the means, to do it otherwife. So that his not doing it, by 
the dired Operation of Phancy; fliews, fo far^ the Inability of Plian- 
cy, but not of Reafon. 

63. And Reafon hath the fame Command over Motion in other Bo- 
dies ; as it ufeth one Body or Motion to govern another. As when a 
Man, by the help of a Pully, drav\s up himfelf. Or as by the help of 
a Statera^ a lefs W^eight, is made to draw up a greater. For Weight 
operates no farther of itfelf, than it is Superior to the refifting Weight. 
But Reafon applying Celerity to Weight ; makes a lefs Weight which 
moveth Swiftly, to be of more force than a greater, which moveth 
Slov\ly. And Reafon hath the fame Power, of Nulling, or Govern- 
ing, all other Operations of Bodies. 

64. And it iiath the fame Superiority over Senfe. Sometimes in 
Sufpending the Ad:s of Senfe. So, deep Thoughts, will often fufpcnd 
the Senfes fo tar, that many things may be done about a Man, and 
Noyfcs made; Clocks may ftrike, and Bells may Ring, while he takes 
no notice at all of them. 

65. But chieSy, in governing the Effedts of Senfe : which is the Le- 
gal Power of Realon. For Reafon was not made, to deftroy Senfe j 
but by its own Operations, to Countermand and Govern thofe of Senfe. 
Senfe of Pain, if permitted to operate, cauieth Groans, with many In- 
voluntary Motions, and all Endeavours to avoid it. All which, are 
fometimes, countermanded by the force of meer Phancy. But more , 
potently, in conjundion with that of Reafon: As in thofe, who have 
voluntarily endured all manner of Torments, without any Motions 
thence arifing, or fo much as a Groan. How much more, is it in the 

Power of Reafon, to command the Operations of all the other Senfes, 
which are much weaker ? Either to Subdue them ; or to make ufe of 
tliem, in ferving its own turn* 

66. Nor is Reafon lefs Superior to the Phancy. 'Tis true, there hath 
. always been a Conteft between them : the one for the Prerogative of 
the Sovereign ; the other, for the Liberties and Privileges of the Sub- 
jed:. But this fhews, that Reafon is above Phancy. For otherwife, the 
Reaks which Phancy plays now and then ; would be continually aded, 
till the Sovereignty fell at laft on Phancy 's fide. 

kd-]. The Perceptive Ads of Phancy, have a Sovereign Power over its 
own Ads of Volition, that is, the Pailions : but not over Reafon. For 
S Phancy 


66 Of Wifdom. Book II. 

Phancy of it felf, is Mutable ; as having no neceflary connecftion with 
Truth, but only with the Appearance of it. But Reafon, as it acqui- 
efces in Truth alone ; it can never difown the Truth, it once acknowlege- 
eth. Nor can Phancy, or any thing elfe, make Immutable Truth and 
Goodnefs, not to be defirable to a Reafonable Mind. 

68. And Reafon is Superior to Phancy, fo far as to Govern, that is, 
to ufe it. Reafon doth not deftroy, or fupercede Phancy ; but makes 
ufe of it, for its own Purpofe. But Phancy cannot make ufe of Reafon. 
For then, it were Reafon, and not Phancy. 

69. Reafon makes ufe of Wit and Phancy, fometimes, only for Di- 
verfion. Or for the difguifing of Falfliood. Or for the Illuftration of 
Truth : Wherein Reafon draws the Out-lines, and Phancy lays on the 
Colours. And the Mind is conducted by fenfible Things, to the con- 
ceiving of thole which are Infenfible. As alfo in the Invention of 
Truth. For there is no neceffity, as fome have thought, that Phancy 
fliould ramble or run at random : but ought to be direSed by Reafon, in 
all its Motions. A Phyfician, in order to a Cure, confiders firft, the 
Nature, Caufes, and Symptoms of the Difeafe, as the prime Indicants 
of what he is to do. Next, the Patient, Seafon, and other Coindi- 
cants : and then the means. Wherein Phancy a6ts all along, in Citing 
the Species of Things before Reafon. But Reafon commiflions Phancy 
to ad^, and where to begin and end, and then makes a Judgment on the 
whole. And Reafon, by the Similitudes of Truth, which Phancy fug- 
gefls, is many times conduced unto Truth. It being a Theoreme of Right 
Reafon, That however there are many Similitudes without I'ruth ; yet 
there can be no Truth, without Similitude. So that where ever the one 
appears, it is not unreafonable to enquire, whether they are not together t 

70. Reafon likewife, uferh Phancy, in the Profecution of that which 
is Good. Which requireth two things; wz. a Comprehenfion of what 
is to be done, and a Regulation of the Phancy in the doing of it. Part- 
ly, by Subduing of thofe Conceits of Things, which oppofe. Which are 
chiefly, thofe of Senfe and Opinion : Without the Maflery whereof, 
no Man can be very Wife. And partly, in direding unto thofe Con- 
ceits which may adifl; : both in the Choice of the End, and in the Ufe 
of the Means. So that the Office of Phancy, under the Command of 
Reafon, is to extenuate the Difficulties, to facilitate the Means, and to 
prefentiate the End, fo as to make it appear, in its true Luftre and 

7 J. Reafon likewife operates upon Reafon, So doth the Reafon of 
one Man, on that of another,- as in all good and true Oratory. Where- 
in, though Wit and other Ornaments, may glaze and brandifli the 
Weapon : Yet is it found Reafon, and the Experience of things, that 
carries the ftroak home. The flrongeft Wit, being that which hath 
evident truth for its Bafis. Therefore allcr Poetry, now it is bereaft of 
Infpiration ,• for the moft part, is but Lightning without Thunder. Where 
the Flight of Phancy, is managed with good Judgment ; the feldomer . 
it is feen, it is the more valuable. Whereof, among a itw others, Sir R. 
Blackmore, a Brother of my own Faculty, hath given more than one Ex- 

7z. The Operation of one Man's Reafon on another's, is alfo the Root 
of Good Government. For though few Men underfland the particu- 
lar Reafons of Things : Yet all Men are Mailers of this General 

Reafon : 


VI, OfWifdom. 6 J 

Reafon ; That bne Man ought to be fo govern'd by another, as they are 
Creatures of the fame Rank and Order in the Univerfe : That is, 
not by meer Will and Force, as a Man governs a Beaft, but by Law. 
Which Law, however it may fometimes fail in its End ; or not al- 
ways be undcrftood : Yet it always carries this apparent Reafon in 
it, That it was not made without Common Confent j which every bo- 
dy knows how to give, 

7:5, The Ads of Reafon alfo operate one upon another, Dubitation, 
operates to Difquifition ; Difquifition , ^ to Invention ; Invention to 
Volition ; and Volition to Refolution ; that is, Volition of the Endj 
to Volition of the Means. In all which. Truth is the Spring of O- 
peration. For Dubitation it felf, comes from this certain Truth, That 
we have caufe to Doubt. And Truth, fo far operates upon Voliti- 
on, as Goodnefs is the true Objed of the Intellectual Will, 

74. As one Conceit in the Phancy, fo one Truth in the Underftand- 
ing, begets another. There is both a Proximate, and a Remote Conne- 
(ilion of Trutlis. The Proximate may be faid , for Diflindion fake^ 
to be Adequate, or Proportionate. Both which operate, -as well to the 
Invention, as the Improvement of any Art or Science. The applying 
of a Vibrating Weight to a Clock, for the meafuring of Time, de- 
pended on an Adequate Truth, The Equality of the Motion being 
the fame, whether made alone, or given to a Movement. But the apply- 
ing of a Spring to a Watch, for the fame End ; upon a Proportionate. 
For as Weight is, to the Reciprocations of a Pendulum; fo is Elaftici- 
ty, to thofe of a Spring, 

75. So the Ufe of Spedacles, by an Adequate Connedion of Truths, 
gave Men occafion to think of Microfcopes and Tellefcopes. A pair of 
Noble Inventions 5 Yet butthe Artof Spedtacle-makingimprov'd. But 
the Invention of Burning- glades , depended on a Proportionate. For 
that Figure, which contrads the Species of any Body , that is, the 
Rays, by which it is feen : will in the fame Proportion, contrad: the 
Heat, wherewith the Rays are accompany'd. And only looking on the 
Moon, might occafion, as it were by a Proportion Converfe, the 
Thought ot a burning Concave. The Moon being a Convex, by which 
the Sun-beams are fcattered, and the Nodurnal Air, thereby rendred the 
Inore cool, 

76. One Truth, hath a Proximate Connedion, fometimes, with one 
other Truth, and no more. But for the moft part, with divers other 
Truths, without which it is not evident. So the Demonftration 
of moll: Geometrick Proportions, dependeth on that of divers others. 

77. And fo it is in Arts, and Bufmefs, as well as Science ; as in Mer- 
chantry. The Goods, Ship, Mailer, Convoy, Road, Timc^, Seafon, 
Winds, Port, Fadory and Return ; and under each, many Circumftan- 
ces, are to bediftindlyconfidered : and the Knowledge of them, fofar 
as is podible, to be certain ; a Millake in any one, affeding all the reft, 
though not alike. For the Connedion between the End and any of thefe 
means, is adequate. But between the End and the feveral Means com- 
pared together, it is proportionate. Whereby the Quantity of Opera- 
tion, which any one of them may have, more than another, upon the 
whole Bufinels, is computed, 

78. So likewife, in the great Bufinefs of War. The whole Art of a 
Common Soldier, lies in the Knowledge of all his Motions. That is, 


68 Of Wijdom. Book II 

In the exad: Command of his Body, and of his Arms. That of an 
Officer; In the Knowledge of thefe Motions ; of the beft way of teach- 
ing them ; and of chufing fuch Men, as are fitteft to perform them, 
viz. Such as are of Body, Strong and Agile ; and of Mind, Teachable 
and Stout. But that of a General, lies far wider. He knows, what 
makes the beft Common Soldier, or any beft Officer. He skills all 
his Men, and all the Military Preparations they are to ufe. And both 
the Nature, and the Confines, of the Ground, whereon they are on- 
ly to Move, or to Adt : He confiders his Enemy, as well as himfelf, 
in all thefe refpedts. And having number'd the Excefles and Defers 
on both Sides, and meafured their mutual Force and Operations : doth 
thereupon form the AtStion, and his Judgment of the Succefs. 

79. This Connexion of Parts, in every true Scheme of Art or Bu- 
finefs; is that which makes Secrefie, many times, fo neced'ary a Part 
of it ; both the Habit, and the Skill of Secrefie. For as one that has 
well view'd any Creature, being fliewed only the Ear, or Tail, pre- 
fently knows, to what Creature it belongs : So an Enemy, that ftudies 
and comprehends the Connection of Things ; by feeing only fome 
one Part of any Defign, will be able hereby, to difcover the 

3o. There is alfo a Remote Connection of Truths, as there is of 
Phantaftick Conceits ; and of much greater Ufe. What is more ready, 
than that, between the Conceits of Milk, Udder, Boil'd, Sauce, Muftard, 
And what more vain ? Nor is there.any better Connexion between Truth 
and the Opinions of fome Men ; than there is between Milk and 
V, Muftard. Whereas any the moft Remote Connexion of Truths, is al- 
ways ufeful, as one Truth operates to the Invention of another at the 
greateft diftance. 

81. The Demonftration of that fo ufeful Propopofition, the 41^? of 
the \fi of Euclid^ by which we know the Square of every Recti- 
linear Triangle, and thereby the Quantity of any Piece of Ground ; 
hath an immediate Dependance, only on the 34//; and T^-jth Pro- 
portions. But depends remotely , on many more foregoing Theo- 
remes. ^ 

8x. What can be more remote from the prefent way of Writing, than 
the exprelfing of Sentences, by the Figures of Birds and other Parts 
of the Creation ? Yet was the firft Step towards Letters. For the 
making of thofe Figures'being tedious, and requiring much Room : put 
Men firft upon contracting them; as by the moft ancient Egyptian 
Monuments, it appears they did. Next, inftead of Sententious Marks, 
to think of Verbal ; fuch as the Chinefes ftill retain. And obferving 
by' degree?, that all Words confift of a certain Number of Simple 
Sounds ; they perceived at length, there was no need of more Marks, 
than would ferye to exprefs thefe Sounds : and fo brought them, from 
many Thoufands of Yerbal Marks, to Two, or Four and twenty Literal 
• ones now in ufe. 

83. Arithmetick, which at firft kept within its own Sphere ; by a fur- 
ther Step, came at length, to be applied to the Improvement of Geome- 
try. And Geometry, which at firft confifted only of Rules for the 
Meafuring of Lands : now, befides the Application of it unto Archite- 
cture, and other Ufcs ; by the DoCtrine Of Spherical Iriargles., is ap- 
plied to the meafuring of the Heavens. 


Chap. VL Of tVifdom. 6 1 

84. And as we ought not to dcfpair of any thing pofTible, at the grea- 
tefl diftance : fo neither upon the meaneft Foundation. For every 
Trutii being produdive; there is no Truth which can be defpicable. 
Many aPcafant has been Anceftor to a Prince, He that firH made Gun- 
powder, did not think, he. then firfl began, to introduce a new Scene of 
War. Nor the f.rll Specflacle-maker, that he was l(^ding the way, to 
the Difcovery of new Planets. Nor the firfl: Obfervcr of the Loadilone, 
that he was finding ^he way into a new World. 

85-. The firfl fair Advance, towards the 47/^ Thcoreme of the firfl: 
of Eucliifj commonly called the Pythagorean ; was the J5//7 foregoing, 
viz. That any Two Parallelograms, made upon the fame B^e, and with- 
in the fame Parallels, are equal. Which fuggefled the fame of Two 
Triangles, in Theoreme ^yih. And this, the double Quantity of a 
Parallelogram to a Triangle, conflituted with it, as before, in Thco- 
reme 41//. Upon which, the Demonftration of the 47//-', chiefly depends. 
But thefe withal, have a Dependance, on many other precedent Theo- 
remes, not only very Remote, but fcemingly, fo contemptible, as not at 
all to promife fo noble a Productic^n. 

86. The firfl Conceit tending to a Watch, was a Draw- Well. For 
People of old, v\ ere wont only to let down a Pitcher with a Hand-Cord, 
for as much Water, as they could eafily pull up. But meeting with 
fomc deep Wells, put them upon thinking of a Draught-wheel. And 
feeing the Pitcher or Bucket to defcend with its own weight ; they per- 
ceived the Movement applicable to a Spit ; if the Motion of the Weight 
could be made flow ; which was done, by adding more Wheels and 
the Flyer, which made a Jack, Upon which, Men began to fee, that if 
the Motion 'were yet flower, it would ferve to meafure Time, as well as 
turn a Spit : and fo in the room of the Flyer, put the Ballance, which 
makes a Clock, Which being foufeful, thinking Men confidercd, how 
it might be made portable, by fome means, anfw erable to a Weight : 
and fo indcad of that, put the Spring and Fufe-wheel, which make % 

87. It appears by the Fragments of Anatomy put among Hippcrates's 
Works; that the mofl ancient Phyficians, in tracing the Blood- Veflels, 
began at the Head and Brain : and thereby gave a falfe and phantaflick 
Defcription of them. But Ariflotle^ or fome other, at length, hit upon 
the right way, of beginning at the Heart. Whence their Continuation 
through the Parts of the Body was gradually obferved by (cveral Hands. 
While Men were curious in doing this ; they alfo took notice of their 
diflcrence. So that whereas for a long time, they had been taken 
for one fort of Veflels ; <fXi-\^ being the common Name to them all : 
they were afterwards diflinguillied into Veins and Arteries. Having gone 
as far as they could without ; they began to obferve them within. And 
firrt, in the Heart, befides the two Auricles, two Bellies, and to each 
Belly two Mouths; they obferved feverai Membranes placed before 
them ; which they took at firfl, to be Nerves, But upon better Enquiry, 
they perceived them to be Valves or little Doors, fome of which opened 
towards the Heart, and others from it: fervingto admit the Blood, one _ 
way, and to tranfmit it, another ; and therefore both ways to hinder its 
Return. And to clear this the better, they bethought themfelves of 
diOecling Living Animals. Being fatisfied of the Communion be- 


T tween 

62 Of Wtfdom Book II^ 

tween the Veins and Arteries next to the Heart : they conceiv'd there 
was the Uke, between their Extremities in the other Parts. And Ana- 
tomy, which with all other Learning, for many Ages, had lain dead, 
again reviving ; they were better affiir'd of it, by viewing the Infides 
of the Arteries and Veins, as well as of the Heart; which hitherto 
had been omitted. In doing which, they found the Veins were alfo 
furnifli'd with Valves, fliutting againfl: the Arteries, and opening to- 
wards the Heart. Whereupon, confidering Men, could not but ask. 
Whether all the Blood went from the Heart, and whence it came thi- 
ther? Andfo, upon the whole. To what purpofe this Communion at 
both Ends, ferv'd, if not a Circulation > He that in tracing the VefTels, 
began at the Heart, tho' he thought not at all of a Circulation ; yet 
made he one, and the firfl: true Step, towards the Difcovery hereof. 

88. So plain it is. That as there is no Art, nor Science, but what is 
capable of Improvement : fo there is no evident Truth, howfoever mean 
and ufelefs it may feem to be, but may thereunto contribute. 

89. Laftly, as the Ads of Intelledual Perception, operate one upon 
another: So likewife upon the Intelledual Will. For nothing can 
make Truth and Goodnels once perceived ,• not to be defirable and 
binding above all things. Whence it is, that a Knave, though cunning, 
is always contemned. And that he himfelf contemns thofe, who give 
him that Refped:, which he and they are fenfible, he deferves not. 
Likewife, that all People, have a Senfe of that Honour, which is due 
to Virtue, and to that only. He that gives the Honour, knows what 
the Thing is, which he gives. As alfo, that there is no Man, who is 
not born a Fool, but would be thought wife. And that wife Men, have 
always taken the firfl Care, of becoming fuch indeed, whatever they 
may be thought of. 

90. And thus far, of the General , and more Immediate Caufes of 
Operation in the World. The exad Diftinguiihing whereof, fo as 
not to take a Remote Caufe, for a Proximate ; a Solitary one, for a 
Conjundt ; a Poflible one, for a NecefTary ; or any one Caufe , for 
another; or that which is no Caufe, for that which is: And the 
expert, and ready Ufe hereof, fo as to feparate thofe , which ope- 
rate beft alone ; to joyn thofe, which befl co-operate ; and to joyn 
them in the Order, wherein they ought to fland : are the Rules of 
Pradice, in all VVifdom. Though he that has once acquired a 
Prudential Habit; doth not, in his Bufinefs, Turn to thefe Rules; 
anymore, than one who has learned to fpeak well, to thofe of his 




Of Virtue. 

As Truth, the Objed of the Underflanding, is the Conformity j 
fo Goodnefs, the Obje<St of the Will, is the Conveniency of 
one thing to another. 

X. The Eflence of Things being various j there muft needs be many 
kinds and Degrees of Goodnefs. 

;. It may be confidered, as more or lefs Certain and Permanent. 
Reafon, by a flrong Forefight, is aWe to look upon Things Uncertain and 
Tranfient, as Nonentities. That therefore, which is Certain and Perma- 
nent, is fo much more above the contrary, as Something is above 

4. It may be confidered, as more or lefs Comprehenfive. So, in a 
Worm, which enjoys only the Senfes of Tafte and Touch ; it is lefs, than 
in a Filh, where there is an Addition of Sight. And in a Fifli, left 
than in a Bead, which hath alfo the Senfe of Fiearing. 

5. It may be confidered, in the manner of its being Enjoyed. The 
lowefl: Degree of Enjoyment, is that of Senfe. As being made 
without any Reflection upon it felf. And aS it is lefs Various, and more 

6. Tlie neiH^above the Senfual, is that of Phancy. Which hath a 
Power of Refleding upon its own Enjoyments. And fometimes to 
magnifie the Conceits of Senfual Pleafures, above the Senfe it felf. 
And thefe Conceits may remain in their Vigour, when the Senfe is Ex- 

7. Above that of Phancy, is the Intelled:ual. That, for the moll part, 
arifesonly from the Similitude, This, from the Identity of Things. That 
from the Probability, This, the Demonftration, of Truth. And Truth, is 
therefore Valuable, as to the Doubting and Enquiring Mind, it gives Reft. 
And as herevvithal, it gives Light ; no lefs amiable to the Mind, than to the 
Eye: Underllanding , being expreft by Seeing, among all Mankind. 
Every Truth ihines with its own Beams ; and lends them, for the Dis- 
covery of other Truths. Firft, with refped: to the Equations, Proporti* 
ons, and Common Meafurcs of Things. And then, the feveral Kinds 
and Degrees of Goodnefs, joined herewith. Thofe, as the Grounds j 
Thefe, the Perfection, of the Mundane Beauty. In Contemplation 
whereof, we Enjoy, as well as See, the Goodnefs of every Thing ; 
and the Happinefs of all other Creatures, becomes our own. 

8. The Kinds and Degrees of Goodnefs, may alfo be confidered, in 
relation one to another, in tiie Congruity of which Relation, the Per- 
fedion of every thing confifts. Flying is a more Excellent Animal- 
Motion, than Creeping. Yet, if a Catterpillar had V Vings, which hath 
no Eyes to govern that Motion; it would be a Creature, not more, but 
lefs Perfed:. In many Brutes, the Outward Ear, is afKxt, as a Natural 
OtocouUick, to the Inward : VVhereby the Senfe of Fiearing, is in them, 
much quicker than in a Man. Yet k nodefed in a Man ; whofe Inward 
Senfe is fo much quicker than a Brute's, as his Outward is flower. 

9. The 

'64 Of Virtue. Book II. 

9. The Graduation of the Parts of the Univerfe, is likewife neceflary 
to the Perfedtion of the whole. Which confiftcth very much, in the 
Order of Things. So that a Thing, though not Equal in Goodncfs to 
an other, yet is then perfecft, when it hath all the Goodnefs it ought 
to have. That is, when it hath all its own Convenient Parts, and when 
it hath a Convenient Relation to other things, oris itfelf a Convenient 
Part of the Univerfe, 

10. Wherefore, true Goodnefs, and what is Immutably fuch ; is that, 
which in the Place or Relation wherein it ftands, can be no better : Or, 
that vAhich anfwers its End, with refped: to the Univerfe, And confe- 
quently, with refped to the Deity, the Original, and Ultimate End, of 
whatfoever is Good, 

1 1 . According to the Perception we have of Goodnefs, we make our 
Choice, If Phancy gives the Profped 5 Phancy too, or the Phan- 
taftick Will,, makes the Choyce: And is nothing elfe, but Afltd:ionor 
Pafllon, But when it proceedsifrom Reafon,-it is then propefly called. 
Virtue; Seated fundamentally, in the Intelledual Will, 

iz. Wherefore all Virtue, or what we call. Morality, is founded in 
Truth. And confequently, cannot be variable, as fome Men think, 
with the Opinions and Manners of Men ; as if thofe things were Vir- 
tuous in one Countrey, which are Vitious in another, lor albeit the 
Philofophy, which treateth of Virtue, isby the Grd-^/fj called, '£9(%»f. Yet 
it is not , becaufe Cuftom , maketh Virtue : but becaufe Virtue is 
the Parent of Cuftom, fo far as this is ufeful unto all Communities, or 
agreeable to the bell Reafon in any one. As therefore, Intelled ual Truth, 
and Goodnefs, are both Immutable : So all true Virtueupvhich is foun- 
ded in the former, and maketh Choice of the latter, cannot but be one 
Immutable thing, 

13. The Choice which Virtue makes, is of the End, and the Means 
toobteinit. Both which, ought to be Immutably Good ; and therefore, 
the bed. For how can one be Virtuous, that is to (ay, Reafonable, in 
choo/ing any thing, but what is Bed ? 

14, 'I he bed End, is either the Highed, or any other which is bed 
in its proper Place, gs having an apt Relation and Tendency to the 
Highed. And fo loo, the bed Means, are fuch as have an apt Relati- 
on to their Proximate End, and alfo to the Highed or End of Ends. As 
far therefore, as the Choyce we make, is remote from either. of thefe : 
it is fo far, the Choyce of Phancy and Padion, but not of Virtue. 

If. Wherefore Wifdom and Virtue, are two Things. All Virtue, is 
Wifdom, but all Wifdom is not Virtue. One that makes an apt ufe of 
Means, difficient to attein his End, whether Good or Bad; is fo far Ju- 
dicious and Wife. But Virtue always prepofeth the bed End, and u- 
feth the bed Means to attain it. And is therefore, the Highed point of 

16. One may be faid, to be Innocent, who hath been fo educated, 
as to phancy thofe things, which are Good and Innocent. Or, that 
wanteth Opportunity, Courage, or W\t enough, to be Bad. But one 
that knows, on the one hand, the W^ays of Knavery and Vice ; and of 
Wifdom and Goodnefs on the other: that difdains the Word, andchoo- 
feth the Bed, may be truly dyl'd, a Virtuous Man. 

17. Virtue, having chofcn the End, and formed an /ri<?4 of the Means; 
brings us next, to the Profecution of them ; that is, to Refolution herein. 

18. But 

^ H A p. VII, Of Virtue. 


f^iS. But Rerolution, cannot follow Reafon, except it be alfo Superior 
unto Phancy. Both in fubduing thofe Conceits and Paflions, which op- 
pofe us ; and in Cleering and Fortifying thofe, which may afTift us, in 
what we are doing. Being a fort of Compounded Will, wherein Rea- 
Ibn and Phancy, are both in their Vigorous Ad-. Reafon, prefenting the 
Means and End, in their true Figure; Phancy, in their full Magnitude. 

19. It feemeth therefore, that Virtue, is the Higheft VVifdom, and 
fomething more. Wifdom is the Pradtical Part of Humane Underlland- 
ing. But Virtue, is the Entire Operation of Human Mind. In which 
there is a certain c^;t/.» or Swing of Phancy, under thd Command of 

10. Wherefore, as Virtue is feated Fundamentally, In the Intelled • 
fo, Perfedtively, in the Phancy. So that Virtue, is the Force of Rea- 
fon, in the Conduct of our Ad ions and Paffions, to a Good End, or 
that which, in its place, is the beft. Or, in ftiort, a Refolution, in the 
ufe of due Means, to a due End. A cleer Reafon, ading in Conjuncti- 
on with a well Difciplyn'd, but flrong and vigorous Phancy; feldom 
fail to attein their End. Phancy, without Reafon ; is like a Horfe, with- 
out a Rider. And Reafon, without Phancy ; is not well Mounted.' But 
thofe who are fo happy, as to pofTefs them both ; ire ufually the Authors 
of the greatelT: Performances. When Phancy, neither bridles Reafon, 
nor drives it forward ; but is the Flying Charriott, wherein fhe rides on, 
with the Profped of Succefs and Glory. 

11. Therefore Mediocrity, is not, according to Artftotles Definition, 
neceffary unto Virtue. One cannot love his Country, too well; tho', 
tbfave that, he lofeth his Life, A Man may be Refolvedly Patient, 
unto Death. So that it is not the Mediocrity of Refolution, which 
makes the Virtue ; Nor the Extremity, which makes the Vice : but 
tht one, being with the other, without Realon. Saving a Man's feif, 
or fbflcring, if with Reafon, is Virtue: If without it. is either Softneft, 
ofXDbftinacy. '.' 

ix. 'Tis true, Virtue flands, for the moft part, between two Vices 
\^et is it hereby no more Defined; than an Honefl: Man, by living 

I between two Thieves. Therefore the Nature of Virtue, is better ex- 
prefled by Proportion ; as it alfo is elfewhere, by Ariftotle himfelf. For 
they are both of them founded in Truth. And as in Proportion-, there 
is- the Equality ot a Double Ratio ; fo alfo, in Virtue : -vlt. between the 
K^^ and thcObjeds, of the Mind. For as Perception, is to the EticJ; j 
fo is Refolution, to the Means. 
z\. This Proportion, is*feen, even in Penal Juftice. For all Crimes, 
proceed from the Irregular Operations of the Phancy. Now though 
the Ads of Juftice, as Penal, are difproportion'd untoScnfe: Yet the 
Irregularity of Senfe, is proportion'd unto that of Phancy. As tw(^ Se- 
venths, or other the greatefl: Dilcords ; may be tuned to iDiapafdn. Ox 
aSth&Similitude of two Figures, in themfelves Irregular ; produce a Re- 
gularity or Proportion, between the Parts of the one and the other. '';' 
2,4. Wherever tlTCrefore, anyone Virtue exifts; there is a difpdfitioii 
Unto all Virtue : As confifting every where, in Proportion. Sothatt 

IB there is an Uniformity in theDifpofitions and Adions of a truly, Vir- 
B tuous Man. 
"" zi. Yet the fame Virtue may exift in Teveral Degreeil Reafcinantl 
Phancy, may botlY ad their Parts, fo as to make Virtue Entire ; when 

U both 

^4 ^/ Virtue. Book 11. 

'^ • 

both of them, whether from Nature, or Ufe, whether in different Per- 
fons, or with refped: to different Things, may be more or lefs forccable, 
and thereby make Virtue, more or lefs Strong. 

2.6. But no Difference, can warrant that weak Diftindtion, which the 
Mafler of the Schools, makes between Intelledual and Moral Virtue, 
or that which comes only by Cuftom, as he would have it. For how 
can any thing be Virtuous, w hich, in not being Intelledual, is Phanta- 
flick and Brutifli? Nor can any Virtue come from meer Cuftom: but 
Cuftom, fo far as good and ufeful ; mud of neceff ty come from the bell: 
Reafon, tjbatis^ from Virtue. For in that Virtue is founded in Reafon ; 
it is the fame Nonfenfe, to fay, that Virtue, as to fay, that Reafon, 
comes of meer Cuftom. Which, tho' it be aftifted by Ufe, yet can have 
no other Parent, but the Intellectual Mind. 

ay. Our Affedions, in conjundion with Reafon, may become Vir- 
tuous. So Hope, as it is an Afledion, is the Expedation of a future Good : 
whether with, or without any ground. As it is a Virtue, is the like 
Expedation, conceived upon good ground, and by proper Means main- 
tain'd : and fo of the reft. 

i8. And Virtue may have different Names, from the difference of 
Perfons and Things. To fpend on the Poor, is to be Liberal; on all 
indifferently. Generous. To be kind to all, is to be Charitable ,• with 
Mutual Refped, Friendly. Contentment, without External Fionour, is 
Humility; without the Pleafure of Eating, Temperance; of Drinking, 
Sobriety; of Lawful Venery, Continence; of Unlawful, Chaftity. 
Which, with all other Virtues, centre in one of thefe two Operations 
of the Mind; the bearing of aLeffer, to avoid a Greater Evil: Or the 
Forbcalring of aLeffer, toobtein a Greater Good. 

29. 1 here are three Virtues, fo called, which, to fpeak properly, 
are rather neceffary to the Perfedion of Virtue ; viz. Prudence, Con- 
ftancy, and Love. '.. Prudence, ftridly taken, is not Virtue Compleat, 
but the Intelledual Part of it : and is therefore common to all Virtue. 
For no Man can be Temperate, Patient, Liberal, or any other way Vir- 
^ tuous, that is not Prudent. 
... TfO. What Prudence is,in the Intelled, Conftancy is with refped to the 
Phancy ; as this is govern'd by the Intelled, in the Profped of the End, 
and Ufe of the Means to attein it. 

31. By Love, I mean not the Paffion, or that which is Phantaftick; 
but Charity or Intelledual Love. That is to fay, the Love of whom- 
foever or whatfoevcr is Good. W' hen the Goodnefs of the Mind, is 
Commenfurate to that of the Univerfe. The former , eclipfeth the 
Perfon in whom it prevails. This Latter, gives him great Grace and 
Beauty, and paints a Glory round his Head. Whereby he at once, Da- 
zles the Malevolent, Charms the Innocent, Chears the Virtuous, and 
Sunshimielf in his own Beams. 

■),%. Among other Virtues, Four, are more Eminent, as chiefly con- 
ducing to the Happinefs of Mankind. Tw o, which we may call. Con- 
templative, Huraihty and Magnanimity. And two, more Pradical, Ju- 
ftice and Fortitude. 

. 33. By Humility, I mean not, the Abjednefs of a Bafe Mind: but, a 
Prudent Care, .not to over-value our felves upon any account. There is 
^.Lftimateto, he made, of our felves, and others: And in both we 
jnay be miftaken. Except we knew the juft Rate of every thing, by 


Chap. VII. Of Virtue. ,jf^ 

which we are to be valued : And all other Men, as well as pur felves. So 
that to under, rather tlian over-value our felves, is much the ,fefc^ .wav. 
Whereby we are fure, neither to be injurious to others,- nor to our 
felves, in blocking up our own way to further Improvements. - - , , 

34. Again, if we have any deep Thoughts, we cannot but fee, that 
our Attainments, let them be never fo great, are yet but m?aa, if 
compared with the boundlefs Perfedlion of the Univerfe. We ar-e alfo 
to confider the Difference between Worth, and Merit, ,ftri(a:ly taken, 
That is, a Man's Intrinfick ^ This, his Current Value. Which, is lefs or 
more, as Men have occafion for him : Or, give him one, to make proof 
of himfelf. Likewife, that the difference between Men, is oftentimes 
more by Education, and Opportunities of Improvement, than by Nature. 
And where it is by Nature, we are the rather to remember, That it is the 
Divine Benignity, which hath diftinguilhed us from others, and not our 
felves. , 

'^^. This Virtue, moreover, is the befl: of Ornaments unto all d-r 
thers. Like a Lady's Veil, it more illuftrates the Beauties, which it 
feems to covev. Nothing being more natural, than for Men to mag- 
nifie that, which they exped: not to fee. It both beautifies other 
Virtues, and makes way for them. Whoismoiie Contented, Patient, 
Peaceable, Grateful, Juft, Benign, than the Humble Man ? If naturally 
breeds Courage. For who needs to fear falling, that knows he {lands 
upon even Ground? Whereas, a Haughty, Man, by expofing himfelf j 
muft either be buoy'd up with more intolerable Pride ; or fmk, and 
become Pufilanimous. 

36. Nor therefore, doth it a little conduce, unto Magnanimity. Not 
that of Arijiotle, Eth. 4. 3. Where he defines it to be that, whereby 
one that is worthy of great things, judgeth. himfelf fo to be. Which 
to do, by his own Words elfewhere, , is no .Virtue. For] in defcribing 
the Nature of Virtue and Vice, Etk 2, 5. he truly faith, That Men 
do hereby become Good or Evil. But here he tells us. That Pufilanimi- 
ty, is no Vice : becaufe that by it, Ave .become not Evil, but only Err. 
And if fo, then Magnanimity, which by hjnf^, is oppofed to it, can ia 
his Scnfe, be no Virtue j as lying onlyan the Judgment which a Man 
makes of himfelf. Whereas Virtue lies, as I have Ihew'd, not only in 
the Judgment, but alfo in the Will i both the EIed:ive, and the Exe- 
cutive Will. _ ; .- ■: .<5,,i .,. :.,_^o;iJ!; 

37. Magnanimity then, is a Refolution, of being -aad doing that,- 
which is truly Great. Or, in i"hort, It is*a growing Greatnefs of Mind. 
A Virtue, which Bot only well confifleth with Humility, but is hereby 
promoted. For who will take one Step further, that dreams he hath 
no further to go ? By the former, a Man takes a juft Account, ho>v 
far he is gone. Which being done, by the other he reColves, notwith- 
llanding the Storms above, and the Rocks and Deeps below, ftill;tp; 
goon; and either to find out, or make hi? way, till he comes jto his, 

^, Journey's end. " - ' rbirlv.' 

38. Wherefore, as Humility is the Parent, fo Magnanimity, tHe^^l 
tron of many other Virtues. Chiefly Two j Induftry, a&d Sapiencft;§j:, 
the Love of Wifdom. r ; . ..h.:;; 

39. Magnanimous Induftry, is a refolved Affiduity and Care, aiifwe- 
rableto any weighty Work. He therefore that ufeth, tt;iis Virtue) nj« ft 
put in pradice many more. He muft be ne great Tlatfr^ Drinkej", Slee- 

^6 of Virtue . Book II. 

per ; no Gamefler, Wencher, Fopp. He mufl; difcipline his Senfes, and 
exert his Mind. Every worthy Undertaking, requires both. Parts will 
not do, let Men talk of them, as they will. Thefe go little further, than 
the Readinefs, or the Multiplicity of Conceits. 'Tis Thinking, . whicii 
puts them into Order, begets a found Judgment of Things, and brings 
them to EfFed:. So that we may as well weigh a Peacock's Tail, againit 
a Prince's Crown ; as the fined Parts, againft any thing great and 
' weighty, without the Care and Pains which are equally great. 

40. Nor doth any one, with all his Pains, enjoy more Pleafure. As 
having that which is Real and Subftantial ever in his Hands, and before 
his Eyes. Whereas thofe that trifle ; are only tormented with wifliing, 
as' Hypochondriacks are with Thinking, themlelves as big as Mountains. 
And' Swelling ftill, with vafl Expedtations ; they either burfl at length, 
or are utterly loft, by gazing in an Infinite Vacuum. 

41, By Sapience, I mean, what the Ancients did, by Philofophy ; 
the Habit, or Difpofition of Mind, which that Word properly im- ' 
porteth, viz. The Love of Wifdom. That is to fay, A Prudent Enqui- 
ry into all Wifdom, for the Good of Mankind. A Philofopher there- 
fore, properly fo called, is one' that enquires fo far into the Particulars 
of Art, and Nature ; both into 'the Nature of Man, and of all otiier 
Things ; and into their Relations one to another ; as to be able to a- 
dapt them to the Ufes of Life ; and to ufe both the Arts, and their 
Mafters, for the Publick Good. The AuUiors of ufeful Inventions, the 
Devifers of wholfome LawSj the Propofers of Virtuous Precepts, the 
Founders, or Eftablilhers of Common- wealths, were the Philofophers of 
Ancient Times, and were honoured as the Fathers and Prophets of their 
Country. And every wife 'Prince, or other -Perfon, who in^he fame 
manner, ftudies the Publick Good, merits the fame Title. Some may 
learn Arts and Sciences, as School-boys the Orations of Cicero ; know- 
ing nothing of thi Performs and Things to which they relate, nor with 
what Spirit and Life'; nor to what intent he fpeaks every Word. But, 
like Tellefcopes, what' they fee noi?i;hemfelves, they may difcover unto 
others, whofentorelagaeious' 'Wifdom^ or Art of Application, is the 
Art of Arts: The Soul, that' infornis, all Arts and Sciences, and gives 
them Life and Efficacy for the Ufe of Mankind. 

4i. ThetwocPubUek Virtueis,-^rejufticeand Fortitude. Every thing 
is not Jullice, that looks hke it. One may do, what is Juft, yet not 
Juftly, but witfedn'Hl Mind. 'Sothk Juftice, is a "Rrudent and Mag- 
nanimous doing of Right, ki air Cafes, unto all Men, with an upriglit 
InteMi 21 .3wd ,^(Jlim, . . 

•^'43.Tie"ther'fefere, thatis-compleat Mafter of this Virtue ; mull be 
dile/of great Undferft^nding^ 'and of equal Courage and Probity. O 
thbrwife, eithei< the Difficulty o^^the Cale, og the Power of fome Party,: 
6^ Ife ©wn vicioti^ Pficlinafiotisj-wili -gravel him. But being well quaii- 
fic^, -he cbnfid^rs the various Nature of Men ; and fo, the Force, 
which pifcretion, Courage, Honefty ; Simplicity, Fear, or Knavery, may, 
hS^'iri-the Gbnee^ment, op Difcovery of the Truth. And the va- 
rl@iftP'Natureb6"ThihgSj 'as tlfcy - relate- td Publick Societies, with the 
Multiplicity of Circumflances incident to every Cafe.' That as no twQ 
Qi.^,'%rfi in •aIt'-TR)int-s the fiirfeer^fo there -aiie very few, which appear 
at^tlie y^bffi wha^ <l$ey are at the Bdttonfi. -And therefore hears, with 
g^t- Tetaperj- afl^-'i\'eighs §11 ^rticttlarSj and their Ratios or Propor- 
A '^h[ tions 


VIL OfVirme. jj 

tions one to another ; fo as thereupon to determine, what is fit and juft. 
And being tiius fafe, in the v\'ay hegoes, and the End of it ; he abftrads 
the Cafe before him, from Perfonal Refped:s ; and ftands as -a 
Rock, againft all the 13attering Engines, of Importunity, Terror, or 

44. Fortitude, as an Affedion, is the Doing, or Suffering of any tiling 
with Equanimity. As a Military Virtue, is the Prudent and Magnani- 
mous Condud; of a Juft War. A Jewel compofed of feveral Gemms : 
Juftice in the Motives, Skill in the Condud:, Courage in the Adion, and 
Prudence running through all. 

45-. Arijiotle^ in his Ethkks^h^ih faid many things very well. Yet in 
fome others, is inconfiltent with himfelf. In Eth. z. 6. he faith well. 
That Virtue, Omni Arte exaiiior efl ^ prajiantior. And that it confifts 
in that Proportion, jSj^^ C/?> ^^ ""^i d^jt^ita Ratione. Yet in Eth. ^. 10. 
he forgat himfelf, in faying, Ha: rirtutes, Fortitudinem puta ^ Tempe-^ 
rantiam, part /urn earum effe vic/e»tur, qua funt Rationis expertes. Con- 
founding the Afledion, which Brutes may have , with the Virtue. 
Whereas this, as well as all other Virtues, is built upon the mod refined 

46. For firft, it fuppofeth a War undertaken, to be juft. For without 
Juftice, 'tis no better than a grand Riot. The beft Condud, ufed not to 
fave, but deftroy, is Cruelty. And naturally abateth Courage, fo far as 
Guift difpofeth Men to Cowardice. 

47. And that the Condud be prudent. One may be Bold, without 
Reafon. He only is Valiant, who is bold to that degree, be it more or 
Itkj which is moil uleful for the attaining of Vidory. ForNonfenle^ 
can never make a Virtue. Therefore a through-bred Soldier, weighs all 
prelent Circumftances, and all podible Contingents. Which are always 
fo many, and oftentimes fo fudden, and fo great, that the Bufinefs of 
War, may be termed, The Rendezvous of the beft Efuman Councils. 

48. Laftlv, the Adion muft be attended with Courage. In Doing ; 
Induftry muft be rtiounted, and in a watchful Circulation. In Suffering, 
with a chearful Patience, the hardeft Fatigues. In Expedation, of Dan- 
gers, and yet of Succefs. Without which, let a Man be never fo hardy , 
lie will hive fome Degree of Sheepifhnefs. But having his Mind thus 
armed ,• he marches forward, in a fort of Extafie, with the Scene of 
Vidory before his Eyes, the Euge's of his Friends ringing in his Ears^ 
and the Necks of his Enemies already under his Feet. 

49. In the Pradice of this, and every Virtue, among other Ends, we 
ftiould propofe to oiir felves, this is one„To fliew the Dignity of Virtue, 
and of the Mind of Man, the chief of God's Creatures here below. 
If the Strudure of oiir Bodies, and of the World about us, is fo wonder- 
ful : then what is that Piece of Ant, t\'hich maketh a Judgment, and all 
virtuous Ufes hereof ? If the good Qualities which lie difperfed among 
other Creatures, Diligence in an Art , Chaftity in a Dove) Innocence 
iri a Sheep, Truftinefs in a Dog, Obedience in a Horfe ; are fmgly (a 
fine and commendable : how excellent is the Mind, which ennobles 
them into Virtues, and makes a Golden Chain of them all ? 

50. Arid how fit is Man, hereby made, to govern Inferiour Creatures, 
his own Species, and Himfelf ? it is fit, he fliould be endowed with Phan- 
cy, as well as Intelled ; and that Senfe and Phancy, ftiould have their 
Force and Povvers. For otherwife, where were the Majefty of Reafon, 
m over-ruling then! .* X 5 1. It 

rg ■ Of Celeftial Mind Book 11. 

5 1 . Tt were a Wrong to the Deity, fliould we think he hath employed 
lefs Art and Goodncfs in the Fabrick of our Minds, thun in that of our 
Bodies. As no Man therefore, can walk, fo neither can he think, un- 
eafily or unfafely ; but in ufing, as his Legs, fo his Thoughts, amifii. 
Which a virtuous Man, as virtuous, never doth ; but in a manner fuita- 
ble to the Organifm of his Mind. Taking a greater Pleafure^ in 
the Government of S'enfe and Phancy ; than another doth, irr the 
Enjoyment it felf. While in fupprefTing their UfurpatiOns, and man'd-' 
ging their utmoft Force and Power, he fits as King over all the Children 
of Pride. 

5z. We are therefore, tomeafure the Excellency of a virtuous Mind; 
not as it is the Copy, but the Pattern, of Regal Power, and the 
greater Empire of the Two. xAnd with the Honour of this, to vindi- 
cate the Glory of that Supream Virtue, which hath bleft the World, 
with fo Divine an Image of it felf. 

CHAP. Vill. 

of CeUfiial Mind 

i.T^Ycontemplatingiof God, as inHimfelf, and in his viHble Works ; 

J3 we know what he. Is. We know, that his Perfeftion is bound- 
Ififs and Abfolute ; unto whicii, no Addition can be made,, either in our. 
Conception, or any other way. 

z. And we know our own Impcrfedlion. There is indeed aPerfedion 
of Congruity, belonging to every Creature ; as hath been ihew'd in the 
foregoing Chapter. And fuch is that, which belongeth to the Mind of 
Man. That is, an agreeable Relation, between its own Faculties ; be- 
tween it felf and the Body ; and between it felf and other Parts of 
the Univerfe. 

^. But we alfo know, it is very imperfed, in fundry refpeds. That 
the mod Tenaceous Memory, is very unfaithful. How many thoufands 
of Idea's, have we irrecoverably loft ? That the greateft Underftanriing, 
is Narrow. How much of God, and of Nature, is there, whereof we 
never had any Idea at all ! And the Knowledge We have, how difficultly, 
that is, with how much Doubting and Difquifition, is it obtained ? And 
it cannot be, but that the Imperfedtions of our Will ; Ihould follow 
thofe of Perception. And therefore alfo, that of our Satisfadion and 

4. Now it is the Office of Reafon, by what we know, and fee ; to 
difcover to us, what we fee not. By the Knowledge of God, of our 
Selves, and of Nature Below us, which we fee; we may come alfo to 
the Knowledge of Nature Above us, which we fee not. We may come 
to know. That there are Beings, as well Higher and more Perted, as 
Lower, and lefs Perfed, than our felves : That they are of divers kinds : 
and wherein their Diverfity doth confift. 

5. For as we can never conceive too higUy of God : fo neither too 
magnificently of Nature, his handy Work. The Perfection of Nature, 
tho' not Abfolute, like that of God himfelf, whereunto nothing can be 


C H A P. VlII. Of Celejiial Mind ____ 70 

added: Yet is It, and ought to be Confumtriate; unto which, notb'ng 
fcah be added, which it is capable of. For otherwife, vvelhould fiippold 
jGod, to be Perfed: in his E(iience, and hnperfed:' in his Operation : that 
is to fay, Imperfediiy Perfed. 

6. And for the fame Reafon, there is, atid ought to be, a Corifum- 
hiafe F^erfedion of Things, in every Kind. Of Metals, Gold is the moft 
Durable: Of Stones, the. Diamond, is the Cleerefl:. Among Plants^ 
Corn, of all, istlidmdfl; Noui-ifliing. Among ^ladrHpe^s^.o'i all the 
Bifukd^ the Roe-Deer, is the Swifteft : Of all ihe Hoofed, the Hbrre i^ 
the riiod' Beautiful : Of all the Clawed, the Lyon isth'd ftrongeft. Atid 
among, Animal Bodies, that of a Man, is in ftiany Vefpeds, the riiofij 
Nobie. In like manner, there ought to be, and therefore i^,ftrme vthet-c 
or other, a Cohfummate Perfedtiort beflowed u'pori lift and Mif?d.' 
Which,, in that we find it, neither Below, nor within oirr Selves : iv^ 
mull; of neceffity own it, to be above uS. Forinthait jsfatuire is", tfte: 
Work of God ; and Mind, net only ; a Part «f Nature^'' bi^ tlxt thi^ 
Part: It is every way Congruous, that God Itiotiid CorlfdrtiVnate Mind; 
with all the Perfedion it is capable of, and Conrunima,te Natute witli 
fuchaMihd. ,. '^J!'^^ -y']'-^ 

7. The Exiftence of other Beings, Superior unto HaffianMrpd, isnff-' 
ther evident, from the Plenitude of Things,' fo far as We^' dM kbFe tO ^o. 
throughout the Vifible World. A Glafs, that^s "efilpty d of Licjuof, \vrTt 
be filled with Air : If of Air, with a mi^teiJ Etfi'er. F6r^Can'fec'iny 
thing '-'•-■'- -•'^- ■ v.:J._...L._ ,:...,.■::>,.. .. w,..^, 


not a free acceisor tnoie Doaies, .wnicn are trie i^auies or Ligiit, weiglit,' 
and Cold. So alfo the Pores of Bodies, and the Intervals between tlrc^e- 
veral Mundane Orbs ; are all filled with divers Fluids, one within, a'nici 
more fubtile, than another. And what can be more Redl^'nable, thin/ 
that there (liould be the fame agreeable Plenitude, in the Invififelc 
VVofld? We may then as well fuppofe a Corporeal Vacuum, between 
Heaven and Earth ; as a Vital between God and Man. 

8. As alfo, from the Indefinite Extent, of the Corporeal World. Arf 
Argument, that the Vital, fince it cannot anfwer it, in the fame way 
of Extent; is made to do it, in that of Perfection. So that \vi Can 
no more bound the Perfedion of the one, tljan we can the Extent of 
the other. 

9. And the Reafons which prove the Exiftfence of Celeflial Miridj 
do alfo prove the fanie, to be of divers Kind% and of Degrees of Siipe- 
riority, unto the Mind of Man. For it is Incompetent unto Nature, thi^ 
Parts whereof, we fee every where related one to another, in Oitler 
and Meafure; that a Start fhould be given, from the loweiV Degree or" 
Species of Underflanding Mind, to the Higheft. Since then, there a t^ 
divers kinds and Degrees of Imperfedion, in the Mind of Man: if is 
very Congruous, that they fliould be anfwer'd, by as many Degrees of 
Elevation, or Orders of Celeflial Mind; till we come, atl'a{l,to that, 
ivhich is of . Confunimate Perlcdion. , '^ 

10., The fame is Indicated, from the Scale of ISTature below'tf'^ 
viz. the feveral Degrees of Perfedion therein vifible. Among Stones, 
[' fome have only the Perfedion of Figure,- others, have that of Coldfur 
added to it. Of Plants, fome have Figure only ; others, Figure and Co- 
lour ; others, Figure, Colour, and Scent. Some bear only Seed; 'C- 


8o Of Celefital Mind. Book IL 

thers, Seed and Flower ; others, Seed, Flower, and Frujt. In Animals, 
the Gradation is flill greater. Of the meaneft Kind, are thofe which 
have no Local Motion, but like a Plant, are fixed to one place ; nor any 
Senfc, but that of Touch ; as the Centre-Shell. Next to which, are 
thofe, which have two SerjCes, Touch and Tafte; with, a cpmpleat Lo- 
cal Motion. Yet without the help of any Organs, but the Mufcules, 
to perform it*; as the Snail, Next above tliefe, is a. yVormj which 
hath alfo two Senfes ; and Claws, but no Feet : apd the Claws are ftrait, 
only to take hold, for better progreffion, as a Florfe that's fliod with 
Froft-Nails. Above thefe are Caterpillars,; which, . with two Senfes, 
have Claws, and Feet : and the Claws are Hooked, to take the better 
hold, in climing from Twig to Twig, and hanging on tiie backfides of 
Leaves. Yet their Motion is Fortuitous, and Slow ; as having no Sight. 
Above thefe therefore, are thofe which have Sight, as well as Motion • 
and their Motion, with Legs and Wings, is Determinate and Q^ick j 
as all Flying Infeds. Yet they only beget a Magot. , Therefore above 
thefe, are Fifties, which immediately produce their Kind. AncJ have 
alfo the Senfe of Smell, added to their Sight. But yet are Deaf and 
Dumb. Therefore next to thefe, ai-e Birds, and Beafts, with flearing 
and Voice. Above all which, is placed Man, with Underflanding and 
Artificial Speech: and hereby the Notice, of divers btlier Created Beings 
Superior to himfelf; as well as of a Deity over all, ^ 

II. For it cannot poffibly be, that there fliould beany Difproporti- 
onin the Works of God. But there would have been no Proportion, 
for God to have beflowed more Art, and Multiplicity of VVifdom, 
on the Corporeal World, which is the Meaner; than on the Vital, 
which is the more Excellent. Or on that half of Vital Nature, which 
is below the Mind of Man ; than on the nobler Moiety, which is 4- 
bove it. So that we are to look upon Man, as the Equator of the 

ix. We may hence alfo gather, whei*ein the Diverfity of Superi- 
or Beings doth confift. That with refped to their Efltnce, they are 
of two general Orders ; the one, of Embody 'd ; the other, of Abflf adt- 
ed Mind. 

15. It is reafonableto believe, that the Lower Orders, flanding near- 
er to our felves, have fome way or other, a Perfonal Relation unto Bo- 
dy. This we are direded to, if we look below us. For as there are 
feveral Orders of animated Body, before we come unto Intelled: : So 
it mufl needs be, that there are feveral Orders of Imbody'd Intelled, 
before we come to pure Mind. 

14. Or if we look above us. For if the Tranfition from Flumahe 
unto Perfed Mind, is made by a Gradual Afcent : we cannot conceive, 
that the Perfonal Relation, which Mind hath to Body, Ihould be quit- 
ted all at once ; but anfw erably, by degrees : till we come at laft, to Ab- 
llraded Mind, advanced above all Corporeal Nature. 

15. And that Mind, in its Confummate Eftate, is, and ought thus to 
be abllraded from Body, is evident. For if it be the Perfedion of Body, 
to be united unto Mind : then is it the Perfedion of Mind, to be Ab- 
flraded from Body. And how can it be otherwife, when as God him- 
felf, is the mofl Pure and Perfed Mind. If then, God hath made Bo- 
dy, which is wholly Dark; and Embody 'd Mind, with a dark Side : we 
muft believe, he hath alfo made a Mind,- as far as it is capable, wholly 


Chap. Vl I, Of Celefliil Mini 6. 

Light, and ncared in Likenefs to himfclf. As therefore animated f3o- 
dy, and Imbody'd Mind, are the two proximate Parts; Co Abdraded 
Body and Mind, the two Extreams,of the Vifible and Inviflble World. 

i6. From the Eilence of Superior Beings, we may aHb judge of their 
Powers: that is, of tiieir Faculties, and their Operations. And firll, 
that thofeof the Lower Orders, are not without Senfe : as that which 
dependeth on the Union, of Vital and Corporeal Nature. That as we 
our fclves, have feveral Senfes, which many Creatures below us, are 
deprived of: So tliofe above us, may have divers others, which we alfo 
are without, and wherefore we can have no Conceit. And that as 
Senfe, is gradually N4ultiply'd, in the Creatures below us : So again, 
it is with body, gradually laid afide, in thofe above us. 

17. And it is equally rcafonable, to afcribe the Power of Phancy to 
Imbody'd Mind, as that of Senfe. For Phancy being joyned with In- 
telled in our (elves ; why may it not, in a Superior Mind? And it 
would be a Diforderly Tranfition, from Senfe to Intelledi, without the 
mediation of Phancy. 

18. It is moreover evident, that Human Phancy, is of a different 
Species, from that of Brutes ; as in the Chapter Of Phancy^ hath been 
p-'^ved. As far then, as Phancy in our felves, is Superior to what it is, 
in the Creatures below us: So far may it be Inferior, to what it is, in 
thofe above us. It may in them, be far firongcr, than in our felves j 
both in Reteiiung. and in Forming the Images of Things, And there- 
fore. tI'c, in its Operation upon Body, For if Phancy in our fclves, 
ca- .in Generating, Aflimilating, and Deforming a Body : How 
mucti more effedually, in Them ? If Phancy in us, hath fo great a Pow- 
er, over fo many Organized Parts : How much greater, and more uni- 
verfal, may it have in them, both over their own Body, and over 
any other, by fome fort of Perfonal Union, or without it, at theit 

19. But how far foever Phancy, in the faid Lower Orders,, may 
be Superior to Humane Phancy : we are neverthelefs, to look upon 
their way of Intelledion, to be Co-ordinate, or of the fame Species, 
with our own. For it is Proportional, that as below us, fome Crea- 
tures have one Species of Senfe, and fome another, with the fame fort 
of Phancy : So, that the Creatures next above us, Ihould have a diffe- 
rent Species of Phancy, with the fame fort of Intelledt. 

xo. Yet as the Creatures below us, have different Degrees of Saga- 
city, with the fame Species of Phancy: So thofe above us, having 
the advantage of other forts of Senfe and Phancy ; may fetch a far 
greater Compafs than our felves, with the fame Species of Int(;lIedion^ 
And fo, may be acqliainted with many particulars in Nature, which we, 
are unable to take notice of j and may go much farther, in comprehend- 
ing the Effences and Operations of Things. 

txi. From this Identity of Intelledion, with our own, and its con- 
jundion with Senfitive Phancy ; it comes to pais, that notwitliPcanding 
the greatneis of their Knowlege, they are capable of Moral Evil. As 
it dependeth on the Subjedionof theUnderllanding, unto the Goverri', 
ment of a Superior Phancy. And therefore alfo, by how much Phancy" 
is more potent in Them, than in our Selves ; they are capable of Af- 
fections and Paffions, fo much the more Inordinate : And fo too, of io 
much more and greater Moral Evil. And confequently, of fo muchgreat- 

Y er 

82 Of Cele[lial Mind. Book IL 

er Infelicity. So that Body is given unto fome Superior Minds, not 
to make a true Light, but with a Mixture of Darknefs : that is, to 
make a Mafterly Phancy. And hereby, they feem to (land in foraewhata 
like Relation, unto other beings Superior to themfelvesj with that of 
Brute-Animals, unto Men. ^ 

xz. The Order of Celeflial Beings next Superior to the laft defcribed : 
is that of Mind divefted of all Body, as to any ftated Union therewith, 
howfoever Subtilized or Refin'd. And confequently, of all manner of 
Senfe. Yet fo withal, as we are to conceive, the Phantaftick Principle, 
by a Perfonal Union with the Intelleduai, to make, as in a Man, one 

x3. Nor is it diJI^cult to conceive the being of Phancy, independent 
upon Senfe. For as Phancy, doth not make Intelledt ; being only the 
Inflrument, w hich it ufeth : So neither doth Senfe, make Phancy ; but 
only gives it occafion to operate, in the making of its own Ideas, abfo- 
lutel) diflindt from the perceptions of Senfe. Neither hath Senfe, any 
thing to do with thofe Motions, which are transfer'd unto Phancy, in 
the Command which the Inalledual Will hath over it. 

24. Phancy then, in a Mind divefted of Body, as aforefaid, may be 
affeded three ways ; viz. by Body, Phancy, and Intellecft. By Body. 
For albeit Phancy, in a being purely Mental, having no Perfonal Uni- 
on with a Body, can have no Perception, properly called, Senfitive : 
Yet in ^:hat all Created beings, by mediation of Life and Motion, do 
Communicate • it may hereby be affeded in fome other analogous way : 
which, for dillindion, may be called, Superfenfitive, 

X5. By Phancy. For it cannot be deny'd, but that all Minds may 
CoiTununicate, as well as Bodies. And it is much more reafonable, 
that they fliould do fo ; in that they have a Confcious Perception. And 
what then fhould hinder, but that they may communicate the fame Im- 
prefllons one to another, as thofe which they receive from Bodies ? Or 
fuch as are thereunto anfwerable i And fo enjoy, though no Senfe, ftrid- 
ly fo called, yet thofe Perceptions, which are analogous unto all the Spe- 
cies of Senfe ? 

x6. And by Intelled. Which in this more Noble Order, may have 
fo much the greater Command over Phancy ; as Phancy is lefs Maflerly, 
than, where, by a Perfonal Union with Body, it is fortify 'd by Senfe. 

x7. But although in this Superior Order, Phancy and Intelled: make 
one Mind : Yet fuch a Mind, as is endowed with a different Species of 
Intelledion ; and fo of Operation, yet more Excellent. For we muft 
ftill remember, to have regard to the Proportion of things, in all the 
parts of the Univerfe. As then in all Proportions, the given Numbers, 
' or Meafures, tell us, what the others ought to be : So in the propor- 
tional Relation of Things, by looking upon thofe which are Vifible, we 
are to judge of thofe which are Inviiible. Now we fee, that as there 
are Degrees, in the fame Species of Senfe : So there are alfo different 
Species of Senfe. And as there are Degrees , in the fame Specifs 
of Phancy : So there are alfo different Species of Phancy. Why then, 
ftiould the Divine Wifdom, be lefs various, in a much Nobler part of Na- 
ture, the Degrees and Species of Intelledion ? 

28. Nor IS the Mode of a more Excellent Species of Intelledion, in- 
conceivable. For tho' Dubitation and Difquifition, with refped to their 
End, the finding out of Truth j and with relped to the Creatures be- 

Chap. Vlil. Of Celejiial Mini 89 

low us, which make no Enquiry after Truth at all ; doferve to compleat 
and perfed Human Intelled: : Yet confidered abfolutely, they do evi- 
dently denote Imperl'ecaion ; as in the Beginning of this Chapter, is 
faid. And do therefore lead us to a more Excellent Mind, which enjoys 
the Knowledge of Things, by diredt and immediate Intuition : a Way 
of Intellection, more calie, and more pcrfpicuous. And therefore with- 
out any Inclination, unto Moral Evil. And confequently, accompanied 
with much greater Delight and Pleafure. 

19, And that fomewhere above us, there ought to be, and therefore is, 
a Mind thus fpecified; is feen, by Nature below. For if Phancy, com- 
monly called Inftind, is fo far ptrfedt in Brutes , as to operate without 
Learning and Difquifition, as we fee it is : then alfo, by Proportion, Un- 
derftanding Mind, in fome higher Station of Nature, (hould be advan- 
ced unto equal Perfection : that is, Ihould be endowed with a fort of 
Inteliedual Inftind. Man being placed in the midfl, with Phancy and 
Reafon, both improveable. And of this Order or Species of Mind, 
which may be called Intuitive; we may fuppofe, there are feveral De- 
grees, as well as of Intelledive, or Phantaftick, or any other Species of 

30. Agreeable to the Symmetry of the Univerfe, we mufl yet climb 
a Heaven liigher. We mufl go above that of Pure Mind, which I have 
now defcribed ; unto Simple or Uncompounded Mind. To that which 
is fevered, not only from Body and Senfe ; but alfo from Phancy; ex- 
ifting, as an Abftraded Underftanding Mind : Of all the Species of Su- 
periour Mind, whereof we can have any Diftindl Conception, the mofl 
Sublime. The former being freed, from the Shades of Corporeity ; may 
fee, what it k^s^ Intuitively, or at the firft View : Yet in Conformity 
unto Phancy, may be obliged to fee things, either by Reminifcence ; or 
fome other way of Succeffion, one after another. But the Supream 
Created Mind aforefaid, may poffibly enjoy, both an Intuitive, and a Con- 
temporary View of every Thing. 

3 1. Of this Perfedion, we have the Shadow in our felves ; As in think- 
ing of the Number zo. Whereof, at the fame time, as we know it con- 
tains zo Units, yet we have not xo Conceits , but one fingle Con- 
ceit. Nor have we more than a fingle Conceit of any Genus ; though it 
contains all the Species : Nor of any Species^ though it contains all the 
Individuals. So likewife a Propofition, though it contains divers firft and 
fecond Notions of Things ; yet we afTent to it, as one fmgle Truth. 
Which is one Particular, as hath been obferved in the Chapter Of Intelle- 
tlualMind, wherein Human Reafon doth not only Gradually, but Spe- 
cifically differ, from the Phantaflick Reafon of Brutes : Which have no 
Conceit of Truth, as an Aggregate of divers Simple Conceits, nor of 
any other Univerfal. 

31. Yet even the Mind of Man, labours under this Imperfedion ;That 
we come not to any Truth, or Univerfal, but by a fucceliive View of all 
the Species or Simple Conceits, whereof they arife. Whereas the Mind 
aforefaid, may enjoy a Comprehenfive Sight of all it knows, at one View. 
A Worm finds what it fearches after, only by Feeling, as it crawls from 
one thing to another. Whereas a Man, having Eyes, fees in a Moment, 
all before him. Now there is no Proportion, in there being a greater 
Diflance of Perfedlion between the tw o Extreams of Senle ; than be- 
tween thofe of Intelleiftion. As far therefore, as the Senfe of a Worfii, 


84 Of Celeflial Mind Book 11. 

is beneath Humane Senfe : So far may Humane Intellediion, be beneath 
theComprehenfive, in the Supream Order of Celeflial Mind. 

33. And as the Knowlege of the faid Mind, isperfedt in its Nature: 
So ought it to be, in its Extent. As then the Intuitive Mind, by the 
perfetStion of Phancy, may have fuch a Perception of Senfible things, 
as is Superfenfitive, as hath been faid : So the Abftraded or Compre- 
henfive, may have a fort of Perception of things, uithout the help of 
Senfe, or Phancy, in a Superfenfitive, and a Superphantaftick way. In 
like manner, fo far as can belong to a Creature, as the Deity himfelf, 
tho' he perceiveth neither Pleafure, nor Pain, nor any thing elfe, as we 
do : yet muft needs have a Perfedt and Tranfcendental Perception, both 
of Pleafure, and Pain, and of all other things. 

34. And the Perfection of the Will, in this Supream Created Mind, 
can be no lefs. That is to f 7, having a Perfonal Union, neither with 
Body, nor Phancy : It is neither Inclinable unto Evil, nor, as far as be- 
longeth to a Creature, is capable of it. For it is a Contradidtion to fay, 
that pure Intelled:, can ever be drawn, from its adhefion unto Truth 
and Reditude. 

35 . Nor can the Felicity of this Supream Order of Mind, be unan- 
fwerable, to the Confummate Perfedion of their Underftanding and 
Will. Growing, as from the Comprehenfion they have, of Univerfal 
Nature : So alfo, and chiefly, from their Knowing, Loving, and Obey- 
ing in Perfedion, the Incomprehenfible Author of it. Whom they fee, 
to be as far above therafelves j as they fee themfelves, above a Mit? or 
an Atome. 

Thus far, of Celeflial Mind, and of the Vital World. 


Chap. I. 




- . - — : - - — ■- 


Wherein is fliewed , That GOD 
Governs the Univerfe which he 
hath made : And in what man- 

c H A P I. 

Of the Nature of GO Us Government, or of 

Divine Providence, 

;Rovi(ience, is God's Provifion or Forecaft 
of Caufes, fufficient to the fulfilling of 
all his Ends. The Being whereof, is de- 
monftrated, from the Perfedtion of the Di- 
vine Nature : The Imperfection of the 
Creatures ; and the Conftitution of the U- 
2. Creation, doth neceflarily infer Pro- 
vidence. For the Being of every thing, 
is for thj fake of its Operation, Whca 
therefore, God gave Being to Things : he 
could not but provide for the Regiment of their Operations. For o- 
therwife, he had taken care of the Means, and over-look'd the End j 
which is a Contradidion. 

3. God either provided for the Government of the World, when he 
made it ; or refolv'd never to think of it more, when he had done. That 
is, he thought it an Effed:, worthy of his Infinite Wifdom and Power : 
yet unworthy of his Care, of what became of it. 

4. Dare we fay, he cannot govern ? That were to fuppofe Him, to cre- 
ate Witnedes of his own Imperfeiftion. And if he can, and doth it not : 
then his Ability is altogether in vain/ 

5. The fame is evident, fj;om the Imperfection of the Creature. In 
that nothing can continue to Be, by virtue of its firft Being; as in the 
Chapter Of G D^ hath been proved. But if the Divine Energy be necef- 
fary, to the Continual Being of Things : Then is it alfo, to their Ope- 

Z ration : 

^5 Of the Nature Book ill 

radon : which is a certain Manner of Being. And confequently, unto 
whatloever Is, or is Done in the World. 

6. It likewife appears, in the Univerfal Conftitution of Things. The 
Government ^ep atnong Cajhrs, Bees^ aijtl other iBferiortr Creatures , 
apparently flie?(^ its Origihai, to be from God. But if founded in the 
Nature of thefe Creatures ; how much rather, in that of Man ? a much excellent. Creature j and to wliorait is of much greater Ufe 
And lliould we fuppofe it, to come, in any fort or degree, from Cuftom 
or td^jcation 'J yefe.has it ftill the fame Pedigree ; as Cuftom it feJCcoraes 
from Natures which comes from God. k is alfo Vifibic e\rery where, 
Thart; thofe Tilings, which have more Power ; govern thofe, which have 
left '. Motion, governs Matter j Life, Senfe, and Phancy, govern Motion ; 
aqd Reafon, goy^ras Phancy. Which alfo leads us through the feveral 
degrees of Power, in Celeftial Mind ; till we come to the firft Caufe 
and Pattern, of all regular Motion and Operation, God himfelf^ Who 
in making all things fit to govern, and to be governed : hereby ftieweth. 
That they are both the Object, and the Image, of his Nature, as their fu- 
pream Governour. 

7. And therefore, his Government is alfo fuch, as is every way wor- 
thy of Himfelf, viz. of that Extent, and Form, as is fuitable, both to 
his own Nature, and that of the Creatures. 

8 . And firft, it is in all refpeds, Univerfal. Reaching not only to 
Celeftial, but Terreftrial Worlds; and among them, this we live in. 
Not only unto Things of greater Moment : but unto thofe alfo, which 
feem to us, to be the moft Cafual, and the mod Trivial. And fo unto 
every Work, Thought, Motion or Contingent : or the Operation, as 
well as the Being of every Vital Principle, and of every Atom. And 
therefore not only unto the Proximate Effeds of Things ; but unto all 
otliets, the moft Remote. 

9. For it was as truly the Ad: of Infinite Power, to give Being, unto 
onefingle Aioin ; as to give Being, unto the whole World. If then God 
inten^d not, the particular and precife Ufe, of every fingle Atom : 
he employed Infinite Power to make it in vain. That fingle Atom^, as 
fmall as it is, had been no better, thtm a Piece of Lumber. And he might 
as well have employed the lame Infinite Power, any other way, invam : 
as well have made an Angel, as-an Atom, or a Million of Angels, or the 
V¥orld in vain. « 

• lb. Could we fuppofe God, not to have regard to the utmoft Ufe of 
Things, or not unto all Poflible Effeds : we muft infer, That as to fome 
of their Effeds, he made them, he knew not for what. And his Works 
muft then be efteemed, partly Intelledual, as thofe of reafonable Crea- 
tures- 'and partly Phantaftick, as thofe of Brutes. And fo, the Exuberan- 
cy of his Power, would only have ferved, to Demonftrate the Deficien- 
cy of his Underftanding. 

1 1 . And the Suppofal of any Imperfedion in his Underftanding j 
muft fuf^ofe Mm to be Mutable. As hereby he muft needs fee, lome 
Things in their Effeds J which he did not forelee in himfelf, as their 
Caule. And therefore alfo Deceivable, and Unjuft : As not comprehen- 
ding the Proportions between the Caufes and Effeds of Ihings. And 
confequently, could not be perfedly Good. 

\TL. If then we will allow tlie Deity, to Be, what he Is: we muft alfo al- 
low the Nature of his Government, to anfwer that of his Being. And that 

- ■ • all 

C H A p; I of Providence. 

atlliis Works, do anfvver one to another. So that we may as well fay, 
there are (ome Things, -he did not Make ; as that there are any, which 
he doth govern. 

13. Nor is theMajePiy of the Divine Government, greater in its Ex- 
tent : than the BecomingnL-fs hereof. In its Manner and Form. T]:e 
former, fliews the Neceiiity of the latter. For otherwife, the Greatnefs 
of its Extent, Mould only ferve to make it, fo much the more Monflrous 
and Deformed. 

14. Now the Form of God's Government, confifleth in Tu^o things, 
'viz. The Mediation or Mipiftry of Second Caufcs : And the Order where- 
in they Minifler. We are not to thinly that God doth any thing imme- 
diately orbyhimfelf alone : but that.hedoth every thing, by the Medi-i 
ation of fome one or more Infu uments. For it is fenfelefs, to fupppofe 
he would make any inflrument, which he did not intend to ufe. And 
to what F.nd, lliould he have made any Inltruments ; if not all, that were 
fit and necedary to do his Work ? 

15. As thefeveral Parts of the Univerfe, are fo many leiler Engines: 
So the VVhole, is not a meer Aggregate, or Heap of Parts, but one great 
Engine, having all its Parts fitly let together, and fet to work : or one Entire 
Movement of Divine Art. To fuppole it then, either to ftand ftill, or to 
move irregularly , in the VVhole, or in any the leaft Part, without 
the fupervening of a New Divine PdU'Cr': is to fuppofe the Author of 
it, not to be his Arts Mafter. 

16. There is nothing therefore in Nature, neither Miraculous, nor 
anything elle of the greatefl^ Moment ; wherein God is to be thought 
a Solitary and immediate Agent. But that every thing depends upon 
fome Created Caufe or Caufes, with Commiliion or Power, futfici- 
ent to produce it. But as the Caufes, which we fee and contemplate, 
though of the mod ufual Effeds ; do juflly merit our Adoration of 
the Supream Caufe: fo more efpecially thofe, which are unknown 
to us, and whofe Effcils are Miraculous. 

17. We are alfo to venerate the Divine Government, as this Immenle 
World of Iniiruments, are ufed in due and perfed: Order. All Dif- 
order, being both an Imperfedion in it felf : And implying (ome Igno- 
rance, of the bed Ufe of Things. When we fay, that Reafon goi 
verns the Foot : we underftand , That Reafon, governs the Phancy , 
which governs the Mufcule, which governs the Foot. Reafon, by Phan- 
cy, guides the Eye, and helps the Hand, which guides and helps the 
Foot. Whether then, we refpedt the Mediation, or the Order of 
Caufes, in the Divine Government; as Reafon governs the whole Bo- 
dy; So God, the Supream Reafon, governs the whole World. 

18. Wherefore, Regularity, or the Order of Things, tho' we fee it 
not every where ; yet is it every where to be fuppofed. 

1 9. But for the mod part, whether we look into the Corporeal, or the 
Vital World; into the EiTence, or the Operation of Things, it is very- 
apparent. We (ee, tliat albeit the Princip-les of Bodies, are bf innume- 
rable kinds; yet fome of them, have fo far the Dominion over all the 
red; that there are but ilx or feven, which come withm the Notice of 
Senle. And of thefe, there are two, which alfo prevail, v/z. the feveral 
forts of Salts, and of Air. The former, in governing the Figures or Ge- 
nerations of Bodies : the latter, their Motions and Dilfolutions. 

%o. So 

88 Of the Nature. . Book 111. 

» I ■"■■ ' I . . !■! ■' ■ I '■■■ .■-■I ■ ' ■■ I »l ■ I 1^ - I.- — I. — - .■.■.^■— ■■■ I ■ .— 

xo. So likevvife, there are feveral forts of Motion, arifing from fe- 
veral Springs, But that which is moft UniverfaJ, is mixed with, and 
has a fort of Dominion over all others ; is that of Gravitation. Where- 
by, notwitiiftanding all the Varieties and Contrarieties of Motion in 
the World ; yet, as all the Leffer parts of the World, are aflbciated with 
the Greater ; fo all the Greater, one with another : As the Moon with 
the Earth, and the Earth and all the other Planets, with the Sun. Nor 
is it unlikely, but that all thofe Millions of Suns, or of fixed Stars, which 
are in the Univerfe, have feme kind of Correfpondence with one ano- 

zi. The Dominion which Celeflial Bodies, both the Planets, and fix- 
ed Stars; but chiefly, the Sun ancT Moon, have over the Earth, and the 
feveral parts of it, efpecially under, or near the Line; how great and 
wide is it ? both by virtue of their Motion ; their Power of producing 
Light and Heat ; and divers other Qualities and Powers. For though 
their Diftance is great ; yet this is fufficiently anfwer'd by their Bulk, 
and the Subtilty of the Intervening Ether. Which if it ferves to trans- 
fer Light and Heat ; why not other Qualities ? And we fee in fadt, that 
befides the Power of Gravitation, there is a Power, between Heaven 
and Earth, particularly directive towards their Poles. And I have fliew- 
ed, by an Experiment fet down in the Anatomy of Plants^ that as the 
Roots of all Plants do tend downward, fo their Trunks or Stalks, up- 
ward ; thoie, by fome fort of a I errellriai ; thefe, of a Celellial Mag- 

xa. The Sun then, by commanding the Motion of the Earth ; gives 
it a Dominion over every thing that betongs to it. By its Diurnal Mo- 
tion, it brings the Night: And by its Annual, fets the feveral Lengths of 
the Day, and Seafons of the Year. This, as a neceflary Recruit unto 
the Vegetable World ; that, unto the Animal. And by both, contri- 
butes very far, to the Making, and Variation, of Winds, and Tides. 

a3. By its Light, it exhibits the Furniture, and conducts the bufinefs 
of the whole World. And in (hewing all the varieties of Colour ; becomes 
the Paint and Varnilh of Vifible Nature. 

X4. By its Heat, hath the chief Controul, above, of Vapors and Ex- 
halations : And fo, in the Produdion of all forts of Meteors. And by 
This, with other Qualities, hath a governing Power, here below : As in 
the Generation of the two Worlds of Plants, and Infeds : And more 
or lefs, of all other Animals, ^s alfo in their Growth. Which in moft 
Plants and Animals of the fame kind, is not only more Quick in Hot 
Countries, than in Cold, but far Greater. • Therefore Women, which 
with us, bear not till the Age of i6 or 17 Years: In the Eaft-Indks^ 
are prolifick at 10 or n. kx\AVeacocks^ with fome other Birds, which 
in Colder Climates, lay but 5 or 6 Eggs : in Hotter, lay double the num- 
ber. And on the fame Solar Virtue, may likewife depend, in part, that 
certain Degree of Growth, unto which Man, and all other Animals are 
confin'd. • 

25. Nor is the Dominion of the Moon, much lefs. By its Light, it 
Conduds the Unufual, as the Sun doth the Conflant or Ordinary bufi- 
nefs of Men. - By its Motion, itallifls in the Command of Winds, and 
Tides. By thefe, and other Qualities, in the profperity of Seeds, and 
young Plants, newly Sow'n and Set. In the filling of Shell-filh ; a fort 
of Animal-Vegetation. In the growth of the Hair; a fortpf Plant up- 

"■ on 

A P. 

i, of Providence. 89 

on an Animal. And in the growth of the Teeth : which, for inftance, 
in a Horie, begin to appear within the firfl 3 Months; in iz Months, 
he hath 6 below, and 6 above ; in 30, he changeth z above, and % below ; 
and in 41, he hath 4 new ones, on both fides. Asalfo, inalithofe Mo- 
tions and Mutations, which are made in the Humors of the Body of 
Man. For if it hath a Vifible Power, over thofe Grand Fluids, the 
Sea and the Air, without the Body : why not over thefe within it, the' 
another way ? 

i6. There is no other Caufe can be affigned, for the ufual Purgation of 
Women, by Monthly Returns. Nor why they begin with the New 
Moon, in young Women, in whom the Humors are more moveable and 
obedient to the Lumr Influx : but with the Old, in Elder Women, in 
w horn they are lefs. 

x-j. It is the Moon too, that is Miflrefs of the Time for bearing the 
Fxtus^ and bringing it to its full Growth : which is not left to any 
I.ength ; but limited to a Month, or Months, or Parts of a Month, In 
Elephants^ to 18 Months; in Mares zv\d. /^Jfes^ to iz; in Camels and 
Co?w, to 10; m Deer^ to 8; in»j , to 6 ; in Sheep, to s ; in ffogs, to 
4 ; in Badgers and Foxes, to 3 ; in Hares and Rahhits, to one ; in Chick- 
ens ^ to zi Days. 

z8. And no left, of the time of Labour. For howfoever it comes to 
pafs, from Sundry Caufes, that many Women are Delivered in the Day- 
time : Yet there is not one in a Thoufand, but begins to Cry out, or to 
fall in Labour, in the Night. And as the mofl eafie Labour, is towards, 
and in the full Moon ; fo the hardeft, in the New and Silent Moon. 

^9. Nor doth it only govern thefe things, which are partly Natural, 
and partly againfl; Nature : but likewifefeveralDifeafes, properly fo called. 
Epilepfys, and Maniacal Lunacies, do ufually conform, either in their 
Periodical Returns, or in the force of their Paroxyfmes, to the Age of the 
Moon. Andfo hkewife do the Motions of Ffiji^frj, towards their Crijis. 
More apparently in thofe Countries, which lye either under the Ecliptick 
IJne,or near to it. Where, the Air, being a much cleerer and thinner Medi- 
um ; and the Diftance of the Moon, much lefs : The Lunar Rays^ the 
Vehicle of its other Qualities, defcend with fo much the greater Vi- 
gour, fn u hich Countries, as in Eg^vpt and Greece, the firfl: Obfervati- 
ons of this kind, were therefore more eafily and more exactly made. 

30. And the fame Emanations, which dired: the Motions of Difeafes, 
may likewife produce them. And confequently, have a deputed power 
over Death. For what can be more reafonable, than that the Genera- 
tion, Motion, and Termination of Difeafes, fliould have a dependence, 
upon the fame general Caufe ? And accordingly, moft People, do then 
dye, when the Moon chiefly reigns : that is, either in the Night, or up- 
on or near a Spring-Tide. The Sun, on the contrary, having the pow- 
er of Life, as God's Vice-Monarch over the Corporeal World. So then, 
the Dominion of Bodies, and of Motions, over one another, and of 
Heaven, over Earth ; being eflablilhed by the Meafures of Divine Wif- 
dom and Goodnels ; may properly be efleemed, a part of the Divine Go- 

3 1 . And as God hath efiabliflied a Regiment of Bodies over one ano- 
ther : So moreover, of the f^ital over the Corporeal World. All Moti- 
on, and confequently, all Bodies being govern'd by Life, known, or 
unlcnown to us. Phancy, in ourfclves, and other Animals, is able to 

A a move 

^o Of the Nature Book 111, 

move the whole Body. And the Government, which the Mind in Ani- 
mals, hath over the Body: Sheweth, that God hath beftowed, forae- 
where or other, , upon Celefiial Mind, the Regiment of the Corporeal 
-World. For it is Incongruous, for God to give more Power, to an In- 
ferior, than to a Superior Mind. So that a Mind, of any Rank or De- 
gree, Superior to our own, having a Power to command the Principles 
of Motion : by the fame Power, may command any Part or Parts 
of the Univerfe, great or fmall ; with the fame eale, as a Man doth his 
own Body. " 

3 i. Nor can the Regiment of Mind over Bodies, as afoi-efaid, upon 
any folid ground, be deny'd. By the ufual courfe of Nature, a Stone 
will fall to the Ground : but by the force of a Man's Hand, is made to 
alcend. By the fame courfe of Nature, the Sun-beams would never 
burn: but by means of a Convex-Glafs, they are made to converge 
into a burning Focus. With what Senfe then, can we think, that the 
World above us, fliould at no time be permitted to fufpend, or promote 
the Stated Motions and Operations of Bodies; when we often fee them, 
to be fufpended, or promoted, by our felves ? 

^3. Yet in that the Principles of Bodies, and the Powers by which they 
are moved, are unalterable : we are not to fuppofe, that any Order of Be- 
ings in the fuperior World, hath either Commiflion, or Power, to Deftroy 
the ftated Courfe of tilings, or to Introduce any other. 

34. Neither is the Vital World, in any part of it, without Order. 
For befides that which is Confpicuous, in divers (orts of Brutes; Mankind 
hath an eftabliflied Dominion over them all ; as they are deprived, of 
Human Reafon, Shape, and Speech. What can be more admirable, 
than to fee a little Boy, Dpmineering over a War-Horfe^ or an Elephant ? 
And it is feldom, that any Creature rebells, but to keep, or defend it 
felf ; for Food, or Safeguard. 

3 5. There is no Nation, of whatfoever Climate, or Humour, Vir- 
tuous or Barbarous, Learned or Rude ; but naturally forms it felf into 
fome kind of Government. The Varieties whereof, do all of them 
centre upon that, which in effed, is the Regal : As the United Provinces^ 
with their Statholder, and the Venetians^ with their Doge. Nor could 
ths. Romans be without a Dictator ^ upon great occafions. And both 
the jews^ for fome time, and fundry other Nations, in the firfl Ages af- 
ter the Flood, were govern'd by Priells. The Termination of Power, 
fome, way or other, upon one Head; being the Perfediion of Human 
Government , as it is a Part , and in fome fort, the Image, of the 

3-6. Yet no Human Power, can be Abfolute. Never was there any 
fuch, of Right, or in Fad-, in the World: but every where fetled 
upon Conditions, Exprelled , or Imply'd. For the Nature of God, 
being Incommenfurable with that of Man; and the Nature of Man, 
with that of Brutes : The Dominion therefore , v\ hich God hath 
over Man , is Abfolute ; and fo too , that which Man hath over 
Brutes. But that which Man hath over his own Species, never 
was, nor can be Abfolute: but mud always be founded upon a 
Realonable Will. Which belongs not to any one Man, but is 
the common Principle of Humane Nature. And , as fuch, can ne- 
ver comply, but upon Terms regarding the Good of Humane 
Society. With refpedt to which, ^here is no fort of Government , 


^ . C H A p. J. of Providence. c i 

II _ ^- , — _Z1 

but may juftly be efteemed, a Part of God's Dominion eftabliflied in the 

37. Next above Civil Government, is that of the $uperiour World 
over the Minds of Men; and confequently, oyer all Humaqe Af- 
fairs. ,_ , '. .,,,1,.,.,.,,' I ^ 

38. Of this, there are fundry great Indications. 'A^'firfl;, Tlie Co- 
herent Afcent or Advance, which is made in the Nature or Eflence of 
Things, from the meaneft, to the mofl: excellent. As then Gqd has 
made a Connection of all the Parts, in the Compofure of the Univerle ; 
fo he hatli undoubtedly done, of all the Operations in the Government 

39. The fame is further Indicated from the Regiment which is vifible 
in the Corporeal World. For when we fee the Power and Influence, 
which Celedial Bodies have over the Earth, and over our own, and o- 

tlier Bodies : we mufl: conclude, That the Power and Influencey which ' 

Superiour Minds have over the Mind of Man , is hereunto ana- 
logous, ,. .^ 

40. As alfo, from the Congruity, which cannot but be every where, 
between the Ellence and the Operation of Things. It is Incongruous, 
That the Empire of Body, fliould be larger, than that of Mind. That 
all Bodies, (hould have more Pdwer, which have more^ Motion ; and 
not all Superiour Minds, which have more Underftanding. And then, 
to what End, fliould they have a Power to operate on the Mind of Man : 
if neither required, nor permitted, to make ufe of it ? 

41. Yet in the Ufe of this Power, we mufl: fuppofe them, to ad: in 
conformity to the Laws of Nature, with refped: both to the Patient, 
and themfelves. That as they have a Power, to operate upon Bodies ; 
but not to dertroy their Principles, nor the flatcd Laws of their Motion : 
So like wife, to move, and to propofe unto the Mind of Man; but 
not tO'Dcflroy its Faculties, nor the fl:ated Manner of their Ope- 
ration, . I \ 

4z. With refped to their own Nature ; we mufl: fuppofe, that thole 
Imbodied Minds, which are in a flate of Darknefs ; will make it their 
[Buflnefs, either by their Immediate Accefs to the Phancies of Men, or 
fpthcrwife to incline them unto Error ; and with Pravity and Diforder, 
ftoobllrucl: their Peace and Happinefs. Neither are we to think it 
; 11 range, That God, for certain wife and jufl Ends, fliould as well permit 
[the Being and Operations of thefe Enemies to the Mind : as of PoiTons, 
which are alike Enemies to the Body. ; 

45. That thofe, on the contrary, which being of the Higher Or- 
ders, enjoy a State of Light and Perfedion : have their Office, To 
Move and Aflift Men, in the Profecution of Truth and Goodnefs, And 
both of them dieir Commifllon, fo far to over-rule all Humane Aflairs ; 
asmay beflfervcthe Ends, which God hath propofed to himfelf in the 
Government of the World. 

44. It is alfo neceflary, That the Superiour World, fliould have a 

tcgiment eflabliflied within it felf. For how can it be fuppofed fit, to 

jovern This, if it hath no Government of its own ? As then Order is 

ken, in all the Parts of the Corporeal World ; fo it is to be fuppofed, 

all the Parts of the Intelledual. 


92 Of the Ends of Providence. Book III. 

4^. And as there are divers forts of Government in the Vital here be- 
low : So it is to be fuppofed, in that above. Here below, is the Phanta- 
ftick, among Brutes; the Arbitrary or Defpotick, of Man over Brutes; 
and the Rational, or Civil, among Men. And it is reafonable to believe, 
That in like manner above, There is a Kingdom of Darknefs, limited to 
certain Bounds within it felf ; as well as a Kingdom of Light, The for- 
mer, anfwering, in fome fort, to that among Brutes; the latter, to 
that among Men. And that in the Kingdom of Light, there is alfo fet- 
led a two-ibld Dominion. That which is given it, over the Kingdom of 
Darknefs : And that which is eftablilhed within it felf. The former an- 
fwering, in a fort, to the Defpotick Dominion, which Men have over 
Brutes: the latter, to the Civil, which they have over one another. 
And therefore, that there are as many Orders of Celeftial Dominion, as 
there are of Celeftial Mind. And that as God hath deputed the Sun, as 
Monarch over the Corporeal World ; fo likewife fome Celeftial 
Mind, over botii This, and the Intelledual, by whom he adrainifters the 
Regiment of the Univerfe. 


Of the Ends of Providence, Jnd firfi, 

in this Life, 

I.' I HE Formation, and Ends of Things, have both been already 
X. confidered in the Firft Book. I fliall here take a further View 

of the Latter; on which fomuch depends, the Veneration we owe to 

God, on the fcore of his Divine Government. 

X. VVc fee, indeed, many things to be, and to come to pafs, which 

feem to be Contingent, or without any End at all. Many, which feem 

to be Small and Trivial, without any Material End. And many, which 

feem to be Irregular, without any fuch End, as may be ftiled Fit andjuft. 

Arid fo, not to come within the compafs of any good Government, much 

lefs tbe Divine. 

3. And theCaufes of this Appearance, are diverfe. For as the Invifi- 
ble Number, Diverfity, and Operation of Principles, make it hard to ob- 
ferve any thing well, of the Generation of Bodies ; and a full Account 
hereof impoffible : So likewife, in the Government of the World, the 
Number and Variety, of the Ends on Foot, their manifold Subordina- 
tion, and the great Diftance of many, one from another, with the Se- 
cret Nature of moll Things to which they relate ; muft needs make a 
diftind: Remark of their Congruity, in fome Cafes, very diflficult, and in 
fome, unattainable. 

4. It is proper to every Species of wild Birds, to have their Specifick 
Colours: excepting the 5c^«/>-jD«c^, wherein the Colours- vary, almoft 
m each Individual. To Rapacious Birds, to be Solitary : yet the Vul- 
tur, is Gregarious. Molt Animals move forward , and diredly : but 
Crabs crawl backward; and the Echinometra^ in a Spiral Line. Moft 
have their Heads and Eyes, in a Dire^ Pofition : but in fome Fiflies of tiie 


G H A p. il. of Frovide7ice. ^ 

Flat kind, they are naturally made, to ftand awry. All of. therrii to 
fliew. That as there are fonnc Anomalous Parts of the Creation : fbalfo 
of Providence: the Caufes of the former, and the Reafons of the lat- 
ter, being placed, both alike, above our reach. 

5". And as many of them are (ecret in their own Nature : ib from the 
TJnfitnefs of Men, to think of them in a right manner. The Motion 
and Faces of the Moon, looked on alone, and but in one Revolution ; 
would feem to be befide all good Rule. But feveral Revolutions being 
compared together, and with thofe of the Earth : we then fee, that 
nothing could be ordered to better purpofe. In like manner, fome may 
fee that Red:itude in the Regiment of the Univerfe, vi'hich well be- 
comes the Author of it. While the Reafon or End, almoft of every- 
thing, is a Secret to Unthinking Men. 

6. Moreover, tf God hath given a Power to Superiour Minds, over 
this lower World : as in the foregoing Chapter, it appears he hath : we 
muft alfo fuppofe them to be concerned, in the Reafon and Ends of fo 
great a Truft. And therefore in their fublime Eftate, may have a per- 
fpicuous View of many things ; in the fearch whereof, we below, are 
utterly loft. And fome things, may be above the Reach, of all Finite 

7. Albeit then, many Particulars of Divine Providence, may be inex- 
plicable : yet it behoves us, not to fay. How many.' This being nieafu- 
red, according to the Underftanding of every Man. And fome which 
^eem Inexplicable at the firft j appear otherwife, upbri a further Enquiry: 
from the Difficulty whereof, we are hereunto the father invited. For 
could we comprehend the Works of Providence, in their full Extent : 
we fhould, for that very Reafon, conclude them, not to be the Works of 
God, And were there no Difficulties herein, requiring Pains to refolve 
them : they would be le(s valuable, than many of the Works of Men. 
If then, there is fo great a Perfection in all that we fee : we muft con- 
clude, of there being the fame, in whatever we fee not. 

8. And firft, it is certain, that there is no real Contingent ,- whether 
in Tilings of more or lels Moment. For albeit there are many fo called ; 
and, with refped to us, may be fo accounted : yet, with regard to the 
Deity, there can be no fuch thing. For if he is Phantaftick in nothing ; 
but hath ordain'd the Exiftence and Operation of every thing, unto fome 
certain End ; as in the precedent Chapter hath been proved : then to al- 
low the being of any Contingent ; is to infer the being, fomewhere or 
other, of a Contingent End : which is down-right Nonfenle. 

9. Wherefore, by Conting^ents, we are to underftand thofe ThingSj 
which come to pafs, without any Human Forecaft. Many of which, 
God is pleas'd to ufe, the better to reprefent his own. So, the cafual 
dropping of a Word, has been the Taking, and the Buying of an infe- 
ded Coat, the Deftrudion of a City. Brutus and Cafius loft a Vidory 
of the greateft Moment, which they had in their Hands ; Not for want 
of Courage, or Skill ; in themfelves, or their Army j but by an Acciden- 
tal Error. 

. 10. Unto this Part of Providence, belongs all that, which Men have 
been wont to call. Fortune. Who, obferving many remarkable Events, 
which they could not afcribe unto any Human Condud : thought it rea- 
Ibnable, to refer them to a Divine. 

B b ii.Where- 



Of the Nature Book IK. 

ii. Wherefore alfo, as there can be no Contingent, with refpedl to the 
Deity ; fo nothing Minute or Trivial. Quantity, is a Pofitive Thing : 
but Greatnefs and Smalnefs, have a Relative or Comparative Being. 
The fame Body, through an Optick Glafs, is of one Bulk ; but through 
the Eye, of another. In like manner, thofe Things, which may feem 
to us,, to be Small and Trivial ; under God's own Eye and Manage- 
ment, may and muft be Great, whether we are concerned, or furprized, 
or neither : they have all a Place, fome where or other, in their Tendency 
unto Wife and Juft Ends. 

iz. And as God often fliews the Magnificence of his Defigns, in ef- 
feding them by Teeming Accidents : fo in fufpending of all good Coun- 
fels, where they ought chiefly to have been ufed: as in Fompefs Cafe. 
Who, before he fought with Ca:(ar, neither encamp'd on a convenient 
Ground, nor had provided any Place of Refuge, for himfelf, in cafe 
ot a Defeat. And whereas his Forces increafing daily, and being in a 
Country where he was belov'd, and furnifli'd with Treafure, and a Pow- 
erful Navy, and hereby with all Provifions necCiTary for the War ; he 
might have got the better, by Delay : he was ncverthelefs, fatally pre- 
cipitated to a Battle. And being aftonifli'd at the lofs of that Vidory, 
whereof he thought himfelf fure ; he was again bereaved of all Prudent 
Refolution : whereby, with the Force and Love of all AJia ; which, 
though defeated, he had yet the Command of; he might eafily have re- 
cover'd all. 

13. And many times, in countervening all the Precaution, which 
could be ufed or given. So Domitian was flain in that very Hour, the 
Fifth, which he Ibught to decline. When Cafar had a Paper given him, 
containing an Account of the Confpiracy to kill him, and the Names 
of the Confpirators, on that very Day wherein he was flain : yet he 
would not fo much as read it. He, whofe Sagacity was wont to fearch- 
out Danger ; was then fo Imprudent, as neither to beware his Enemies, 
nor believe his Friends, when they had fet it before his Eyes. And this 
is that, which Men have been ufed to call Fate. Which is that Part of 
Providence, whereby God exhibits the Certainty and Infallibility of his 

14. There is an Exa6t Coherence and 'Harmony, as between the 
Compofures, fo between the Motions of Nature : wherein the Execu- 
tion of Providence, may be faid to confift. All of them, as truly ma- 
king one Piece ; as all the Members make a Man. Yet the Exadt 
Meafores, cannt)t be difcern'd in the Parts of either, but by the Symme- 
try of the Whole. 

15:. One in former Ages, might have ask'd with Wonder, Why 
the Habitable Parts of the Earth ftiould be divided, and the People 
fever*d one from another, with fuch Vafl: Seas .•> Not knowing, that it 
was a moft Excellent Forecaft, of all the Improvments of Navigation. 
And confequently , that they were divided, and fever d in this ftiaa- 
ner; fo much the more eafily, and expeditely, to bring them to- 

16. The Earth was firft Peopled, among the Richefl Minerals 
near the Line : And Men were hereby invited to the Arts of Managing 
Precious Stones and Metals. Among the greateft Variety of Dleful 
Plants and Animals : as Materials for Food and Phyfick. Efpecially 
in Egypt ; where by the Reign of many Difeafes, Men were obliged 


C H A P. IL of Providence. o^ 

to the Study of Medicine. As by the Inundation of the N/le, to that of 
Geometry. And in ChaUea, were Excited, by the Serenity of the Air, 
to the Cultivation of Aftronomy. That the Remoter Climates, might 
Engraft their Improvments , on the Inventions of the Eaftern Na- 

17. Nor are we to look upon Providence, any other way by the 
Halves ; but to own it, either in none , or in all Effeds and Confe- 
quences. And therefore, in all thofe, which are the moft Natural. 
And for that reafon, becaufe they are Natural. The Sun makes Light, 
and Mufick makes Mirth, And who doubts, but that they were de- 
fign'd to do it ? In like manner, Earthquakes and Thunders, which 
feme think, are not to be regarded : Yet in that they Naturally cre- 
ate Fear ; were therefore, intended to do it. And if fometimes tliey 
dodellroy ; they were then intended, fometimes to deftroy. And if 
Earthquakes, do oftener happen in Cities, than in the Fields : What- 
foever Natural Caufe hereof may be given ; the fame alfo Ihows, 
they were defign'd to do it. And are therefore, to be confider'd and re- 

18. Again, as God hath made the Structure of the Body, naturally 
to produce certain Motions ; lb the Difpofitions of the Mind, to pro- 
duce certain Etfeds. If Lentulus be Ambitious, he fliall be vainly Cre- 
dulous ; prefuming his Advancement to be decreed, by the Sibylline O- 
racles. Let Men be efteem'd never fo Virtuous, in fome refpe(Sts ; 
yet if under the Dominion of any one Vice, they muft expedt the or- 
dinary Effeds of it ; If Lazy, to be Poor; If Intemperate, to be Difeas'd ; 
if Luxurious, to Die betimes. Which Effeds being Natural, do there- 
fore lie within the Regiment, which is EftabliQi'd by the Author 
of Nature. And plainly (how. That from the firll, he intended, That 
Mankind fliould fare vvell or ill from themfelves. 

19. We are, moreover, to efteem the Harmony of Providence to be 
fuch ; That fome Things, without being confiderd as Caufes, may yet 
be Coincident with agreeable Events ; As Comets, and other unufual 
Fhxnomena^ or flranger Accidents. An Eclips of the Moon, preceded 
the Overthrow of Darius^ by the Greeks- Another, that of Terfeus^ by 
the Romans. Another, tlie Fate of Julius Cafar. VVhofe Image alfo, 
(landing in his own Houfe, fell down of it felf, and brake to pieces, on 
the Day, in which he was flain. A great Eclips preceded the Fight at 
Aliium, which put a Period to the Roman Common-wealth. An Extraor- 
dinary Comet, the Revolt of the Seven Provinces from the Crown of 
Spain. The Troubles throughout the Empire, under Valentinian^ an U- 
niverfal Earthquake. And if thefe Inftances are at a diftance ; the three 
Remarkable Comets of our own time, are not forgot. Two of them, 
Fore-runners of the Plague, and Fire of London j the Third, of the 
great Sufferings of the Reformed in France. Nor was the late Earth- 
quake, Inarticulate ; when, in giving all England a Shake ; and in Flan- 
ders.^ over-turning the King's Tfcnt, it foretold the Death of the Queen, 
wherein the King and People were fo deeply concern d. And thus much 
is evident in fact ; That Calamities very Grievous, and publickly felt, 
have feldom come to pafs, witiiout fome Prognoftick in tleaven, or oa 
Earth. Though fome Men, either by failing in their references unto due 
Time and Place ; or not conudering. That a Prognoftick, is not to be 
matched witii an EffedJ, but only a proper Event ; may injudicioufly 


Of the Nature, Book lit 

think othervvife. For nothing can be more reafonabJe, than that he, 
who projeded the Motions, both of Corporeal and Intelledual Nature,* 
whether Ufual or Rare : fliould alfo, for as often as he thought fit, 
have projcded a Concurrence between the fame : and hereby have made 
them, though not the Caufes, yet the fuitable Fore- runners, of one 

xo. From the fame neceflary Harmony, between the feveral Parts of 
Creation and Providence, 'tis alfo evident, That they are all Good and 
Juft. The Natures, and the Ends of Things, equally concurring, 'in 
making up that Entire Scheme, which anlvvers to the Divine Idea. Can 
it be porfible for a Vine to bear Acorns, inftead of Grapes ? Yet we 
may as well fuppofe this ; as, when we fee fo much Rectitude, in the Ef- 
fence of every Thing; That there can be any Obliquity, in the Ends for 
which they were intended. 

II. And that God cannot but be Juft, and muft be fo acknowledged, 
in all his Works and Ends ; further appears, In that he hath made Man, 
and other Creatures above him, unto whom, Juftice is a Conceivable 
Thing. To fuppofe then the Deity, to be in any thing Unjuft : is alfo 
to fuppofe, he hath made fome Creatures, who, upon a Right Judg- 
ment of Things, might juftly be Witnefles againft Himfelf. 

zx. Neither are the J4ftice and Goodnefs of God, to be queftion'd, 
for his permitting of Evil. To ask, why he doth this ? Is to ask, why 
he was pleas'd to make fqch a Creature, as a Man ? or why he doth not 
compel a Reafonable Creature ? That is, having given him, a Reafona- 
ble or Intelledtual Will, why he doth not take away the Ufe of it ? 

x^. To talk of Compelling a Man, to be Good; is a Contradidtion, 
For where there is Force, there can be no Choice. Whereas all Moral 
Goodnefs, confifteth in the Elective Adt of the Underftanding Will. 
VV'^ere a Man then compell'd, to do that which is materially Good; he 
could not be capable of any fort of Virtue. Nor therefore , of Praife, 
nor of any thing elfe appertaining to the Perfedion and Felicity of a 
Reafonable Creature. 

z4. And fmce there is a great deal of Moral Evil in the World ; 
which God forefaw, jn the Univerfal Idea he had of it : Thereiore, to fe- 
cure the Majefty of his Juftice, in ordering the due Proportion of 
Things ; he hath alfo forecaft the Caufes of Penal Evil. That Man 
fliould be capable of Pain, as well as I'leafure. That the Air Ihould be 
fit, not only to maintain Life, but to produce Difeafes : the Earth, to 
bear, not only Flowers, and Cordials ; but Thorns, and Poifons : and 
that there fliould be a ftore, of Noxious, as well as Ufetul Animals. That 
as Man is capable of Error : fo th e Principle of Generation, fhould be 
fo too, in the Produdion of Monfters. In iumm, that Univerfal Nature, 
here below, fo far as related unto Mankind, the Lord of it j Ihould pre- 
fent him with a fuitable Mixture of Good and Evil. 

25. But although God has thus furnifhed himfelf with the Means of 
Penal Evil, and the Inftruments of his Juftice herein : Yet Men, the 
Authors of Moral Evil, are commonly the Caufes too of Penal Evil to 
themfelves. Craffus, Pompej, and Cccfar^ the three grand Invaders of 
the Roman Common-wealth ; all died of an Ignominious Death. Attilius, 
who knew not how to ufe, with Temper, his Vidories over x.\\q- Cartha- 
ginians ; not long after, was by them conftrained bafely to beg that 
Mercy , which he had barbaroufly deny'd. Alexander JamauSj who 


^HAP. JL of Providence. 



jplay'dthe Knave with P tolemd^ us Lath urns ; was, byhini, moH: (liamefuJ- 
jy routed. And was the firfl; of the Maccabees^ who rcceiv'd any great 
Overthrow. And it is very obvious, That Wars, and moft other Cala- 
mities, \\\\\c\\ befal us, come Irom the Lufts of Men -, v\'llich the Deity 
makcth ufe of, for tlieir mutual Punilhmeilt. 

i6. And fometimes, in an extraordinary manncf ; both in punifliing 
the Offender, and adapting the Punifliment to the Offence. A proud 
//^W, Uking,artcr the Roman Fadiion then pre^'aihng, to be flyled a God, 
fliall be dellro}'ed by Worms. Selymus, a cruel Tyrant and Murderoiis 
Son; fliall not only die of a moll painful and loathfome Difcafe; but in 
the very Place, where he once intended to have flain his Father. Up- 
on that very Day of the Year , wherein M. Crajfus wds perfidi- 
ouHy killed by Orcdes -, this Orocies's Son Pacorus ^ fliall aho be 

27. Cafar, while a Subjed, not only took a .Luxurious Liberty with 

Women; but lubmitted himlelf to be abufed. Whereof, when he 

would have purged himfelf by his Oath ; he was but derided witii that 

Sat}'rical Scoff, Galllas Cctjar fuhegh , Nicotne^es Cccfarem. To ihew 

his' Ambition, that Saying of Euripides^ That if ever Jujlice ivas to he 

violated, it was for the fake of a Croivn ; was never out of his Mouth. 

And when became to it, hig Arrogance was as great, in faying, That 

Men were now to /peak to him, as owning his MlW dates, for Laws. x'\nd his 

more than tluman Pride, in permitting of Temples, Altars, and Priefts, 

to be confecrated to Iiim ,• and other like Honours, given him, which 

Saetonius calls, Humana Fafiigio ampliora. And the Manner of his 

Death, defcribed by Cicero, de Divin. L. x. was agreeable. He that had 

fought no lefs than fifty pitch'd Battles, and flain more than a Million 

of Men ; in that very Senate, the greater Part whereof himfelf had cho- 

len, and there in Pompeys Prefence-Chamber, and before Pompefs Image,' 

and many Noble Citizens, and of his Captains, and greatell Favourites, 

lay wallowing in his Blood ; while not one of his Friends, nor of his 

Servants, fo much as came to touch, or take care of him. Yet Divine 

Juftice, fo far again reveng'd the Murder of this Prince, that fcarce any 

one of thofe, who had a Hand in it, efcap'd a violent Death. And of 

Brutus and Cafius, Dio particularly faith, That they Jlew themfehes with 

thofe very Swords, wherewith they afjijled in making up the Numher ofQx(zvs 


28. And as God illuftrates his Juflice, in the Congruity of Moral and 
Penal Evil : So his Goodncfs, in over-ruling of them both. That is, in 
hisdifpofing of Things in fucha manner; that there is a hundred times 
more Good enjoy 'd, than Evil lufTer'd, in the World. For one Man 
that is Sick, or in Pain, or in Prifon ; how many hundreds are there, 
Free, and at Eafe ? How many thoulands of Regular Births are there, for 
one Monfter ? The Body is fo contrived, as to be well enough fecurcd, 
againfl the Mutations in the Air, and the leffer Errors we daily run up- 
on; did we not in our ExcelTes of Eating, Drinking, Thinking, Loving, 
Hating, or fome other Folly, let in the Enemy, or lay violent Hands upon 
our felves. 

29. Nor is the Body fitted only to prevent, but alfo to cure, or miti- 
gate Difcafes, when by thcfe Follies brought upon us. In moft Wounds, 
if kept clean, and from the Air; for which the Ufe of Plaifters in Wounds, 
chiefly confiOs: the Flelh will glcw together, with its own Native Balm. 

C c Broken 

98 of the Ends Book HL 

Broken Bones, are cemented with the Callus, which themfelves help 
to make. What admirable Forecaft is there, for a Lifeguard to the 
Head ? By Haemorrhages, and other Evacuations at the Nofe : by 
Catarrhs, thrown off upon other Parts with lefs Danger : by fpontaneous 
Sneezings, Vomitings, Diarrha:as, and other ways : Whereby Apo- 
plexies, Phrenfies, and other Difeafes of the Head, are frequently di- 

30. How often arc Inflamations of the Eyes, prevented, by a Run- 
ning at the Nofe, or fome other Evacuation of Nature s own Motion ? 
Of the Pleura, and Lungs, by Hamoptoes^ and other forts of Coughs ? 
Some Portion of the Morbifick Matter, finding a Difcharge this way ; 
which otherwife would have fallen fatally on thofe Parts. And how 
very fenfible is the Head, of the Trachaa, for its being excited, on the 
leall Occafion, unto that Difcharge ? The Urinary Paflages, are not only 
wide enough, to pals off a lefler Stone : but fo very fenfible of any A- 
crimony, in the Urine ; as to give fufEcient Warning, would 
People take it, for redifying of it, before the leaft Stone could be 

31. How many Men have faved their Lives, by fpewing up their'Be- 
bauch ? Whereas, if the Stomach had wanted the Faculty of Vomitionj 
they had inevitably died of a Feaver or an Apoplexy. Inflammations 
of the Liver, or fome other Bowel ; are ^any times prevented, or 
cur'd, by a Tranfition into a Cholera Morbus, a Dyflentery, or fome o- 
ther Difeafe, more fafe, and by the Phyfician more eafily managed. Hy- 
flerick Affections, are often carried off, by a Flux of Urine, or of Tears. 
And the mod fatal Symptoms of the foul Difeafe it felf, prevented by a 

31. Nothing can be more admirable, than the many Ways, Nature 
Iiath provided, for Preventing, or Curing of Feavers. As Spontaneous 
Bleeding at the Nofe, Vomitings, Diarrha:as, Copious and Thick U- 
rines, Sweats, Eryfipelafes, Apoftemations, Salivations. All Thruflies, 
Puftules, Spots, and other Cutaneous Eruptions, are not only Symptoms, 
but partial Difcharges of the Malignity, whereby the Phyfician is better 
able to fubdue the reft. 

33. And whereas mod Medicines, and chiefly the mofl effectual, are 
Enemies, or but Strangers to Nature : Yet Ihe being impowered with 
Ability to expel them ; takes the Occafion , to rid her felf of the 
Open and the Secret Enemy, both at once. In all which, and other 
like Inftances, v\ henfoever there is need of the Phyficians Skill j the 
moll: prudent part hereof, is to follow, and govern thofe Motions, which 
Nature hath once begun. 

34, ,How feldom is the World affrighted, or challized, widi Signs or 
Prodigies, Earthquakes or Inundations, Famines or Plagues ? How little 
is the Mifchief, which the Air, Fire, or Water, fometimes doth ; com- 
pared with the Innumerable Ufes, unto which they daily ferve ? Befides 
Seas and Rivers, how many wholfome Springs are there, for one that is 
poilonous ? Are the Northern Countries lubjed to Cold ? They have 
greater Plenty of Furrs, to keep the People warm. Would thofe, under, 
or near the Line, be fubject to Heat ? They have a Conftant Eaflerly 
lireeze, which blow s llrongell in the Heat of the Day, to refrefli them. 
And with this Refrefliment without , they have Variety of Excellent 
F'ruits, to comfort and cool them withui. How admirably are the 


C H A P. IL of Frovidence. 99 

Clouds fed with Vapours, and carried about with the Winds, for 
the Gradual, Equal, and Seafonable Watering of mod Countries ? And 
thofe w hich have lefs Rain , how abundantly is the Want of that fup- 
plied, with Noble Rivers ? as the Ganges in India ,• in Mefopotamia and 
Egypt^ Euphrates and the Nile. 

'35. Of that great Variety, we have of Minerals, Animals, and 
Plants ; how few are Noxious, compared with thofe which are Friendly 
to us ? And in every Species, of thofe which are the moil Ufeful, we 
have the .greatefl: Plenty. Of all Metals, what fo ufcful and necefiary, 
in any degree, as Iron ? Nor is there any other, of fo univerfal Growth. 
A great many Plants, will hardly, with Nurfing, be made to live, 
much lefs, to thrive, and to produce their Seed, out of their Native 
Sol and Country. But Corn, fo neceflary for all People, is fitted to 
grow, and to feed, as a free Denifon, all over the World. 

36. Among Animals, a Sheep, for the fame Reafon, feeds and breeds, 
in all Countries much alike. And thofe which are Domellick, or more 
Ufeful ; are alfo more Prolifick, than the Noxious, or lefs Ufeful of the 
fame kmd ; as Hens are, than Kites; Geefe, thaj) Swans ; Coneys, thari 
Hares; Dogs, than Foxes; and Cats, than Lyons. A Crane, which is 
fcurvy Meat, lays and hatches but two Eggs in a Year: And the Alka^^ 
and divers other Sea-Fow Is, lay but one. But the Pheafant and Par- 
tridge, both Excellent Meat , and come more within our reach, lay 
and hatch Fifteen or Twenty together. And thofe of Value, which 
lay fewer at a time , fit the oitener, as the Woodcock and the 

37. And what is more admirable, than the Fitnefs of every Creature, 
for the Ufe -we make of him ^ The Docility of an Elephant, anciently 
much employed in War; the Infitiency of a Camel, for travelling in 
the Deferts of Africa and other Parts ; the Gentlenefs of a Sheep in the 
Field, and when Ihe comes to the Slaughter: A Horfe is fwift and 
flrong, above mod other Aninials ; and yet (Irangely Obedient, Both 
Comely, and Clean : he breeds no fort of Vermin ; his Breath, Foam, 
and Excrements, Sweat Urine and Dung, are all fweet. Fitted every 
way for Service or Fleafure, the meanefl, or the greatefl Mailer, And 
as for thofe Bcalls, which are Armed, and Fierce ; they are fo made, 
rwt with Intent to hurt us, but to defend themfelves, or feize the Prey. 
Which they alio ufually feek in the Night, when Men are retired from 
their Buiinefs, and fafe at home. 

38. Of Wild-lowl, thofe which are the mofl ufeful, fly not rmgl}^ as 
otii^ Birds, but are commonly Gregarious ; as the Partridge, Lark, Teal. 
Whereby, as they become a more Plentiful Game ; fo are much more ea- 
fily difcovered to ijs, in our purfuit : either as more Vifible, or by a 
Lewder Confort or other Noite, they make in ffying. And Bees, by 
that Society, wherewith they ferve themfelves, ferve us the better ; as 
hereby we reap a whole Harveft together. And for our quiet Pofleflioa 
of Things ufeful, they are naturally marked, where there is need. So 
Fifhcs, VVild- fowl, and f uch otiier Creatures, as are by Nature, no Man's 
Property ; have only fuch ditlinguifliing Marks, as belong to the wiiole 
Species. But of tliofc which are Domeltick, as Horfes, Dogs, Poultry ; 
not only the Species, but the Individuals, have their Marks. And though 
Sheep, which are Proprietary, are feldom Marked, yet they are not apt 
to itraggle. 


joo of the Ends of Providence. Book III. 

39. Mod Creatures, have fome Quality, whereby tlicy admonifli us, 
of what is beft. OF NeatneCs, all Birds, which love to be perpetually 
pruning themfelves. Of Clcanlinefs , Cats , which commonly cover 
their Excrements, and always wipe their Mouths after Dinner. Foul 
Water, will breed the Pipp in Hens ; and Naftinefs, Lice and Scabs in 
Kine : and all Creatures, Swine themfelves, which love Dirt, yet thrive 
befl^, when kept clean. Of Forecaft, the Sitta, and the Ant ; which lay 
up Nuts and other Seeds, in their Granaries, which ferve them in Win- 
ter. Of Modefty, Elephants, Dromedaries, and Deer ; which always 
conceal their Venereal AcSts. Of Mature Marriage, all Animals which 
beget the befl: Breed, at their full Growth. Of Conjugal Chaftity, 
Doves and PartridgeSj which keep to one Husband and Wife. Of 
Conjugal Love, the Rook ; the Male helping the Female to make her 
Neft, feeding her while (lie fits, and often fitting in his turn. Of Mater- 
nal Love, the Domeftick Hen ; gentle by Nature, and unarmed ; yet in 
defence of her Chickens, Bold and Fierce. And the Tyger her felf, the 
lierceftof Bealfs, yet is infinitely fond of her Whelps. 

40. The World, as thus furnilhed, we are made capable of Command- 
ing and Enjoying. We have both enough, and Variety of Food : of the 
Kinds, and for the Seafon. Infomuch, that a good Cook, will give you 
a Bill of Fare, for every Month, or Week in the Year. And a good Phy- 
fician, a proper Diet for every Age, or Temperament, Palator Humour. 
What infinite Ways have we found out, of managing the whole Stock 
of Nature, which lies before us ? One fingle Metal, Iron, fetson foot, a- 
bove a hundred forts of Manual Occupation. And one Inied:, the Silk- 
worm, near as many. One Tree, the Coco, affordeth Stuff, for Hou- 
fmg, Cloathing, Shipping, Meat, Drink, and Cann. And whole Books 
have been written, upon the Medicinal Ufes of fome one Plant. We have 
added to our Natives, all things from abroad : Wines from Europe, Gold, 
from /ifrkk ; Spices and Jewels, from Arabia., and the Indies. Whether 
we ufe them for Profit, or Pleafure ; we have fought and found them 
every where ; and made all the World our Range, and our Ware- 

41. And as we are fitted, to ferve our felves, of all other Things ; fo 
likewife one of another, 'viz. as we arc adapted for Society, in Conver- 
lation and Government. \w Converfatiun, partly by the Similitude of 
Figure in all our Bodies. And of Colour; with far lefs Variation, 
than in Domeftick Animals of the fame Species. The fame Dam, fre- 
quently bringing forth her 'Young of divers Colours, fometimes a White 
and a Black both together; which a Woman never doth; but always, 
either White, Tawny or I5lack. And partly by the Similitude of our 
Conceits, and Senfes. And that which is grounded on both thefe, tiie 
Formation of Speech. For were our Simple Conceptions never fo Co- 
pious, and our Senfes Exquifite ; Yet if they were not the fame in all 
Men ; and out of thefe, the fame Power of making Univcrfais ; there 
could have been no Language, as in the Chapter Oj Intelleilual Mind^ 
hath alfo been faid ; but a Definitive Word, mull have been devifcd for 
every particular Thing ; which had been impolijble. And as by Intel- 
lectual Perception, we are fitted for Converfation : fo by Intelledual Will, 
for Rule or Government. That is, by common Content to Order, for 
the Common Good. Without which, all other Foundations of Civil 
Government, are but Capriccios and CalUes in the Air. 



11. of Providence. i:3i 

42. And as Hamane Society is founded, in the Similiti/de oF fome 
things : So it is promotedj by fome certain DiliimiUtudes. The Indi- 
viduals of each Species of Fiflies, and of wild Birds, are all of the 
fame Figure, and Colour: .And at^^heir full Growth, of much the fame 
Cize. And though the Male is in fome Birds, ' left than the Female ; 
yet this difference is not in the Individuals, but the Species; ds \j\ Male- 
Birds of the Rapacious Kind. Now it had been as eafie for God ^tb 
have given the fame Cize, or Stature, of the Body, and the fame Figure 
-of the Face, and Colour of the Hair and Eyes, unto all Men and Wo- 
men. But he faw it fit, to dillinguifli them, with great Diverfity, iti 
both Sexes. With this Intent, that Man, of all Animals, having the 
moll; various Pliancy; there might be a variety, of Choyce anfwerable 
to it. That a Woman, having the Figure and Colour of her Body, 
generally *bclonging to all Women ; might look the better, as a Wo- 
man : And having lome things peculiar to her felf, might look the bet- 
ter, as a Wife. 

4:5. And as variety of FJair arid Faces, is intended for a more Luckv 
Bate, in order to Marriage : So, for the better fecuring of Conjugal 
Love and Chaftitv alter wards. For had all Faces been made alike , 
Phancy having once begot Love; the fame Phancy which makes 
a Man love his Wife, would have made him in LoVe with all other 
Women. And had there been the fame Likenefs in all Men and Wo- 
men, as fometimes there is in Twins: k would have given bad Men 
occasion, to bring into the World all Confufion. Every day, fome 
Title, VVoman , or Eftate, would have infpir'd anotlier pretending 

44. As the acceptable Qualities of things, are diftributed every where 
in Nature ; fo alio among Men. Hereby, to make them the better 
pleas'd with their own Eftate ; and the- more ufeful one to another'. 
Of the Oak, nothing can be more defpicable than the Fruit ; nor more 
ufeful than the Wood. Of the Vine , what can be bafer than the 
Wood, or more excellent than the Fruit? In like manner, fome Men, 
have Wifdom for Dired:ion ; others. Wit for Converfation : .And the 
Favour, which fome Women want, is made up with Difcretion and 
good Humour. What more ufeful among Minerals, than the Lqad- 
llone. Without a Colour ? Or among Plants, than Corn, without a Flow- 
er ? Such is found Wifdom in a Man, without great Wealth, or much 
Ceremony. Men, have Knowlege and- Strength; to fit them for Com- 
mand and Adtion. Women, Atied:ion ; for their better Coraplyance, 
and their Immediate Care of Children. And herewith, Beauty; tocom- 
penfate their Subjeifion, by giving them an Equivalent Regency over 
Men. Contemplative Men, may be without the Pleafure, of Laying, 
or Difcovering the Secrets of State, at Home, or in other Countries. 
And Men of Adfion, taken up with the bufmefs of the Wdrld','^are 
commonly without the Pleafure, of Tracing the Secrets of Divine Art, 
fo Unfearchable in all the Apartments of Nature. 

4,-. God hath f» order'd every thing, that there is nothing which 
one Man hath; but another hath, or it is his own fault, if he hath it 
not, or has not learned to be without it. He'has made every Man ca- 
pable of enjoying the fubftance of all. Good. F3as given all Men, the' 
fame fort of Body, and of Mind; and the fameiree \Jk of both. Has 
furniihcd every one, with an Ear and a Tongue ; for the Charms, if not 

D d of 

I02 Of the Ends Book ill. 

of Mufick, yet the greater onesof Converfation, and the common be- 
nefits of Speech. With the fame Means of exchanging Hunger and' 
Third, for delightfome Vigour. Hath fo adapted the Caufes of Light 
and Sight ; as to ftiew every one, «he Innumerable Finenefles of Sym- 
metry and Colour, And among them, thofe of a virtuous Beauty, the 
Epitome of the reft. And which, in his diffufive kindnefs, he hath 
confin'd, to no Degree, or Fortune. Though there are Thoufands of 
Spawn, in every Humane Coition, and the Number of Males and Fe- 
males, might feem to be fubjedi to the greateft chance : Yet he has fo 
©rder'd their Proportion ; that the World ftiould never be overftock't, 
with the one, or the other : So that for all the Offices and Affairs of 
Human Life, there is Provifion enough of both SexQs : And every Man 
that will, may enjoy tfie bleffing of a good Wife. And although he is 
pleas'd, for the fake of Order, and for Sundry other good Ends, to keep 
the Fortunes of Men in his own Hands : Yet he hinders no Man, from 
becoming Wife and Virtuous, and hereby truly Happy. 

46. And as God has fo model'd the World, that notwithftanding the 
Corruption of Minkind ; there is yet, a far greater fliare of Good, than 
of Evil herein: So likewife, that all the Evil there is, or feems to be, 
is fome way or other turned unto Good. Do great Rains, bring Floods i 
Thofe Floods, do alio enrich the Grounds, they overflow. Doth the 
North-Wind, bring Cold weather ? It alfo brings fair. Nor do we want 
the Means, to defend from the one, while we make ufe of 
the other. Nor do the Eaftern Nations want their Remedies, againft 
thofe Heats, which are neceflary for the Produdion of the Nobleft 
Plants and Mines. 

47. Are fome of the Species of Nature noxious ? They are alio ufe- 
ful. How many Rare Qualities hath Mercury^ for one that is Bad ? Doth 
a Nettle Sting ? It is to fecure fb good a Medicine, from the Rapes of 
Children and Cattel. Doth the Bramble cumber a Garden ? It makes 
the better Hedge: Where if it chances to prick the Owner, it will tear 
the Thief. 

. 48. Hawks, Ferrets, Otters, and other Birds and Beafls of Prey, be- 
ing tam'd,- become fo obedient, as with their Rapacious Nature, the 
better to ferve our Turns. And by the bold and watchful Fatigue,, of 
perluing tlie Game ; we are better inur'd, to that of a Marflial Field. Nor 
are any of their Parts, unferviceable to us : The flefli of Vipers, the 
Alhes of Toads, and the Skins of wild Beafts. Cantharides^ taken by 
fome Whores, to deflroy their Big-Bellies ; and wherewith they com- 
monly kill themfelves to boot ; how many more Lives do they every 

■ day helptofave? And every other, the mod odious, or noxious thing, 
ferveth in like manner, for Food, or Phyfick, or fome Manufacture, or 
other good Ufe. 

49. Neither are they of lefs Ufe, to amend our Minds : By teaching 
us Care, and Diligence, and fnore Wit. And fo much the more, the 

. worfe the things are, we fee, and fhould avoid. Weefles, Kites, and 
other mifchievoui Animals, induce us to watchfulnefs. Thiftles, and 
Moles, to good Husbandry. Lice oblige us to Cleanlynefs in our Bo- 
dies; Spiders, in our Houfcs ; and the Moth, in our Cloaths. The De- 
formity, and Filthynefs of Swine,, make them the Beauty-fpot of the 
Animal Creation, and the Emblem of all Vice. And the Obfcenity of 
Dogs, flieweth, how much more beaftly, it is in Men. The Fox, teach- 


C H A p, II. of Providence lo^ 

eth us to beware the Thief; and Vipers and Scorpious, thofe more 
Noxious Creatures, which carry their Venim , in their Tongues, or 
their Tails. 

50. The truth is. Things are hurtful to us, only by Accident. That 
is, not of Necellity, but through our own Negligence, or Miftake* 
Houfes decay. Corn is blafted, and the Weevle breeds in Mault, fooneft 
toward the South. Be it fo ; it is then our own fault, if we ufe not 
the Means, which Nature and Art have provided againfl: thefe Inconve- 
niencies. Stares^ fafely feed on Hemlock ; Storks, on Adders and Slow- 
worms. Which, and other Creatures, would be as harmlels to our ielves j 
had we always Caution enough to avoid them, or Wit enough to ufe 
them as we fliould. Aloes, hath the property of promoting Hemor- 
rhages. But this Property, is good or bad, as it is ufed. If by one that 
hath the Green -Skknefs, it will prove a good Medicine : If by one fub- 
ytSt to a Dyfentery, or to fpitting of Blood, a pernicious Poyfon. And 
it is very probable, that the mofl: dangerous Poyfons, skilfully raa- 
nag'd, may be made, not only Innocuous, but of all other Medicines, 
the moft effeftual. 

51. The feeming faults of our own Bodies, are ordained unto Excel- 
lent Ends. Whereas mod other Creatures, are furniflied with fuitable 
Weapons, for their own Defence : Man is born, altogether unarmed. 
That inftead of one kind, we might think of making, as many as we 
needed. But withal, to put us in mind, of that Innocency ; which had 
we kept, there had been no occafion for any. Elephants have their 
Teeth, Birds their Feet, and Fiihes their Fins ; and mofl Creatures can 
Eat, and Swim, and Run, as foon as they are born. But Human Births, 
for a long time, are altogether helplefs. To the end, that Parents, by 
taking Care of them, may be habituated to the ways of Kindnefs and 
Pity, both to their own Children, and to all Mankind. In many other 
Creatures, as Rabbits, the Skin is mucli loofer from the Flelli, than in 
a Man; whereby it becomes their Garment. And every Creature, hath 
its fuitable Coat, or Attire. But Man comes flark Naked into the World. 
With the forecaft of Ornament, Order, Chaftity, Health, and all other 
good Ufes, which are, or may be made, of Cloaths. 

5x. Neither are Irregular Births without their Ufe. As ferving to af> 
iiflus, in obferving and valuing all thofe, which are Regular. It being 
far more wonderful, that there are fo many of thefe ; than that there 
is now and then, one of the other. To fliew us alfo, the Power of 
Phancy ; and to teach us the Regulation of it, upon this and all other 
accounts. Nor are Difeafes themfelves, ufelefs. For the Blood, in a 
Feaver, if well governed, like wine upon the Fret, difchargeth it (elf, of 
all Heterogeneous Mixtures. And Nature, the Difeafe, and Remedies, 
cleans all the Rooms of the Houle. Whereby, that which threatens 
Death 7 tends, in conclufion, to the prolonging of Life. 

5^. The faults like wife of our Minds, are made to produce much 
good to us. Whether it was Pride, Dillrufl:, or both, which brought 
the Confufion of Tongues : The Earth was hereupon, every where, the 
better Tiird, and Inhabited, hs we have no common Language; fowe 
know, and ufe, no common Meafure of Things^ And the gradual Ad- 
vance we have made in the Meafure of Time, the Improvement of Lan- 
guage, and Trade, and of all other Arts and Sciences ; has been order'd,the 
better to ihew, That Man, by Nature, is an Improvable Creature, and 


io4 Of the Enh Book III* 

* ' ' ' I — ■ . 

capable of a Magnanimous and Succefsful Induftry. That being plac't 
in themidflof the World, aTheatre, which neither to our Eye, nor 
, Underftanding, hath any End : we have no more Reafon to (lay, where 
we are; than where we firft began. 

54, That we fliall always be kept Ignorant of fome Things, is out of 
pure kindnefs to us. As the variety of Contingents, is fuch; that no 
Man can forefee, the Good or Evil that fliall befall him : So neither, 
is it fit he fliould. For that his Know! cge hereof, would certainly take 
away , all manner of Prudent Care, either to obtein the one, or avoid 
the other. 

55". The time of Death, has a far greater Latitude, than that of our 
Birth : Mod Women coming, according to their Reckoning, within 
the compafs of a Fortnight; that is, the Twentieth part of their Going. 
But if we meafure the latter part of Life, when the Difeafes and Acci- 
dents of Minority are pad; there is a far greater Latitude, viz. from 
60 to 80 years, or from 65 to 85, a fourth part of the whole. And from 
the Multitude of Difeafes, and Accidents, and the Caufes of both ; the 
Manner of our Death, is as uncertain. And God is good to us, in that 
from the Order of Th.ings, we mult be Ignorant. There being no bet- 
ter way, to induce every Man, to Hope the Beft, and Prepare for the 
Worfl:, in a Setled and Cheerful Courfe of Virtue. 

56. The mofl Exorbitant Phancies and Lufls of Men, illuftrate the 
Beauty of God's Creation. One Man, makes all his Tlioughts and Plea- 
lures, to centre in Meats and Drinks ; Another, in Mufick ; a 3 bird, in 
Women ; or in fome other Senfe, or Phancy, fo as to think of nothing 
elfe. Which, as it fliews the Infirmity of Fluman Nature; fo the Ple- 
nitude and Perfedfion of the World, in being fitted, fo many ways, to 
Beatific Men, would they know difcreetly how to ufe it. And the fame 
Lufls and Phancies, are many other ways turned to Good. A Covetous 
Hope of geting the Thilofophers Stone ; has been the chief occafion, of 
all that obftinate Diligence, which hath been ufed to difcover the Na- 
ture of Minerals. And which hath iflu'd, among other good Effeds, 
in the Invention of many Noble Medicines. The foollilh Pranks of 
Love, are made ufe of to that moft ncccfl'ary End, the Propagation 
of Mankind. Meer Avarice in a Phyfician, may make him watchtui 
over his Patient; Malice in a Judge, to do Juftice; and Vanity in a 
Minifler, to Preach well. 

57. The mofk High God, in all things appertaining unto this Life, 
for fundry wife Ends, alternates the Diftribution of Good and Evil. 
Sometimes, he permits Bad Men, to efcape. The better -to flievv the 
Pravity of thofe Minds, which Goodnefs it felf will not amend. Or 
becaufe he intends to ufe them, in the puniihing of Good Men for their 
Faults. Or is minded, fometimes, , by Bad Men, to proted the Good. 
Hereby to lliew. That Virtue, in the Judgment and Confcience of the 
u orfl of Men, is Rewardable. Or becaute he hath a purpofe, to pun- 
ifliBad Men, by thofe of their own Kind; making one Haughty Ty- 
rant, to knock down another. To (hew his -Skill, m ufing'all their Ig- 
norance, Pride, and Malice, to ferve his own turn. And hereby aUo 
to gratifie the Good, agaanft their Will. And to fliew too, that with 
refped to the Blellings, the World enjoys, even Good Men, may af- 
cribe overmuch to themlelves. He forefees withal, of fome, that they 
are not Incurable : And by Forbearance, gives them Opportunity, of 


Chap. Ill, Of Providence. io< 


becoming fo hluch better, as they have been vvorfe, than others. And 
teacheth us, not to be precipitate and fierce; but inclinable to the ways 
of Clemency, when we have before us, fo great an Example. 

58. On the contrary, he permits Good Men, for weighty Reafons, 
oftentimes to fuffer. To chaftize them for their Errors : And convince 
them. That the Bed, are not without. To Confecrate his Juflice ; by 
Correfting of Evil, in whomfoever he fees it. And to put us in mind, 
That himielf only, holds the Ballance, by which all Men and Things, 
are exadily wcigh'd. To prove their VVifdom, in managing fome Lef^ 
ler Evils, fo as hereby to feafon their greater Enjoyments. And by 
greater Evils, to try their Virtue. Whether they are Wind and 
VVeather-Tite , and have learn'd to Sail upon their Poynt, though all 
alone, and againft the Stream. To Illuftrate as well as prove their Vir- 
tue ; which Ihineth bed, when they are in the Dark. And to Refine 
and Confirm it. Leading them to a Candid and Modeft Senfe, 
of the Afflidions of others, while they feel themfelves to fmart. And 
Training them up, with a Compafiionate Skill, to Help, Advife, and 
Comfort them. Exciting them, by a due Remembrance of all that is 
part, unto future Circumfpedion ; and a Serene Expedation of the fu- 
ture Life. As believing, that He, who in Making the World, brought 
Light out of Darknefs, and all things out of nothing: Can never tail, 
in the Government hereof, to bring Good out of Evil ; yea, the Great- 
eft Good, out of the Greateft Evil. 

CHAP. in. 

of Providence over Publicly States. 

1/ I "H E Divine Providence, which hath a vifible refped: to theBe- 
J^ ing, and Condition of every Man : is yet more obfervable, in 
its Superintendency over Societies or Publick States. 

X. With each of thefe, as it is united in all its Parts into one Polt* 
■^tick Body; God is wont to deal, as with one Man. Wherein there- 
fore, if any one part fufTers ; the reft muft needs Sympathize with it, 
more or lefs. And the Iniquities or Virtues of Predeceflbrs, as of Pa- 
rents; are fometimes vifited, or Rewarded upon the Succeflbrs, as 
their Children. 

^. In the ufe of Sundry Means fortius purpofe; among which, the 
Counfels, a'nd EfFeds of VVar, have ever been the Chief : The Deity 
fails not, to exhibit his Juftice and Benevolence to the World. Shewing,' 
the Diipofal of all Men and Things, Nations and Crowns, to be in his 
own Hands : And that howfoever oppofite Men may be, in their De- 
figns, either to Himfelf, or one to another ; nothing ftiall hinder the 
efteding of his Own. The Proof whereof, tho' beft deduced from Scrip- 
ture Prophecies; of which hereafter: Yet mayalfo be gather 'd, from 
thofe Accounts of Things, which have been given us by Profane Au- 

E e 4. Sparta^ 

io6 Of Providence, Book UL 

4, Sparta^ whole Government was founded in Jufticc; giving the 
Prince, Nobility, and People, all their Shares; and was adminiflred by 
Good Laws: Became, and continu'd five hundred years, the Flower of 
all Greece. Whereas the Efiatcs of the Alejfemj, and the Argives, ha- 
vinp- Injuflice in their very Form and Foundation ,• were but fliort Liv'd, 
and Unhappy. And Sparta it fclf, when the !^cop!e began to be Vici- 
ous, and theMagiftrates Perfidious, and to violate their ancient Laws ; 
fell a pace from its Glory, till it became a Prey. 

5. The Athenians, by an unjufl Pr( jedt, of Rifing higher ; laid the 
beginning of their Fall. For (ending their Fleet to Sicily, upon pre- 
tence, only to afllft the Leontines againft Syracufe, Cicer. in Fer. 5-, 
but with an intent, to make themfelves Mailers of that Ifland, and there- 
by, the better of 2\\ Greece: Their Fleet, which confillcd of ^co Sail, 
being then overcome ; made the firft Shipwrack of their VVcalth, 
Power, and Glory. 

6. VVhen the Bahjlonians had deflroyed the Jews, wiio had done 
them no wrong ; and had utterly forgot the Divine Hand, which ap- 
peared againfl that People ; and with their Impiety, had given them- , 
felves over to all manner of Vice: it was time, for the fame Lord of 
the VVorld, who had fet up that Empire, to pull it down. For which 
purpofe, Cyrus^ a Man every way Qualify 'd, was raifcd up. His ve- 
ry Name, which, in the Perfean Tongue, as Plutarch notes , fignifies, 
the Sun ; befpake a higli Opinion of him. His Genius, which was ex- 
traordinary, mucli more, VVhen his Playfellows chofe him their King ; 
he fpake, and Did, fays Herodotus, Lih. i, thofc things in Jeii, which 
would have become a King in Earneft. And no lefs, his Education ; as 
being a Flower, feleded out of Perjia ; at that time, the Nurfery and 
Garden, of the bed and truefl: Morals in the Vi'orld. Where they 
lent their Children to School, not as we do, to learn Languages ; but 
to be throughly bred up, in the Rules, and Praftife of Virtue: In one 
of which, Cyras had his Inllitution, among the reft. To this folid 
Foundation, the Superftrudure, which was after added in his Uncle's 
Court, among the jWe^w, fucceeded the better. So as in a fliort time^ 
he became, what Vlato, de Leg. :}. owns him to have been, aCompleat 
Mafter, both of the Civil and Military Arts, and a Friend to his Coun- 
try. Evidently fingled out^ not only as the Inftrumenr, but the Favo- 
rite of Fleaven, for the feting up of the Perfian Empire. The Medes^ 
who remember'd his fweet Converfation among them, in his Youth ; 
were ambitious of him. And with thefe, the Egyptians -, as alio, the 
Balylonians, Syrians^ Arabians, Indians, and many other Afiatick Nati- 
ons, were ready to receive a Prince, who, they believed, would efteem 
and cheriQi them, as his Children. So by D/odonis, in Excerp. Hen. 
Valles. he is delcribed, tt^ 35 t«5 r;VoTgTa}//-'ya5 zKj-^vdi)fj.(>>v xoj (fjAaVBfwTroj.. 
So by Trogus Pompeius; Frontinus, and others : who fpeak of iiim, as 
of one, who was herein anfwerable, to whatever Xenophon hath put in- 
to hisCharader. 

7. The Perjians, though once a virtuous People; yet intermixing 
with the Babylonians ; became with them, efpecially after the Reign of 
Cyrus, equally Vicious, throughout the Empire. Having once debauch- 
ed their Senfes, with the Pleafures of other Nations ; they devoted them- 
felves unto all wickednefs. The Court of Darius, in Alexanders time, 
was become a Neft of Tyrannical Tools of State, Sodomitical Eunuchs, 


Chap. IIL over Fublic^Eflates. iq^ 

and Impudent Whores. Even his Cimp was fiU'd, with all fofts of 
Caterers for the Belly, and Barbars of Pleafure : as is witneiled by He- 
rodotus^ Xemphon^ and others, from whom wejiave the Perfian Story. 
Whereupon, it became neceflary, as before, to chailize and refornl 
t\\t Babylonians ^h\ the Perfians : fo now, t\\Q Perfians^hy ih^Greeks. 

8. In order to which, it was forecaft by >:he Divine Wifdom, Th^.t 
Philip , having treacheroufly dellroyed his Kindred and Allies- divers 
of the Gra:cijn Commonwealths, fliould fir(l unite under him, as thd 
Macedonian Monarch. That by his obferving, how Xenophon\ and A~ 
geftlaus King of Sparta, one after another, had pafled through many of 
the Neighbouring Nations, belonging to that Empire, unrelifted ; their" 
Nakednefs ihould hereby be difcover'd to him. That having Peace at 
home, his People in Military Plight, and well afteded to him; and 
forward withal to be in Adtion, in hope of Spoil ; he iliould be able to 
make a Judgment, as of their Impotency, fo of his own Strength. And 
that after the barbarous Ufage, fome of his People had met with, from 
the Perjians i Jurtice too, with all the forementioned Motives to a War, 
fliould meet on his fide. 

9. What the Father hereupon began; the Son, was in all points, fitted 
to go through with. Courage, and Ardent Ambition, he had enough 
of, from his Blood, and Youth. From his Fathers Example, and fhe 
Inftrudions of his Mafler Ariflotle, Military Prudence. Which was alio 
aflociated, with Temperance, Benignity, Clemency, in a high degree. 
With a great Love to all Philofophers, not only for the fake of his Ma- 
iler, but of Wifdom it felf. But all this, not without a Tindture of 
Barbarity, from the Fury Olympian, his Mother. Tho', like fome Heredi- 
tary Difeafes, it was later before it difcover'd it felf. 

10. God having fliarpen'd this Sword; was refolved, nothing fliould 
break it, before he had done with it. Alexanders Fortune, fhall yet be 
greater, than his Virtue. He was every where, in danger ; and often 
wounded. By the l/lyrians, Phrygians, Cilicians ; at Gaza, in India, and 
at other times. The Wounds he received, not only in his Foot, Thigh, 
and Shoulders ; but in his Breaft, and Elead ; given, both with great 
Stones, and all forts of Weapons. Molt of which Wounds, by a Imall 
Miflake, or Negled, in any part of the Cure ; might have turned to 
aFeaver, or a Gangrene. And the Weapons, as well have gone through 
his Heart, or ftruck out his Brains. But nothing fliall be fatal to him. 
Nor any thing Invincible : He (liall march forward, through all Dan- 
gers, and againft all Oppofitions, with a fmall, and fometimes a Mu- 
tinous, and ill provided Army,- till he is Mailer of Babylon, and 
the World. Which he was made to poflefs ; not to deftroy, but amend 
it. .4s he alfo did, in building more than Seventy Cities, among the 
Conquer'd Nations; and Planting them with the Griecian Learning and 
Laws, to extirpate their own Barbarities, and compel them to be Men. 

n. When God had now done with him, having manag'd both his 
Virtue, and Ambition, to his own Ends : to make it appear, he had fliew'd 
himfelf to one, who after all, would not know him 7 he withdrew his ' 
Protedion, and left him to himfelf. Who, thereupon, looking upon all 
his Vidories round about, quickly grew giddy. With the profound 
Relfoeds of the Jewilli Priefts, and the Elatteries of thofe in Egypt, was 
putfed up with infinite Pride. Of a Stay'd and Virtuous Prmce, be- 
came Intemperate and Ditfoluie. Infolent, and Arrogant, in the higheft 


of Providence^ Book III. 

Degree. Guilty, and therefore Jealous. Bafe and Ungrateful to the beft 
of his Friends ; and barbaroufly Cruel, beyond the worft of thofe Nati- 
ons he had fubdu'd. And having procured himlelf to be worlhipped 
as a God : was then permitted to pcrifli of a Drunken Feaver, like a 
Beaft. Nor was it long after his Death, before his whole Race wasex- 

IX. But there is no Profane Story, which affbrdethus more confpi- 
cuous Marks of the Benevolence, Juftice, and Sovereignty of Divine Pro- 
vidence, than that of the Roman State. Once, of all others, the mod 
celebrated for their Virtue : as the Graved of their o\\ n Writers, and 
of Strangers, Livy, Polyiius, and others, do bear them witnefs. 

I -J, Romulus began with a Publick Adt of Piety, in him, very fingu- 
lar ; viz. The Dedication of his firft Spoils ; not to Mars, or Bellona, or 
Hercules, or other likeFIeroe; but to Jupiter. Whom he ftyles, in his 
Addrefs to him, Deum Hominumq-, patrem : That is, the mofl: High God. 

14. Their Temperance was fo great, that as the Men drank very lit- 
tle Wine : So it was unlawful for the W^omen, antiently, to drink any. 
And their Moderation and Parcimony in other refpedts, may be judg'd 
of, from the Bill of Fare, to which their Princes themlelves were li- 
mited, by the Sumptuary Laws. Their Chaftity, was admirable. The 
Diflionour done to Lucretia, was the chief occafion, of laying afide the 
Regal Power, yirginius flew his only Daughter, efpoufed to a young 
Roman Gentleman, to prevent her being defiled by Appius Claudius. And 
Appius, though in great Authority, yet was dealt with according to his 
Merits. In all refpeds, they were fo Modeft; and either in the Wars, 
or at home, fo well employ 'd ; that it was near 500 years, before they 
had any Plays. 

15. They perceived that. Dignity to be in Virtue itfelf; that the wait 
of great Wealth, leflen'd not their efleem of any Man. Numa, to 
whom they reckon'd themfelves as much beholden, as to any of their 
Kings, was, when called to the Kingdom, a retir'd Philofopher ; Tullus 
Hojtdius, a Shepherd ; and Cmcinnatus, a Husbandman, when chofen 
General of their Army. Their Commanders, Regulus-, jEmilius, and fuch 
others, contenting themfelves with the Honour and Succeft of Vi- 
dory ; frankly left the Spoil, to be put into the Publick Treafure. 

1 6. Seeing all this Beauty in their own Country ; their Love to it, in- 
fpir'd them with a True and Invincible Valour. By the great Examples 
of Scxvola, Curtius, Decius, Falritius, and fuch others, in a manner Confe- 
crared to Pofterity. Though fometimes they were overpowr'd ; yet in 
no Jufl War, did they ever turn their Backs, but were rather anima- 
ted by ill Succefs. 

17. And their Prudence, was always anfwerable to their Courage. 
They knew when it was a fit time to yield a little, as well as to Con- 
quer. Their Difcipline, wliich they found to be necefiary, was fo flridt; 
that Manlius, when Conful, caus'd his own Son to loofe his Head, for 
fighting, though Succefsfully, againft his Edid. They always made ufe 
of fome Friend, among their New Allies, or Neighbours to them ; ei- 
ther to hold them fafl, or put them into their Hands, upon a jull occa» 
fion. Nor did their Wit, make them too Proud, to learn of others. 
Iwitari, quam invidereBoms, makhant: was the Charader, which Ca- 

far folemnly and publickly gave of them. Many of their firll and befl 
Laws, were borrow'd of the Greeks ; the Arts of Shiping, of the Cartha- 

I gtneans : 

Chap. ill. over Publicly Efl ate s, loc; 

ginians : and fcarce. any Nation, though their Enemies, but (erved to 
Improve them, in their Encampments, Weapons, Husbandry, orfomcJ- 
thing elfe which was ufeful to them. When after mature Counfels, the^r 
refolved upon a War ; they were, for the mofl part, the firft Aflailants. 
In order to which, they prepared themfelves, with ah-nofl Inimitable 
Diligence and Refolution, In the firft Carthaginiait War, they built a 
Navy of i6o Sail, in todays, after the Timber was fell'd. And ano- 
ther afterwartjis, of izo, in :; Months. And C^r in the Gj///cjf Wars, 
palled his Army over the Rhine, fo broad and fwift a River^ with a Bridge 
made in ten days. 

1 8. But there is no virtue, wherein they more excell'd, than that 
of Juftice and Honefty. A Client, once taken under Protedion, they 
would defend againft their nearefl: Kindred, When the Roman Soldi- 
ers Quarter'd at Rhegium, had perfidioufly taken poflelTion of it for 
themfelves : The Confuls, by other Soldiers, Befieged, and Took the 
City, and reftored it, with the Lands and Goods belonging to it, to 
their Owners. ■ Juftice was eminent among them, in Private occafi- 
ons : but more, in their Wars. We find not, that Agefilaus made art 
Inroad upon the Perfians, for any other Caufe ; but meerly to provoke 
them, and to make proof of his Arms. Nor were the Tyrrhenes ex- 
pell'd Campania , for other reafon, but becaufe the Gauh had a mind, 
themfelves to enjoy To fertile a Country. And it is plain, that mod 
other Nations, £(s Publick Thieves and Robbers, have only preyed up*- 
on one another, in th6ir Rapacious Wars. But thofe of the Romans^ 
were not fuch. It doth not appear, for a long time, that they ufed 
them with Ambition, to enlarge their Dominidns ; but only to kee^ 
a Quiet Pofleilion of what they had. Much lefs, that they were Li- 
centious herein. For it was a Bufinels, which they were bound by 
their LawSj to commit unto the Arbitration of the Fecial Priefts. Who 
held their Trufl: herein, to be fo Sacred ; that they never allowed of 
any War, but upon good Caufe, and after they had firft: fought Peace, 
and no hopes were left of obtaining it with Juftice otherwife. 

19. The firft they had,was,I think, with the Fidenates : whofe Daughters, 
the Roman Youth, had taken at a Publick Dance, for their Wives. Vet 
were thus far excufable, in that they took them not, till after the fair- 
eft: Offers which could be made, were refufed : and when, without thofe 
Wives, their State, if not their Nation, had been extindt. Of thofe 
which follov\ed, their Enemies ftill gave the firft Occafiori. The Sa^ 
lines, by unjuftly furprizing the Capitol. The G^Si Senones, by killing 
their Embaftadors. The Tarentines, by deftroying their Navy witliout 
Caafe, and their Admiral. Pyrrhus, and the Carthaginians, by giving 
them their Afliftance. The lllyrians, by dealing injurioufty with their 
Merchants, and killing one of their Amballadors, fent to complain here- 
of. The Macedonians, by aflaulting the Apolloniates their Friends, and 
joyning with tlieir Enemies, the Carthaginians. The Lacedemonians, by 
putting the Argi under their Tyranny ; one of the beft: Cities of Greece, 
and which the Romans had before reftored to their Liberty. Nor did 
they hardly ever make War with any, but uponjuft provocation. So truly 
did Cami/lus the Didtator, fpeak the fenfe and way of this People j" 
Belli, Jicut Pacis, Jura funt j jufteq-, ea, non minus quam fort iter, didici- 
mus gerere. 

F f afo.Nbjf 

no Of l^rovidence^ Book 111. 

xa. Nor did they ufe more Juftice, in Waging their Wars; than 
Goodoefs and Moderation, with their Victories. As no Adverfity, 
when they were Innocent, could abate their Courage : fo the greateft 
Succefles, did not make them Infblent. They oftener punilht thofe, 
.who profecuted a Vidiory too far, and beyond their Order; than thofe, 
who forfook their Colours. They defired to win their Allies, if it 
might be done, rather with Kindnefs, and Fear. As they refufed no 
Friendfliip, which was offer'd ; fo neither any Peace, defir'd : though 
by fome, as the Carthaginians, after they had more than once, made an 
ill ufe of it. By their Agreement with Teuca, Queen of Illyrium, they 
not only fecured their own Trade ; but provided for the fafety of O- 
thers, who were in fear of her. So ready were they, to help their 
Friends and Allies; and even unasked, to do them good. This Eagle, 
did not fpread his Claws, but his Wings, over them. How great were 
they in that Adl, than which, nothing on Earth could be nearer to 
Divine ; when, at Corinth, with the Authority of the Senate, Flaminius 
the General, and Ten Embafladors then prelent , Liberty was proclaim- 
ed unto all Greece > What is taken notice of, in one Man, I think, An- 
tigonns, as praife-worthy towards the Spartans ; the Romans always did , 
viz. In permitting thofe they had fubdu'd, to enjoy their Home-Laws. 
Choofing to amend them, where they were Corrupt, rather by Leni- 
ty, and their own Example, than by force. Domi Induflria, forts Ju- 
Jium Imperium ; were fome of the Virtues mention'd by Porcius Cato^ 
upon a great occafion, as the Glory of ancient Rome. 

XI. If we confider their Story, we fliall fee too. That Divine Pro- 
vidence, would not let fo many, and fo Publick Vertues, to go unre- 
warded. Their Affairs, were almoil every where, attended with Suc- 
cefs and Honour, Not only fuch, as was the Natural effed of their 
Virtue; but many times, altogether Independent upon it; as them- 
felves, the bell Judges hereof, have always acknowleg'd. Conflat, Ro- 
manes, non Fortunci, Jed propria virtute, tantum Imperium conjecutos fu- 
ijffe : Is the moft unadvifed Speech in all Polyhiiis. Servius Tullius, who 
was a wife and valiant Man, and advanced the Roman Power, more than 
all the other Kings : Yet owned his Kingdom, to be the Bounty of 
Fortune. Whereuntoalfo, he built a Temple, though not to Virtue. Nor 
had any of the Romans learned to do it, before Marcellus, upon his 
taking of Syracufe. Fortunam, in omni Re dominari ; was the Senfe, not 
only of Sallujl, but of the reft among them, who obferved the Courfe 
of Things, to be conducted by aSupream Power in their Favour. It 
was this, and not the Roman Virtue, which took Alexander out of the 
way, when they had neither Treafure nor Horfes, nor Engines, but on- 
ly Men and Hand-Arms : and fo, had otherwife, undoubtedly fall 'n a 
Vid:im to his boundlefs Ambition. It was this Power, which proted- 
ed i^uma and the City, when tl:iey had Enemies, Spiteful, Envious, and 
Jealous, round about, and kept them in Peace all his Reign, Which fo 
order 'd Things on all hands, that they were very feldom engaged, in 
more than one urgent War st the fame time. I he JEciui, the Sam- 
nites, the Latines, the Hetrurians, and the rcll of their Enemies, came 
fucceflively upon them, that they might not Overfet, but Improve 
their Virtue. It was this Power, which fo disjoyned the two Potent 
Armies, of the Ctmhri and the Tutons, in the T ime and Place of their 
March ; that one Roman General, might dpftroy them both. That which 


C H A P. III. over Tuhlick Efiatef i § | 

I r made them overcome Antiochus, was a great fhowr of Rain, which 
fpoyl'd the Strings of the Perfian Bows. The Caftle, wherein Ju^,r*- 
thas Treafure was keptj was taken, not by Mariiu's Forecaft, who 
had undertaken a Rafli Auault : but the Curiofity of a certain Ligurian 
Soldier; who chanced to efpye, the only undefended Part, while he 
was gathering of Cockle-fliells. 

^2. But nothing could be more wonderful, than their prefervation 
from that Ruine, to the Brink of which they were twice brought j 
firfl:, by the Gauls^ and after that, by tlft Carthapnians. When the 
^ Gauls had taken the City, and were ready to feize the Capitol- it was 
not faved, by the watchfulnefs of their Officers, Soldiers, or Citizefis j 
but of filly Geece. And /4x'^rrof/?£'j arid his great Hoft, were afterwards 
Overthrown, by falling , accidentally, between two Roman Armies. 
Whereunto, no manner of forefight, in either of the Generals, clid in 
the leafl: contribute. As being wholly ignorant, of each other's Moti- 
on, till they were juft upon the Enemy. Of whom, they hereupon flew 
40000, and lb became Mailers of Gaul. 

23. Neither fliall //"(jwwi^df/, with all his Sagacity, Courage, and match- 
left Succefs ; and the daily encreafe of his Friends, and Army ; be able 
to prevail. The mofl: prudent of Captains, lliall foolifhly march a- 
gainfl: Cojfa^ an ordinary Fort : when by his Vidtory at Cama, he had 
ipade his way cleer unto Rome. He, and his Army, Ihall wallow, in all ,7 ^ 

kinds of Luxury; till they are nwre weakcn'd by the Pleafures of M^^<^ ^^^^r^(^ 
Capua '^ than they had been before, by all the Severities of the ^'^'Cca ; tJ</tiJi^y 
Alps. And when he comes at length, with a Refolution to take /?<>wf ; ^^(jc*u>£l.^ 
Heaven, which hitherto had been on his fide ; now fought againfl: him. '''* fffT^ii^cAfejutt, 
For both the Armies being drawn up, and juft engaging: they were fo ti/^x ^ iUlrji^tJiA, 
heavily pelted -with a Storm of Hail ; that hardly holding tlieir Wea- ifi^^'( cU ax- 
pons in their Hands, they retreated in haft, unto their feveral Camps. '^ '^ ^ 

And the next day, being both prepared to fight, in the fame Place ; 
they were driven afunder, by fuch another Tempeft. And no fooner 
were they got again into their Camps ; but the Tempeft was over, and 
the Skies Cleer. In fo much, that Hannibal himfelf, obferved it to be 
a Fate upon him, either at one time, not to have a Mind, or at ano- 
ther, not the tortune, to win Rome. Nor did he ever after, make an , 
Attempt, with equal likelyhood of Succefs. 

14. After the Romans had efcaped once again ; they rofe ftill higher, 
till in their Empire, as well as their Virtues, they were above all others. 
F^or that of the Perjians^ though it was very large; yet was never fet- 
led in any part of Europe. The Macedonian^ comprehended Ajia^ and 
all between the Gulf of ^f^c^- and the Danuhy. But as they had little in A- 
frica^ fo the Remoter Parts of Europe, were hardly fo much as known 
to them. Whereas the Romans., if we reckon from their firft Naval 
Expedition, in the ix^th Olympiad, did in the fpace of 53 years, be- 
come Lords, of the greateft part of the known World. So apparently 
did the Divine Favour, co-operate with their Virtue all along, to make 
them a Great and Famous People. 

z^. But the Romans, who had learned to do (b well, and were fo 
highly favour'd : The Crimes they were guilty of, were therefore the 
greater. For which, neither their Virtue, nor any thing elft, could 

IB prevent their being feverely punilh'd. For two efpecially; oiie, in re- 
lation to the Gauls, the other, to the Carthaginians. The Three Fahij^ 



112 Of Pro'vidence^ Book III* 

being fent to Mediate a Peace^ between the Gauls and the Clujines ; 
forgot their Errand, and againft the Law of Nations, took up Arms, 
in defence of the Clujines^ againfl the Gauls. Whereupon, being com- 
plained of, by the Gallic k Embafladors, to the Senate, and one of them 
demanded : whilfe the Fecial Priefts, were contending with the Senate, 
for his being deUvered to them ; he fled for Protedion, to the People. 
And fo, was not only, not given, nor punilh'dj but by their means, 
was made a Tribune with Confular Power. 

Z64 But this leud Injuflice, coft the i?owdf«j dear. They who had fome- 
times given Ear to vain Predidtions ; fliall now, take no notice of the 
warning given them by M. Ceditius^ of the coming of the Gauls, which 
proved too true. They who were wont to furprize their Enemies, and 
to Attack them afar off : Now, as if they were rather to receive their 
Friends, hardly met them more, than ten Miles from Rome. They who, 
upon far lefs occafions, were ufed to take the befl Counfels, and em- 
ploy their beft Strength: Now, befides that their Preparations were 
mean ; they had neither a Did:ator, nor other General, more than thofe, 
who had wickedly drawn them into this War. Who had neither the 
Wit, to give them a juft Account of their Enemies Forces ; nor Skill, 
to Condud: their Own. But took the Field in a Tumultuary way, 
without any Encampment, or choice of Ground, or DKpofition of the 
Army, according to the Roman ^oxm. Nothing was done, worthy of 
the Romans, either by the Captains-, or the Soldiers : who ran away, not 
being Beaten, but before they fought. Nor did the Feij, whether moft 
of them fled, fend any fupply to Rome ; or fo much as notice of their 
Overthrow. And the Senate it felf, was in fo great a Fright ; as to 
negledt the Gates, when the Enemy was ready to enter into the City. 
So far did the favour of Heaven, and herewith their accuftomed Wif- 
dom and Valour fail them ; till the Barbarous Nation, by whom they 
were to be punifli'd, became every way Superior to them. And brought 
upon them thofe Defolations, which made the Didator who reftor'd 
them, to cry out, ViHi, Capti^ue, ac Redempti, tantum Posnarum Dijs 
Hominihufq; dedimui ; ut Terr arum Orhi documento ejfemus. 

xy. Their other great Crime, was their Injurious dealing with the 
Carthaginians. 'Tis true, the firfl: War the Romans had with them; had 
this plaufible Pretenfe , of being only, Se defendendo : To hinder the 
Carthaginians, who were then Lords of the Sea, of Spain, Sardinia^ 
and a great part of Sicily ; from making that Ifland a Bridge, to pafs 
over into Italy at their pleafure. Yet the occafion they took for en- 
tering into it, by affifting the Mamertines, who being Quarter'd at Mef- 
fana, had perfidioufly and barbaroufly taken pofleflTion of it ; was bale 
and unworthy. And was foefleemed by themfelves, when they firft 
deny'd the Afliftance which was defir'd. Nor could any meer length 
of Time, take away the Turpitude , of what they refolved on after- 
wards. But that wherein they were chiefly Guilty, was their breaking 
the League, which was afterwards agreed upon, between themfelves 
and the Carthaginians. For although it be true, that Hannibal, in paf- 
fing the Iberus, and taking Pofleflion of Saguntum, a City alTociated to 
the Romans, did tranfgrefs the Articles agreed upon : and that, omit- 
ting the true Caufes of his fo doing, he alledged thofe only, which 
were falfe and frivolous: and that he, and the Senate of Cartha<ie,diA 
both refufe to give the Satisfadlion, which the Reman Ambafladors did 

demand , 

C H A p. I V , over Publicly Eftater. i i 

demand : Yet none of all this was done, till the Romans thcmfelves, had 
made the firll: Violation of that League. For notwithftanding that the 
Carthaginians, had thereby granted them a yearly Tribute ; and ReleaP 
ed to them, ail their Captives without Ranfom : Yet the Romans, ta- 
king them at an Advantage, when they were in Streights; compeU'd 
them, contrary to allFosderal Right and Juflice, by New Articles, both 
to part with Sardinia, their Lawful Territory, and alfo to pay them for 
the future, a Double Tribute. 

z8. But if the Romans, will have what they have a mind to, right 
or wrong ; they fliall pay enough for it. Hannihal fliall come, with 
Invincible Rcfclution, and the Perfection of Military Wit and Skill ; 
to take his Countrey's, his Father's, and his own Revenge upon them. 
Having, with incredible Fatigue, pafled the Alps in 1 5 Days ; he .^rfl 
encountred Scipio : and fo orders his Bufinefs, that with a wafted, wea- 
ther-beaten, and founder^ Army, he puts him to flight. And in two 
more Battles afterwards, at the F</, and at Trebia, was fuperiour to liim. 
PafTing next, with equal Labour, and three Days and Nights continual 
Watch, through all the Severities of the Apemtinc ^\\\s, and the Lakes 
beneath them ; near that of Trajtmene, he fet upon Flaminius the Con- 
ful, and overthrew him. And not long after, Centeniiis the Prsetor. 
AnAztCanna, with an Army confifting only of 50000; he routed /E- 
mitlius znd Varro, with fo great a Slaughter, that of 86000, there fell 
/GOOD, and among them, fourfcore Senators. After which, fcarce any 
Man dared to ftand againfl him. Minutius, Sempronius, Marcejlus, znd 
Fahius himfelf, were either deftroyed, or deluded and defeated by him. 
The Lofs which the City alone hereby fuftain'd, was fo great ; that of 
X70000 Heads, number'd therein a little befdre the fecond PunickWafJ 
upon another Luftre, made about ten Years after, there were not a- 
bove 1:57000; a Number, very near by one half, lefs than the former. 
And all the Gauls within the Alps^ with many other Nations, under the 
Roman Government, feeing HannihaFs Succefs, fell away to him. So 
evidently did their Guilt, deliver them into their Enemies Hand. And 
this Infamy will for ever lie upon them. That Hannihal, after all Them- 
lelvesuere able to doinoppofing him; had yet been Matter of Rome^ 
if Capua had not been his Miftrefs. 

11,. After this, they were tried once more : and fo far fucceeded in 
their Victories, as to become Great above all all other People, as hath 
been faid. But fo foon as they became Lords of Ajia ; their Armies ha- 
ving continued there for fome time, and letting loofe the Reins of thfeir 
Ancient Difcipline, grew diffolutc. Living in Drink and Dalliance, till 
they had learn'd to ruine all things Sacred and Profane. And to be 
more wicked in deflroying, tlian once they had been jufl in cherifliing, 
thofe they overcame. So that the Rewards of their Virtiies, and the 
Puniihment of their Crimes, being both forgot ; they were let alone to 
deftroy themfelves, by dafliing upon the fame Rock, as Hannihal had 
done before their Eyes. The fatal Infedion, which firfl under Manlius, 
but chiefly under Sjlla, was taken in the Camp ; was thence carried into 
the City ;and the Riots of the Sword, were committed and patronized by 
the Gown. The Proconfhls, and Pra£:tors,ofthe feveral Provinces, were from 
time to time, accufed.' of Avarice and Cruelty.- Complaints whereof, 
were feht continually up to Rome, and rang all over the Empire. And 
tlie MiferieSj which began and increafed with thefe Crimes, were as great. 

Gg In 

iiA Uj Providence, over Publicl\ hftates. Book Hi. 

Infomuch , that Cicero, cited by D. CaJ/ius, doubted not to fay, That all 
the Evil, they had ev^r done their Enemies, or fufTered from them ; came 
iliort, of what they had brought upon themfelves. For befides that Mi- 
thridates^ was of a long time, become a Potent and Mifchievous Ene- 
my ; in Sicily^ even the Roman .Slaves, to the Number of 70000, were 
provoked to form a Rebellion. Many of the Italian Nations, the Af- 
culani, Marfi, Maruceni^ Picentes, and others, Revolt, and enter into a 
Social War, againfl: the Romans. The Citizens, mov'd more and more 
with the Pride of the Senate ; grew themfelves more Proud. When 
they had got their Tribunes, they were not contented, that one of the 
Confuls fliould be a Commoner ; but they would have both. And 
with thefe, the Cenfor, the Prxtor, and all other Dignities, which were 
of Note in the City. Chufing thofe efpecially, who had Stomach e- 
nough to oppofe the Nobility. By fome of thefe, many pernicious Laws 
were put in force. Gracchus, Cinna, and others, raife Seditions. Unto 
which, great Numbers of Slaves being invited, and made Free ; ran a 
robbing from Houfe to F3oufe, and killing all that came in their Way, 
and in the firft place their own Mafters. What Havock was made, by 
Carlo, Marias and Sy/!a> The laft of whom alone, flew 15 Confuls, 90 
Senators, 1600 Knights, and above looooo Common Soldiers and Peo- 
ple. Yet this Man, after all, laying the Didatorfliip afide , liv'd and 
died in Peace, and was honour'd with a Golden Statue after his Death. 
This People hereby ftiewing. That in the Judgment of their own Con- 
fciences, they deferved all that he had made them feel, for their great 
V Vickednefs. After this, Catiline, through the general Corruption of the 
City, met with Rakes enough, by whom he was incourag'd to form his 
Conspiracy : and herein, came but a little fliort of Succels, In contem- 
plation of all which; as Vice is catching from any Example; Pompey and 
Cafar, at lall engage the whole Empire in a War, for their own vain 
Glory. Which Occafion, the Senate taking hold of, chofe rather to put 
all their Power into the Hands of one Man, and he of theirown Order, 
the Prevailing General ; than any longer to endure the Infolencies of the 
Commons. So plain it is, that" by grafping at more, than belonged % 
to them ; in the end, they lofl all. And yet from the total Abolition 
of the Popular Power, may be dated the Ruine of Rome. For had the 
reducing hereof to its ancient Condition, propofed by ^grippa, been ac- 
cepted, inflead ofMecanas's Model ; that State might have continued un- 
to this day. But after the Government became Imperial ; and Auguftus's 
SuccelTors, were far from being the Inheritors of his Virtues : VVhat 
brutifli Enormities were continually adted among that People ? and what 
incredible Miferies were daily brought upon them > Yet allowed, nay, 
many times contrived, and rewarded, by thofe they had chofen to rule o- 
ver them. To be wealthy, or virtuous, was become fo great a Crime ; 
fo dangerous to have even a Bofom-Friend : that no Man could be fafc, 
but in his Choice, of Poverty, Vice, or a Defert. God in his Righteous 
Judgment, permitting that People, which he had once made the Glo- 
ry, to .become the Shame of all others , and of Eiuniane Nature 
it felf. 


" — " — — •" • ' I . . . ^ I , „ , 

Ch A p. IV. Ij^ 


Of the Celeflial Life, 

i.T 71 7E have feen in fome part, the Forecaft and Ends of Providence, 

V V ^'^^^ refpeil: to this prefent Life. And whether we confider 
the Corporeal or the Vital World ; or the Author and Ruler of both : We 
have hardly greater Evidence of any one thing, than we have of the Being 
and Condition of the Life to come. 

X. For in the Corruption of Bodies, there is no Annihilation, fo much 
• as of one fingle Atome^ but the Stock of Matter, is always the fame. 
For if tliere were, then in every Generation of Bodies, there would 
alfo be a New Creation. And fo, the Deity would be employ 'd, in In ■ 
finite Places at once, and every Moment, in the doing of that, which 
needed not to have been done, more than once. And for the fame rea- 
fon, the Stock of Motion in the World, is likewife, without diminution, 
always the fame. 

;. Neither is the Nature of Matter, nor of the Principles of Bodies, 
any more alter 'd, than the Quantity. That is, the Generation and 
Corruption of Bodies, proceedetb not from any Alteration in the Prin- 
aples themfelves, but only in their Mixture : as in the Chapter Of 
Trinciples^ hath been proved. Nor doth the Nature of Motion, fuffer 
any Alteration. 

4. If then, there be no Diminution of Quantity, nor Alteration of 
Principles, in the Corporeal World ; nor of the Laws of their Motion : 
To fuppofe any Diminution in the Vital, is very abfurd ; or any Alte- 
ration in the fubftance, or in the Eflential Ad:s, of any fort of Vi- 
tal Principle : Eipecially, of fo Noble a Species, as the Intellectual 

' J. It is alfo evident, from that convenient Tranfition, which the 
Principles of Bodies do make, from one Eftate of Mixture to anothee. 
When the Principles which exift in the Water, Air, and Earth, at 
large, do meet together to Make, or Feed a Plant j They pafs into a- 
nother State of Mixture, or Relation one to another. But fuch as is fuita- 
ble to their own Nature, and that of a Plant; and to all the Ufes, which 
are, or may be made, of any Plant. And fo too, when, upon eating 
of any Plant, by which we are Nouriflit ; the fame Principles do ex- 
change the Vegetable, for the Animal Mixture; and fuitably to the Ufe, 
^ which is, or may be made of it in an Animal. And in whatfoever Eflate the 
faid Principles are ; they are ftill witliin fome Province of the Divine Re- 
giment ovef the Corporeal World. 

6. And we cannot, without a great deal of Phantaftick Nonfenfe, 
fuppofe otherwifeof the Mind of Man, a Principle no left Subftantial, • 
but much more Excellent and Regardable, upon the Tranfition hereof, 
from its prefent Eftate. It being no way Credible, That He, who dif- 
pofethof t!ie Eftate and Ufe, of every Senfelefs Atome: ftiould omit to 
forecaft the further \Jk and Difpofal of a Principle, endowed with Intel- 
ledlual Life. 

7. The 

;i5 Of theCelejiial Life, Book 111. 

7. The fame is further evident, from the-Cleer and Strong Concep- 
tion, which the Mind of Man hath of Futurity. Pillars, Statues, and 
other Memorials, are a fort of Shaddow of an Endlefs Life ; and iliew, 
an Inextinguirtiable Defire, which all Men have of it. Could we fup- 
pole any Man, to be enfur'd the Enjoying whatever he would, to his 
entire Satisfadion, only for an Hour; upon condition of his being anni- 
hilated in the next : He would not accept of it. If Man then, were 
not intended for a Future, and that an Endlefs Life : His Faculties would 
have been an Over-match to his intended End. And fo, there would 
have been Untruth or Difproportion in God's Ideas of Things, and in 
his Works : As having made a Creature, with Faculties to no anfwera- 
ble End. That is, a Creature, Capable, Senfible, and Defirous of a 
Life, he never intended him for. We have therefore as great aflurance, 
of a Future Eftate of Being ; as that God is moft Wifely agreeing with . 
Himfelf, in all his Works and Ends. 

8. And if we confider the Nature of Man, we muft alfo believe, That 
the Future Life, vvillfome way or other, be Superior, to our prefent 
Eftate. For whereas other Animals, have a Faculty, to Adt Regularly, 
without being Taught: Man is made, much more evidently, an Im- 
provable Creature. Partly, to fliew, that the feveral Degrees of Im- 
provement, which we pafs through in this Life j are in order to a higher 
Advance, in the next. 

9. It is alfo Congruous, that this Advance, fliould be fuch, as is con- 
fident with our being ftill Inverted with a Body. That we may be fo, who 
can doubt .■> For how can He, that gave us the Body we now have ; 
compofed with Unfearchable Art, in every part of it; want any Power or 
Skill, to give us another, when, and how he pleafes ? 

10. And we ought foto be. For being there is an Orderly Connedri- 
on, between the feyeral Species of Mind ; as in the C hapter 0/C(r/(?/?/W 
Mi>i(/, hath been (hewed : It is^hereunto agreeable, that the Tranfition 
appointed unto Humane Mind, from one Eftate of Being to another, 

■ fliould be Orderly. That is, not fo as to be made, per Sa hum; but 
unto that Degree or Order of Superior Mind, which is Invefted with 
a Body. 

11. Yet we are not to think, whatever Body we may have for fome 
time, that the Body to be given us for Duration, will be fuch an one, 
as that we now have ; and much lefs, the fame. For we fee in the Ge- 
nerations daily made before our Eyes, That there is a Tranfition, from 
a lefs, to a more excellent fort of Body. The Seed which is Sown, to 
which we may compare the Body lay'd in the Grave; hath indeed a 
Root, and alfo Leaves. But the Body it produceth, hath moreover. 
Flowers, Fruit, and Seed. The Animal, among Infeds, which is firft 
produced of an Egg ; is a Blind and Dull Worm. But that which hath 
its Refurredion thence, is a Quick-Eyed, Volatil and Spright!^' Flye. 

II. And why lliould we think, that God intends to work a Con- 
. tinual Miracle, in making that a Durable Body, which of its own Na- 
ture is otherwife? And this Continual Miracle, muft be done too, in 
vain. For the Body which we now have, is adapted unto Eating, Drink- 
ing, -Nutrition, Coition, and otherways of Repletion and Exoneration. 
Things, , no way agreeable, to the Life, for which we are intended, 

13. We are therefore to believe, That our Minds, in palling from 
theijT prefent State of Being, to that Above, carry the Emlrio of their 


Chap. IV. Of the Celeftial Life. 117 

own Body along with them. The Body which we leave behind, in this 
Viflble World, being as the Womb or Slough, from whence w6 IfRie 
and are Born into the other. 

14. But we cannot be fuppofed to have a Body, of howfbever fine a 
Make, without fome fort of Senfe. It being as wonderful, that dny 
Body, as that any other fort of Body, befides that we now have, (houid 
become the Medium of Senfe, And this Senfe, may alfo be of divers 
Kinds, analogous to the feveral Species of Senfe, we now have. 

If. Nor to have Bodies, and Senfe, without Pharicy. It being be- 
fides all good Order, That in a Superior Eftate, a Body fliould be re- 
teiri'd ; and that Phancy, fo much above a Body, iliould be lay'd afide. 

16. And fince the Body we Oiall then have, will be finer: The Ope- 
rations alfo of the Phancy, may then be cleerer and more flrong. If 
then, we can now See, and Hear, in a Dream, without Light, or Sound: 
V Vliy, in the Eftate above, may we not be able to See, without Eyes .-> 
And to Hear, without Ears ? That is, have fuch Perceptions, as are a- 
nalogous to Seeing, and Hearing, and other Senfations, without the Or- 
gans belonging to them, in our prelent Eftate? And confequently, 
our Intellectual Operations, may fome way or other, be ftronger, and 
more Extenfive. 

1 7. Yet in that there will be no change in the Subftance either of the 
Corporeal, or the Vital Part, as is before proved : Therefore, the fame 
Capacity, and Inclinations, unto Good or Evil, wherewith Men leave 
the prefent Life ; they will carry with them into the other. With 
this difference. That the Inclinations which are the fame, in Specie, in ■ 
both Eftates ; being, in the other, in Conjundion with a more Potent 
Phancy ; will be fo much the ftronger, whether unto Good or Evil. 

18. And we cannot doubt, but that God will deal with Men, in the 
Future Life, as he finds them to be Inclin'd. If a Man makes but a 
Clock, will he not fee how it goes ? How much more, will the Author 
of the Univerfe, having made an Automaton, which can Wind up it felf, 
fee whether it hath ftood Stilly or gone True ? If he animadverts upon 
Men here below ; how much more, will it become him to do it, upon 
their entrance int« a Higher State of Being ? If he maintains the Be- 
ing, and hath forecaft the XJk, of every fingle Atome: How much 
more, having made the Mind of Man, hath he alfo forecaft the Difpofal 
of it, unto fuch a Condition, here and every where, as it is fit for ? . 

19. Nor is it podible, that a Judgment ftiould be made, in order to 
this DifpofaL, by any but Himfelf That any Man, fliould comprehend 
all the exail Mcafures and Proportions of Good and Evil. Or any Creature, 
be an InfalHble Judge, of all our Inclinations unto either. So that there is 
a necefiity of ftanding at his Tribunal, who is Infinitely Wife and Juft. 

xo. But for as much, as other Men, and Beings of the other World, 
have more or lefs been concerned, in aliifting or hindering what we 
have done: It will therefore be fit, the better to fliew the Divine Ju- 
flice and Goodnefs, that Judgment fliould be given before all. When 
there will be that entire Reminifcence, and adequate Conception of 
Things, as to agree with the Judgment, which will be made of them, whe- 
ther m order to a Sad, or Happy Eftate. 

II. In the former, we may fuppofe, that the Corporeal Part, which 
in Conjundion with the Vital, will have a Power of producing Senfe j 
will beufedto caufe the Senfe of Pain. The Phancy, which will then be 

H h High 

j,^ Of the Celefiial Life Book ill. 

Higli and Strong, and Unchanged in its Incliriations unto Evil ; to re- 
prefent the Horror, of being forfaken, as of every Creature which is 
Good ; lb cfpecially of the Deity, who is Goodnefs it felf. And the 
Intejlo^:, while it fees its own Subjcdion unto Phancy ; to demonftrate 
)k(y 'it- felf, the'Jufticeof all this. 

■■ XI. They who are difpoied of, to a Happy Eftate, their Capacity for 
it, will lye in the Ennoblement of their whole Compofure. The Cor- 
poreal Part it felf, may be fited to produce fuch a fort of Pleafure, as 
will be fuitable to an exalted Eflate. But the Mental Pleafures of this 
Eftate, will be the moft Excellent. For if the Pleafures of Pure Mind, 
are to be fuppofed greater, than thole of a Mind in a Lower State of 
Being, that is, in Union with a Body : We mufl; then fuppofc, the Mind, 
to be capable of greater Pleafures, from its own Operations, than from 
thofe of a Body. And therefore alfo, that God hath provided the Means, 
in a Superior State of Being, fufficient to produce them. 

xj. Andfirft, the Phancy may be fo Cleer and Strong, as to prelenti- 
ate upon one Theatre, all that ever it took notice of in time paft. The 
power of Phancy, in prefentiating any one thing that is paft ; being no 
lefs wonderful, than having that power, it Ihould alio acquire the Per- 
fedlion, to prefentiate them all. And by the power of Arbitrary Com- 
pofition, may be able, moreover, to reprefent in their due Time and 
Place, thofe Things, which we never Saw, nor Heard of. Conceiving 
by thofe, we once had keii and heard ; what thofe mull needs ha\*e been, 
which we never did. 

24. And without this Perfedlion, the Phancy will but Imperfedly mi- 
nifter to the Intellectual Mind. The Operations whereof, will then al- 
fo be fo far Improved, as fliall be neceffary unto Compleat Happinefs. 
Which Happinefs, with refpedt to the Time pall, will very much con- 
fill, in a. Comprehenfion of the Power, VVifdom, Jullice, and Good- 
nefs of Divine Providence over the World. Which cannot be had, 
w ithout an entire view, of all its parts from end to end. 

x§. With refped: to Things then prefent, it will confill, partly, in 
a more Extenfive and Profound Underllanding. And partly, in the Redi- 
tude of the Will. And by means of both, m the Ebjoyment of the So- 
ciety, feleded to the fame Ellate. And of all other Societies, in any Su- 
perior Ellate of Celeftial Life. But chiefly, in the Enjoyment of God 
himfelf. Who, by Creating the World, and prefenting it even here, 
but much more hereafter, to our better prepared Minds, as his Image : 
•Giveth, and will give, us great aflurancCj That notwithflanding the 
Immenfe Dillance between us, yet .as far as we are capable, he is very 
willing to be Enjoyed. 

z6. Now nothing can be Enjoyed, any further than it is known ; and 

• being known, appears to be agreeable. Therefore our Enjoy merit of God, 

as it doth in this Life, (o will it in that to come, depend upon our 

Knowlege of him', and our Imitation. Upon our Seeing him, as he Is j 

and our being Uke unto him. 

z-j. The Knowlege we Ihall then have of him, will be very Excel- 
lent in Sundry refpeds. We lliall know him to be the Fullell Good, 
the Nearell to us, and the moll Certain. And confequently, the mod 
• Beatifying, of all others. 

i8. The World is fo thick fet, with the Numerous Perfedions of 
the Creatures 5 that bcfides the apparent Beauty of things, viewed by 
;' all J 

Cha r IV, OftheCelefiiat Life iig 

•'— ^-^ = — -7-^ -# ^ 

all; there are thofe Secret Graces, in every Part of 'NrtUt"^, ullicji fome 
few alone have the Skill to difcern. But how many IbeVer \Vf do, or 
Ihall fee, or conceive them robe, in any one, or eV^ry Creat(«fc apart, 
or as altogether they make one entire Syfleme^: Yet' In that they are all 
derived from the Deity, it mud needs be, that in Him, they did before, 
and in Him, do (Jill Really and Truly Exift. 

' z9. We fh all then be able, cleerly to diftinguiili, between the Man- 
tier of their Exidence in the Creature, and in Himfelf. Which we 
tan never do, fo long as we are Catechiz'd by Sfirife. To look for 
them in Him^ as we fee them in the Creatures; wefe to makfe Him, a 
Creature too. And we fliall be able to diftinguiflij beiiween the Man- 
ner, and tlie Reality, of their Exidence. There is not a truer Symme- 
try, Order, and Beauty, in r.ny Corporeal Beings; than therfe is, in 
our Mental Operations, viz. the Ideas which We have of th^mt,- A 
Square, that is, a Figure comprehended within 4 EcJUal SideSj makirtg 4 
Right Angles ; cannot be fo truly drawn upon a Slate, as in this De* 
finition, it is conceived in the Mind. And therefore, in a Manner fuit- 
able to the Nature of the Mind, mayba fiiidi to^kifl: herein.-- •''A^fb 
likewife, whatever elfe is' attributed to a Body. From whence ifls' evi- 
dent, That all Corporeal and Senfible Perfections, are in fortle Analo- 
gous way, Exiftible, in the Humane Mind. And if fo, how much more 
eminently, muft they nee'ds exid, in the Divind As therefote- our 
Thoughts, -do mod Really exid, before we exptefs {Mrti in Vocal Sounds : 
In like manner, the Excellencies which we fee in the Creatures, ar6 in fo 
Real, but Tratifcendent a way, Exident in Gotl>; that their Exidence . 
in the Creatures, is but the Utterance and Exprdftion of them. A c\tQ,t 
and comprehcnfive Sight whereof, v\ill be a great part of our future 
Happinefs. To fee the Glories of the whole Creation, confpicuoufly ex- 
prefs'd and fummed up in God. 

■50. We Iball, moreover, then know and enjoy God, as the Neared 
Good, or of all others the mod Intimate. Both by virtue of his Lovd 
to us, and of his Knowlege of our Love to him. His Love to us, will 
be greater, than can be that of any Creature.* For no Creature can^ 
or will ever be able to fay, that we are its own Defigned Work, But the 
Creator, can fay this : And will then take complacency in us,' as fuch. 

^i. And his Knowlege of our Love to him, will render him defira- 
ble to us, above all Creatures. The edeem we have for another, is 
founded in our Belief, that he is the owner of what we take to be va- 
luable. But this edeem is advanced, by his taking notice of it. So, 
the Adedtions of Lovers and Friends, are enlarged, by obferving the re- 
ciprocation of it, in one another. In like manner, it will be a great 
addition to the Enjoyment we iliall have of God, above what we can 
have of any Creature ; That he hath and will have, a perfe(5t Know- 
lege of our Love, and vehement Defire, entirely to give our felves to 
him. Which we could not do, did he not by an Omnifcient Know- 
lege of us, receive us wholly into Himfelf 

3 i. And tliat which will beyond ExprefTion, or any prefent Concep- 
tion, advance our Enjoyment, in all thefe refpeds; will be the Certain- 
ty hereof. As depending upon the Immutability of his Love to us : 
Aiid his Omnipotency, in edablilhing our Love to Him ; and the Edate, 
he will then put us into. So as by the Forefight, which our Ennobled 


I20 Oi the Celefiial Life, Book UL 

— r-iK '■ ' 

Mittds, will then take hereof; we fliallbe able to prefentiate, all that 
is to come, and every Moment, to drink in the Streams of endleis Joy. 

33. Yet the Sight and Knowlege we fliall then have of theUniverle, 
and of GodHimfelf; which may be called, the Beatifick Vifion : is to 
be looked upon, but as one Half, of the Beatifick Life. Which muft 
of necelfity confift, not meerly in Contemplation, as by the School- 
men, and others, it hath been ufually defcribed ; but alfo, in Adion. 
The former part of it, will follow upon the Perfedion of our Under- 
Handing : This, upon that of our V Vill, to Adl accordingly. For if 
Adiion, or the Ufe and Exercife of Virtue, be the Noblefl part of our 
prefent Life : How much more, muft it needs be, of that above ? Where, 
our Minds, being Advanced, and lefs Encombcred, will be much better 
adapted to it. 

34. I have alfo proved, That it is the Perfedion of the Deity, not 
only to have the Eternal Ic/ea of things; but withal, to be Eternally 
Eiiergetick. And therefore the Pleafure, which he will then take in us • 
muft fuppofe our advance, unto that Energy of Virtue, wherein we 
ftiall Imitate him moftof all, and which fhallbcft become theCelefti- 
al Life. 

35. And the Perfedion of our Virtue there, as well as here, will 
confift, in doing every thing like Himfelf ; that is to fay, with Congru- 
ity unto the beft End. Which is, That in Pleafing of him, we may- 
enjoy hihi. Whom we ftiall then Love, fo much more than we can 
JLove our felves; as we Ihallfee him, to be Infinitely better. 

36. And in Conjundion with the beft Order. VVithout which, the 
more Adion, the greater would be the Confufion. Whatever there- 
fore is done there, will be done, as with a Subordination of one Perfon 
to another ; io of one Society, or Eftate of Beings, to another : and 
with an Uniform Subjedion, unto the Father and Lord of all. 

37. And it is therefore reafonable to believe, That allthofewho (hall 
be placed in any Station of this Blefied Life : Will, by orderly Removes, 
be tranflated from one Station to another. That being firft advanced, 
above their Union with Corporeal Nature ; and above the Phantallick 
afterwards : they fliall afcend, at length, unto that Eftate, which en- 
joys the neareft Station to the Deity; viz. that of Abftraded Intelledu- 
al Minds. . 

38. Which Eftate, in regard it will not confift, with any Perfonal 
Relation, unto Pliancy, or Body : Nor therefore, with any Senfible Re- 
lation, unto Motion, and Time : it feemeth to be that alone, which 
may properly and ftridly be ftyled, Eternal Life. 



Chap. V, 121 


Of the Rules- of Providence, 
And firjl^ of the hdw of Nature. 

iiT_TAving feenwhat God dothHimfelf, in this Lower World ; and 
X~X ^li^*^ ^""'^ ^^y reafonably believe he intends to do, in that A- 
bove : We are next to enquire, whit he expedis fliould be done by his 
Creatures. Or, what Rules he hath given us, by which we alio are to 
Ad in this prelent Life, and by which we are to be accountable to him 
in the other. 

X. And fir It, it is evident, that God hath given Reafon, as one Rule. 
And it is the Rule, by which we are to make a Judgment of any other 
Rule. For albeit that Reafon is imperfed, as to the Mealiire of its Com- 
prehenfiort: Yetfo far as it goes, it is a True and Exad: Rule. For o- 
therwife, Reafon fo called, were not Reafon indeed : Which lyeth in the 
Conception of exa<5t Truth. 

\ . VV^e cannot perfedly comprehend the Nature of any one thing 
in the World • not of fimple Quantity : As in the Chapter Of Science^ 
hath been lliew'd. Yet of Quantity, Motion, and Body,- we have 
(o much right Underflanding : As hereupon to lay the Infallible Grounds, 
of all Mechanick Operations, fo much intermixed with the Bufinefs of 
the World. In like manner, there are, it's owned, fome things, not 
only in the Divine, but alfo in the Humane Nature, and confequently, 
in the Nature of Good and Evil, which we cannot perfedly compre- 
hend. Neverthelefs, from the Defcriptions I have given of them j we 
may learn, not the Phantaftick, but the fure Grounds,' of all Virtuous 
Adions. We are, from hence, certain of thus much, that what we 
call, Moral Good and Evil, are not founded in Cuftom or Opinion ; but 
in the Immutable and Eternal Reafon of Things. 

4. And if God hath given us Reafon, as the Rule of Good and Evil; 
It is as certain, That we are accountable to him, by this Rule. For it 
is abfur'd, when we allow, that he is the Author of a Rule j to fuppofe 
withal, that he regardeth not, whether it be obferved, or no. If God 
hath eftablillied his Government in the World, as hath been proved :^ 
Our obligation to conform unto it cannot be deny'd. And by what 
Rule can a Reafonable Creature Conform, if not by that of Right 
Reafon? Reafon then, as it Direds us, is a Rule: as it obliges, hath al- 
fo the Virtue of a Law. And being given by God, is Virtually, God's 
Law, which he hath Infcribed upon Nature. Iri which Senfe, it may al- 
io be called the Law of Nature. 

5, Some, when theyfpeak of Nature, do mean only Senfe ; for which 
they undertake to plead. But in doing of this, they (till whett the At; 
gument againft themfelves, .For no Man can deny, but that as Reafoff 
is a Part, fo tlie Superior Pairt, of Human Nature. Whstt ever thenj 
is agairf 11: Reafon, is againft Nature. Reafon is Nature, as wellasScnfe,? 
And therefore ought Ukewife to be obferved. And in regard that Rea- 
fon, "i^ able to judge of Senfe; but Senfe, on the contrary, cannot judge 

I i of 

122 Of the Law of Nature. Book ilL 

of Reafon : It is fit, that Reafon (liould be obferved in the firfl; place. 
For Men may altogether as well go upon their Heads, as with Reafon 
at their Heels. 

6. Nor can the Pleafure, any more than the Authority of Senfe, be 
pleaded for, as the greater. That of Phancy it felf, is above it. For 
one that is Covetous, is not fo highly pleas'd, with the meer Sight and 
Fingering of Money : As with the Thoughts, of his being confider'das 
a Wealthy Man. Nor do Men defire Drink ; fo much for the Taft, as 
the Gay conceits it ufeth to produce ; or the glory, of having got the 
Vidory of the Company. 1 he Pleafure, even of the Venereal Bed, 
lyeth many times, chiefly, in Conceit. For why elle, fhould not one 
that rambles, be as well pleafed with his own Wife ? Whofe only fault 
may be, that ftie is not his Miflrefs. Whereby it is evident, that fome- 
thing which islnvifible, Intaftable, and Intangible, as exifting only in 
the Phancy, may produce a Pleafure, Superior to that of Senfe, How 
much more, may and ought Phancy to do it, under the Regulation , 
and with the Harmony of Right Reafon. Except we can fuppofe, fo 
great an Afymmetry in the Works of God ; as that he hath made Dogs, 
and Swine, and other Inferior Creatures, to be capable of a Superior 

7. If Reafon then, according to the Conftiturion or Truth of Human 
Nature, be Superior unto Senfe and Phancy : from hence it follows, 
that in doing things according to Reafon, that is, according to Nature ; 
befides the regard we have, to the gratifying of our felves, or others j 
we are alfo bound to do them, with regard to the Deity. Who, as 
he is the Author of Nature, mufl needs be a Judge, of what we do, 
or omit to do, according to it. 

8. Wherefore, as the Reditude of our Adlions, is our Virtue, or 
that which is commonly called, Morality : So the owning of our Obliga- 
tion unto Virtue, as aforefaid, is properly, our Religion : To wit, fo 
much of it, as is founded on the Law of Nature. With refped to 
which, it may be ftyled Natural Religion. That is to fay, a Devoted- 
nelsunto God, our Leige-Lord, fo as to ad in all things according to 
his Will, as far as it appears to us by the Law of Nature. So that the 
Adions of our whole Life ; thofe which relate only to our felves, or o- 
thers, as well as thofe which relate imn^ediately unto God ; fo far as 
they are done with the Mind : are all of them, not only points of Dif- 
cretion, and Virtue, or the contrary ; but of our Religion, or Irreligi- 
on. That is, they are Adions, for which v/e are accountable, not on- 
ly to our felves, or others : but being cither grounded upon Reafon, or 
done in contradidion to it ; do hereby become, ipfo ja^o^ our Indifpen- 
fible Duty, or our Faults, for which we are accountable unto God. 
For nothing can be more certain, than that he expedeth we Ihould do 
every thing, after the Becomingnefs of Human Nature, and in Con- 
formity to the Relation we have unto Mankind, and more efpecially, 
to Himfelf. 

9. What can be more Reafonable and Becoming, and therefore Indif- 
penfible, than to be Temperate ? Rendering our Bodies, Senfes, and 
Thoughts, Vigorous and Commandable. Bounding, both the Appetite, 
and the Phancy j fo Troublefom, Dangerous, and Expenfive, where 
they are Wanton. 

10. Or 

Chap. V. Of ths Lam of Nature. 5-^ 

10. Or more, than to be Sober ? When Excefs, either with an Apo- 
plexy, knocks a Man on the Head ; or with a Feaver, like Fire in a 
Strong-Water-Shop, burns him down to the Ground. Or if it flames 
not out, Charks him to a Coal. Muddies the bed Wit, and makes it 
only to flutter and froth high. And trains Men up to the worft of Ha- 
bits. Teaching them to play with thofe Thoughts, which they flartle at, 
when they are Ibber. Till by Ufe, they become, like Witches with 
the Devil, familiar with tliem at any time. 

11. Or more, than to be chafl:e ? For who, that confiders, would 
forfeit his Eafe, or Honour, and geld his Underllanding ; in lactjuy' 
ing after a foolifli PaOion ? What Security or Troth, can that Man expedl 
from a Whore, who is falfe to his Wife? defrauding her of that Love, 
which is as much her Right, as iier Joynture. Who will not exped:, 
that a falfe Husband, if he comes to be try'd, will prove a Falfe Wit- 
nels, or a Falfe Friend ? What Wife or Honcft Man, would run the ha- 
zard of a Contagion ? And all the Mifchiefs, which may follow on his 
Wife and Children ? The Handing Marks of their own Misfortunes, 
and his Fooleries. 

II. Or more, than to be diligent ? When every thing befides, in 
Heaven and Earth, is in conftant Motion. When no Man is more in 
the way to do Good, or avoid Evil, than one well imploy'd. When we 
are all God's Servants, whom he hath fent into the World to do his T 

Work: And for which, befides onr Arrears, he pays us in Hand, much 
more than our Wages. Do we not make Drinks, in their kind the :; 

Befl:, of the Rougheft Apples and Pears ? Are not Stones polifli'd, Me- \ 

tais refin'd, and all things elfe amended, by Art and Pains ? So neither | 

is any Man not born a Fool, that which Nature makes him, but what he 
makes himfelf. Moil Inventions are the Effetfts, neither of Confultati- ■ 

on, nor of Chance : but of that which is between them both, a regular « 

Induflry. And fo are moft Performances, in the prudential Part of •■', 

Life. While in the Profecution of our main End , we projCvSt not, 
but meet with many of thofe Hints, which help to lead us thither. 

1 3. Or more than in any Condition, to be contented ^ He that is not 
fo, nourilhes not, but eats his own Fleih. He looks upon every thing 
he hath, with a Moth in his Eye. Would we know, what Health and 
Eale are worth ? let us ask one that is fickly, or in Pain, and we have 
the Price. And fo he looks upon every thing he has not : which appears 
tohisPhancy, much finer at a diftance ; than when it is pofleit. Nor 
looks he any better upon God himfelf : for being kind to others, as near 
of kin to him. Or, as if the Ruler of the World, knew not wliat to 
do with one Man, but had made a Miftake about him. And why not 
millaken in the Order of his Being ? In making him a Man, and not an 
Angel ? Whereas we ought to know, that God values no Man more 
or lefs, in placing him high, or low ; but every one, as he maintains 
his Poft. Often repreienting by thofe on high, not the Worth, but the 
Vanity, of Human Nature : and teaching thofe below them, to make 
a great Game, with mean Cards. Nor is there any other Virtue, but 
what 4S Natural, Lovely, and Becoming us in all refpeds. And there- 
fore, what we are obliged to, not only in point of Prudence, but as a 
real and (libllantial Part of our Religion. For we may as well fuppofe, 

I»God to have ufed a falfe Mcafure in the Make of Hum an Nature : as not 
^to require Exad Truth and Proportion, in the Operation belong- 
ing to it. 14. 

;24 Of the Law of Nature. Book III. 

14. But if the Duty we owe to our felves, and others, be an indif- 
penfible Part of our Religion : then much more, all that we owe imme- 
diately unto God. 

If. Thisconfifteth firft, In our Acquifition of a found and diftindt 
Knowledge of him : So far, as be is Intelligible to us, both in 
himfelf, abftradly confidcr'd ; and in his Works, which we are bound 
to lludy. For there is that Coherence, between every thing he hath 
made, and the life of it : That we may as well fay, he gave us Eyes» 
not to fee ; as Underftanding, not to Think : and not to Think moft, 
on thofe Things, which are the moft Excellent. 

16. And if we know God, as we ought to do; we fliali alfo love him 
whether we will or no. For if we know him, as we fliould ; we fhall fee 
hifli, to be the moft Tranfcendent Being in Himfelf; and find him to be 
the Beft of Beings to his Creatures, and particularly to our felves. 
The Ocean, and the Fountain of Goodnefs, as the Sun is of Light. 
The Centre, and the Circumference of all Perfediion. And therefore, 
beyond all Conception, moft amiable. 

17. And this Love, will oblige usvigoroufly to fupprefs, every vain 
and impious Conceit, in our felves, or others, to the contrary. As if it 
were below the Deity, to be any way concerned about us : either to love 
■us, or to value our Love. Whereas, if hepleafed himfelf, in giving us 
our Being : it is impoftible, but he muft be alfo beft pleafed, when he 
fees us ad according to it. And fo all other Phantaftick Conceits, as 
would interpofe and hinder our Love, from being equal to our Under- 

18. Moreover, if our Knowledge and Love of God, be Sound and 
True ; we fhall alfo fear him. That is, we fhall have a reverential and 
awful Regard to him, as Children to their Father, becaufe we love 
him ; and are afraid of nothing more, than of his Itfaft Difpleafure. 
Which we know, he can, and if contemned, may juftly make, more 
Terrible, than we are able to conceive. 

19. Andwefliall revere his very Name. As it is the Verbal Image 
of thofe Divine Perfections, which are hereby underllood. Efteeming 
it impious, not only to ufe it Lightly in our Talk, but to Think of it 
in vain. 

zo. It will mucli behove us, always to think, That we fee him ftill 
looking on, and weighing all our Thoughts, Words, and Adions, in the 
Balance of infallible Juftice and Truth. And immediately pafling up- 
on them, the fame Judgment, which he intends hereafter, judicially to 

^ -'2,1. And in Contemplation hereof, to fortifie our felves, in the con- 
Halite and delightful Practice of Religious Virtue ; againft all Examples, 
Small or Great, Pleas or Pretences, to the contrary. Efteeming it there- 
fore to be valuable, becaufe it looks above the Stars, and (qqs beyond 
Time,; and without a great deal of Pains, is unattainable. 

- xa. As alfo, to admire his unbounded Goodnefs, which we continually 
enjoy ; and fee running through the World. Although for the greater 
part, unmindlul of the Hand, from whence it comes; and which hith 
given us a Memory, to think of all other things. 

1.T,. And to confolate our felves, againft all the Evil, which doth, or 
may befal us. As that which comes not by chance, nor for our Hurt ; 

" — -^ but 


Chap. V, Of the Law of Nature. 125 

but by his Diredlion, whom it will alwa}^? become, to convert it unto our 
greatefl; Advantage. 

24. And therefore, to betrufl: htm, with all the Good, which our 
own Capacity will allow us, or his Sufficiency encourage us to hope 
for, either in this Life, or that to come. Not in fitting dill; but in 
the ufe of our utmoft Diligence and Skill, to truft him fo entirely, 
as if we had no Motion, or Ability to ufe. As remembring, that we , 

are obliged to ad the bell Part of a Reafonable Creature ; but with- 
al, at his Difpofal, who turns the World, and all Men therein, round a- 
bout, as we dp a Globe, at his Pleafurc. 

z^. And- in our doing this, ta acquielce, AfTuring our felves, froni 
the Benignity of his Nature, and the Truth of all his Works, as a dou- 
ble Rock to build upon : That he, who hath taught us a regular Trail, 
will not fail to give us the Equivalent, of whatever we trufl: hint 

%6. Chiefly, it is our Duty, to trufl: him for our future Happinels, 
and to live in a continual and joyful Hope of it. For in making of 
Wills and Laws, for the Benellt of Pofterity, and many other ways, it 
is very evident. That we are naturally inclin'd, to confider a Future 
Eflate. And can wefuppofe, that God has made it Natural, to confider 
with all the good Contrivance and Judgment we have, of the future E- 
ftate of others, and yet not of our own.'* 

xj. And it is as evident, that we are obliged to think of this Efl;ate, as 
of a far better, than the Prefent is, or is capable of being. Wherein 
we fee every where, a Mixture of Good and Evil ; and Rewards appa- 
rently referved to another World. And the greater fliare of Senfual 
Enjoyments, being beflowed upon many Creatures below our felves : 
direds us to the Place of Angels, and their higher Pleafures. Which, 
the rfarthcr they are out of fight , become the better Teft of a 
raifed Mind. And fo much a fliarper Spur, to the Higheft Improve- 
ment it is capable of, The Steady and Delightful Expedtation of an Un- 
feen Felicity. 

i8. There is fo Natural a Connedtion, in the forementioned Parts of 
our Duty : that if we acknowledge it, in any one ; we mull in all. It 
is then our Duty, to do all this, upon every fit Occafion. But chiefly, 
in the two principal Parts of our reafonable Service, our Homage of 
Prayer and Praife. 

29. But wherefore (liould We pray to God, who ^ is immutable ? 
And therefore cannot be moved, by any thing or all that we can fay 
to him. How vain a Queftion ? When as we (hould the rather do 
it, becaufe he is Immutable. For when we pray to God, if we un- 
derlland our felves, in reprefenting what we defire, we profefs 
our Sincerity herein. If then his Will doth indeed accord to our 
Defires, as bed : we believe honourably of him, That whether our 
Defires for the bed, iliould change, or no ; his VVill never doth nor 
can. And if Men fometimes petition their Superiours for thofe things, 
which they know beforehand, will b^ granted ; we think it a Refpedt, 
Ijiuch more due to the Deity. But if our Requefts are fuch, as accord 
not with his Will ; we then profefs our humble and ready Sub- 
miffion to it. The doing of all which, is fo far from fuppofing God to 
be Mutable : That it is a Declaration, we believe the contrary. 

K k 30. 

[26 Of the Law of Nature, Book III. 

30. To fay, that plain Men, cannot pray thus, is as vain. For plain 
Men, if honeft, will always mean the fame Things, howfoever they may 
fail in expreffing themfelves. Wherein all Men, of the beft Under- 
ftanding, do, and mufl fail,^ more or lefs. For what is more frequent, 
than to fay, a Silver Ink-horn, my Head fwims, and to ufe a thoufand 
of fuch like Words and Sayings ? Should we then never converfe, till 
we could fpeak every Word properly, that is, with a perfed: Analo- 
gy unto one another, and unto Thoughts, and Things ; we muft for 
ever hold our Tongues. And the Argument againft Praying unto God, 
is no better, than this, againft fpeaking unto Men. 

:^i. Befides, if no Man mufl Pray, but in manner and form adequate 
to the Perfedtion of God : then no Man may fo much as Think of God- 
Becaufe that no Man, can think adequately of him. We are therefore 
to believe that he defpifeth not any, who doth them both as well as 
he can. For fmce he is pleafed to rule us, in a manner fuitable to our 
Human Capacity : We have no caufe to doubt, of the Propriety and 
Acceptance of our Addrefles to him, Mare Humam. 

31. We have then, as good and great reafon, to pray to God, as for 
any thing elfe we do, as Men. In asking of what we want, we own our 
abfolute Dependance upon his Power, we comply with his Wifdom, we 
trufl in his Goodnefs : profefTing our Subjedion to his Divine Govern- 
ment upon all accounts. And in deprecating of Evil, we make an hun> 
ble Acknowledgement of Guilt ; and of God's Juftice in chaftizing, as 
■well as Clemency, in fparing the Guilty. And if ever we think or 
Ipeak fmcerely, of our Duty to God and Man ; it will be, when we are 
doing all this. When upon fpeaking unto God, we do as much, as if 
we took our Oath, that all we fay, is true. 

33. But if Prayer to God, be one part of ouri Homage : we can- 
not doubt, that to celebrate his Praifcs, is another. Wherein we do all, 
that we do in our Prayers, with the Addition of our Thanks. A Payment, 
the more due, becaufe it cofts us nothing. And is fo far Advantagious 
to us, as to help us to rejoice. Which God in the Enjoyment of what 
he gives us, wou'd have us to do, and to cherp and fing, while we lie 
within the Warmth of his chearing Beams. And helps us too, the 
more heartily to wifli, that whatever we pray, or praife him for, may con- 
centre in his own Glory. And to rejoice again in this, that we know af- 
furedly, it will and muft be fo. That with the lower Parts of the Creati- 
on, Mankind, and the feveral Orders of Superiour Minds, fliall all of 
them, havcthctr Afpeds upon him ; as the Celeftial Orbs, have upon the 
Sun. Nothing being more reafonable, than that He who is the Beginning, 
ihould alfo be the End of all things. 


G H A P. VI. Ijy 

CHAP. vr. 

^^^ of Pofitive Lan^» 

i.Yy Eafon, where it is Improved, and kept deer; gives a Light, fuf- 

J]\^ ficient to flievv us a great part of our Duty; and fofar, to have 

the force and virtue of a Law : As in tlie foregoing Chapter hath been 

proved. ^ 

X. And the Law of Nature, is that which Wife Men have ahvays pre- 

fuppoled, as the Foundation of Pofitive Laws. So Plato^ O' No/^t©., t^ 

ovros isiv e^s'jpiati. That is, Law, is the Invention of that which truly 

Is. For by 'ci^vy Plato means , the Eternal Law of Nature, which 

notwithftanding the Mutations and Contra;lid:ions, among the Laws of 

all Nations, continues for ever the fame, and therefore truly Is. And 

Cicero more exprefly faith, Lex, efi Ratio Summa^ injita in Natura^ quce 

juhet ea quce facienda funt^ prohihetque cent r aria; de Leg. i. And fo all 

others, of the beft ujiderftanding. 

\. Neverthelefs, the. Declaration of a Divine Law, Superior to that 
of Nature, will appear to be neceflary : Whether with refpedt to the 
corrupt Eftate of Mankind, or the Perfedion of the Deity, 

4. There is a neceffity of anexprel^ Divine Law, to add Light unto 
that of Nature. For there are but few who confider, whether there be 
any Law of Nature, or no. And many, by degrees, bring themfelves 
to that pafs, as to deny the being hereof And thofewho own it, yet 
find it fo far defedtive; that except they Trim their Lamp, and look 
clofe, they can fee nothing diftindtly by it. And many things are hereby 
undifcernable, which yet are very neceflary to be known. 

5-. The Darknefs and Diforder, we fee everywhere; may fuffice to 
evidence the Truth of all this. But if we look upon the condition of 
the World, before the Settlement of Religion herein, how plain is it ? 
•The Lacedemonians were ufed to cad away every feeble Birth, into a 
VVhirlpit. In many of the Ajiatick Nations, Theft was taken little notice 
of. In Perfia and other Countries, Men were marryed ta their Sifters, 
their Daughters, and even their own Mothers. The Hircani and Tileri- 
wi, ufed to break their old Kindreds Necks from fome Precipice. And 
the Heruliy when they fell fick, to ftick them with a Dagger. The 
MedeSy when they faw People in the fame Condition, and not like tQ 
live, -were ufed to throw them to be devoured of Dogs, which they kept 
for that purpofe. And many other Nations, as the Majfageta;^ and the 
Derhices^ thought it better to eat them themfelves. And fo did the CV- 
naaniteSy of whom, the Spies which Mofes fent, reported, faying, 77;(? //f fh/^JfUd^^ 
Land, is a Land ivhich eateth up the hhahitants thereof. There was ^ ff^^^tfof /^ 
hardly a Nation under Heaven, but was ufed to the Butchery of ^f*^ '^ >^^7 
Sacritices, And the French were not quite broken of it, until fome time ^M^^*^ fu^ fi 
after they became Chriftians. hTjih^ 

6. Nor were fuch Enormities as thefe, done by a few, but by whole p<:^ iJTUjIL^ 
Nations : Not upon meer fufferance, but by Law. Among the Geti, Lege hCL^j^^^^h^ ^ 
cautum efi, faith Bardefanes^ who wrote about the time ot Adrian^ That .^^^ r^ftS^ ^ 
the Women fliould be free, to lye carnally with whomfoever they T^^I^^^ /j: 

would. T r"" 

128 Of Tofitive Law. Book Hi. 

would. And the Affyrians were not contented, to leave them to their 
Liberty: but every Woman throughout the Country, was bound once 
in her Life, in the Temple of Ferns ^ to proftitute her felf to any one, tliat 
threw her a piece of Money, which was given to the Temple. 

7. And the Wifefl Men and Nations, were in many points, as much 
in the dark. Among the Greeks^ it was no Difgrace, for Phiiofophers 
themfelves to have their Catamites. All People thought there was no 
Renown in the Tran(ad:ions of Peace, but only in thofe of War. The 
Virtue of the Achat, fays Polyhius^ when they were in fetled Peace ; was 
then a plaia homely thing, without any Military Glory, ks if it was 
not more glorious, that they were the Arbiters of Peace, between the 
Lacedemonians and the Thehans ; than to have deftroyed them both by 
force of Arms. Humility, though a Cardinal Virtue ; yet is no where 
mentioned in Arijiotle's Ethicks. But inflead of that, he hath a long 
Chapter of Magnanimity : whereof, as if contrary to Humility, he gives 
a falfe Defcription, only teaching iVlento be Lazy and Proud. The Ro' 
mans had never lefs Religion and Virtue; than when they had got, 
with the Conqufeft, the Gods and Religion of all the World. Ut'mam, 
fays Cicero, tarn facile veram Religionent invenire pojfim ; quam jalfam con- 
vincere. Dux atque Imperator Vita, fays Salufl, Animus eji, neque Fortu- 
vaeget : Meaning by Fortune, the Divine Providence. ©4a cT' tm^oi^ 
T8S xa;c8s ivS'a.ifj.ovilv. That is, *Tis a Difgrace to the Deity, for bad 
Men to be fortunate : A Saying of the fame Poet, whom St. Paul cites 
for a far better. And Seneca, with greater Pride and Ignorance, flicks 
not to tell us, Epifi. 45', That a Wife Man, in fome refped-, excells God 
himfelf. And why fo .■» J lie, fays he, Natune leneficio, non fuo, fa pi ens 
eft. A mod confounded Reafbn; both for his haughty non fuo ', and his 
Brutifti conception of the Deity, as if begotten of Nature; and of Na- 
ture, as if the Supream Numen, 

8. By which, and the like loftances, tpo common in the befl Heathen 
Writers, it is moft apparent, That the Minds of Men, have in all Times 
and Places, been cover'd with thick Darknels : not only of the Uulgar, 
but of Phiiofophers and Legiflators tliem{elves. And confequently, as 
Thefe have ever found it necefTary, for the fake of the Vulgar, to ex-^ 
plain the Law of Nature, by Pofitive Laws : ( moft of which, they 
have yet but borrowed of the Mofaick, as will be proved : ) So it was 
neceflary, that the Deity fhould give his own Pofitive Laws, in Condel^ 
cention unto both the one, and the other. That neither the Vulgar, 
which make the greater part of the World, and want the Means to be- 
come Wife ; nor Wife Men, who through the manifold Nature of 
Things, ^are feldom Wife enough to make a Right Judgment of them j 
ihould want a fure Guide: but be able in the moft difficult Inllances of 
the Law of Nature, to diftinguilh with certainty between Good and 
Evil : And fo, of whatfoever is moft conducing to the Happinefs of 

9. Neither is the Corrupt Eftate of Human Nature, more vifible in 
the darknefs of the Underftanding, than in the Pravity of the Will. 
Nor therefore, was the Declaration of the Will of God by Pofitive Laws, 
more neceflary to give Light, than it was to give Strength, unto the 
Law of Nature. For as the Manifold Nature of Things, renders it ve- 
ry difficult in many Cafes, to make a Judgment of what is fit and juft : 
So, when that' is made, the various Affections, Conditions, and In- 



Chap. VI, Of Fofitive Lan>, 129 

tcrefts of Men, make it as difficult to Ad accordingly; and to concen- 
tre in their Refolutions of what is to be done. It becomes a Philofo- 
pher, jJiT^iv C-nl^ r irYfsi.v (fpoviT'/j was faid by Thrajycks^ in a found Senfe, 
but pradiifcd in another ; being as great a Debauchee, as any with whom 
he JivM. Who fees not the difference every where, between faying and 
doing? The Law of Nature, is not always able to fpeak : Nor, when 
it doth, is it often heard. But as God may do many things, and 
command many to be dotie, for JReafons which we fee not : So where 
we do fee them. He who is Reafon it (elf; may have more and greater 
Reafons. It was therefore neceflary, that God fhould add unto the Law 
of Nature, the Sandlion of his own Pofitive Laws, which fliould al- 
ways fpeak plainly and home, and fliould at leail be heard, do what 
we can. 

10. It was alfo neceflary, for the giving of Strength unto Human 
Laws themfelves. Civilians fay, Voluntas Le^iJIatoris, eft Forma (S? Ani- 
ma Legn. But We cannot have that afl!urance of the Laws given by any 
Man, or Seled: Company of Men, that they are well intended ; as we 
mud needs have, of the VVifdomand Goodnefs of a Divine Legiflator. 

11. ThcCompafs likewife of all Human Laws, is much too narrow. 
Among Men, nothing can be truer, than Cogitationh poenam neminem me- 
reri. For no Human Law, can be judge of Mens Thoughts. But it 
is much more neceflary to the Welfare of Mankind, that there fliould be 
a Judge of Mens Thoughts, and Laws for the governing of thefe, than 
of their Adions. For a Law which may have force to reflrain one 
Ad, will want the fame force to- reftrain another, where the Offender 
thinks he is fafe. But Laws, which give bounds unto Mens Thoughts j 
give them not to one, but equally to all thofe Adions, which they are 
ufed to produce, 

iz. And whereas the Mind of a Man, being always the firfi: in fault, 
doth therefore merit the Penalty in the firll: place : Men, in the Execu- 
tion of their Laws, have no abfolute Power, faving of the Body. For 
the Criminal may fometimes, not only bear his Punifiiment, but upon 
ibme confideration or other, may therein conceive a Pleafure. But he 
that made the Mind of Man, can punifli it when and how he pleafes : 
So, as to make a Mental, to be equivalent to any Senfual Pain. 

I ^ . Neither can Humane Laws, purfue Men beyond their being in 
this World. But the Maker of all Worlds , and .the Difpofer of all 
Creatures, in one World as well as another, can tdl how to do it. 

14. Now if Mendd every where Ad, as we fee they do, notwith- 
(landing that mofl: allow the Being, Force, and Extent of the Pofitive 
Laws of God, as aforefaid : Let us conceive, as Well as we can, what 
a difmal Place we fliould live in,- did all Men believe, as'fome do, that 
there are no fuch Laws, as are neceflary to ellablifli a Divine Government 
over the Minds of Men. . .••^.. 

15. Again; the Declaration of a Divine Law, Superior to that 6f Na- 
ture, and to all Human Laws, will further appear to be neceflary, if 
with the Corruption of the Mind of Man, we alfo^cjonfide^ the Tranfcen- 
dent Excellency of the Deity. '.,-.. 

; i6. And firil, it is in conflflient with his Divine Power and Majefly , to 
gpvern thcj|(lelledual World, only by the Law of Nature, which al- 
ways carries its own Realon along with it felf : and not to do it alfo, by 
Pofitive and Peremptory Laws : that is, by the exprefs Declaration of 

LI his 

^ . . I — « 1 -— 1* ' — — — — 

i^o Of Pofitive Laip. Book IIL 

his Will and Plealure, without giving a Reafon for it. Every Pofitive 
Law, is indeed grounded upon Reafon, or fuppofed fo to be, as an ef- 
fential part of it ; without which, it were not a Law, but a Publick 
Wrong. Yet LegiflatOrs are not bound to declare that Reafon, unto 
thofe to whom the Law is given ; as being Coram non Judice. For how 
can the People judge, who are to obey? but in obeying the Law of Na- 
ture, every Man is bound, to fee the Reafon of what he obeys. To 
fuppofe then, that God governs us only by the Law of Nature ; is as 
much as to fay, He has bound Himfelf, to tell us the Reafon of every 
> thing he bids us do. And if fo, hath left himfelf lefs Authority over 
his Creatures, than they themfelves find neceflary to be ufed over one a- 

17. It is congruous, that theHighefl Angels (hould be govern'd by a 

Law : not only that of their own Nature, but Pofitive Law. For tho' 

Reafon is its own Rule, fo far as it goes: Yet if no Created Reafon, 

can match the Uncreated ; 'tis fit, that the abfolute and implicit Sub- 

jedion thereof, fliould be proved by a Rule above it. How much more 

applicable, is the fame Rule to our felves ? How fit is it, for Man, the 

lowed: Species of Reafonable Creatures, under a Supream Lord, though 

he were with Angels in a State of Perfedtion, yet not to be his own 

Rule in every thing ? Much more, now he is in a Condition fo far from 

it. That as Man, by his Reafon, ufeth an Abfolute Dominion over 

Brutes : So likewife, and much rather, that God by his Laws, fliould u(e an 

Abfolute Dominion over Man. That is to fay, That the Will of God, which 

is the Supream Reafon ; fliould be declared unto Man, as his Supream Rule. 

ij ^ . ^ 18. And as Reafon is Effential unto Liaw ; fo likewife unto all Human 

ll-^, eiJ/n^ -^^^UJ^^' Laws, common_Con(ent^I.ex, faith Ar'iftotle.y Rhet. ad Alexandrum, c/^ 

U4 Ui /^ ^tkAii>v (XT '■'"^*""'^" ^''^'^^^^^ confenfm. and fo fays every Body elfe : Or, which is 

n-')'^'- ' all one, Legem non obligare^ ji a Populo non acceptetur. Becaufe that all 

^i^P^^i "^^ '^^ ^^ Men are of one Species, endowed with a Reafonable or Confenting Will. 

^MiJlf 9fii/)iM^t%p • So that all Human Laws and Powers, are but Agreements, fome way or 

other, upon common confent. W hich is all nothing fA^t^ but the Pra- 

<5tick part of the Law of Nature. Now it was becoming God, not to 

leave any Man, or Society, wholly to their own Will, any more than 

,, to their own Reafon : But to govern them in fuch a manner, and by fuch 

[j Laws, for which he needed, neither to give them a Reafon, nor to ask 

their Confent. 

19. Itmufl alfo highly refledt upon the Wifdom of God, to fuppofe 
h.t. hath made Men governable in fuch a way, as he never defigned to 
ufe. If then we fee fo great a Congruity in all the parts of Creation ; 
we mufl fiippofe the like between thofe of Creation and Providence. 
That as he would never have made Lungs, if he had not made Air ? nor 
Eyes, if he had not made Light : So neither would he have made Man, 
a Creature reducible unto all Obedience ; but that he intended to prove 
and condud him, by a Suitable Power. 

20. Again ; the moft Refined Wits, in all Ages, and Countries, have 
thought, and found Religion, that is, the Real, or fuppofed Declarati- 
on of Divine Laws, to be neceflary unto Government, and to the Peace 
and Welfare of Mankind. Had God then omitted, by Pofitive Laws, to 
give Religion to the World : the Wifdom of his Providence, had been 
impeachable by his Creatures Wit ; as feeing that needful to be done, 
which Himfelf had omitted to do. 

ai. More- 


Chap. VL Of Pofitive Lam, loi 

%i. Moreover, for God to have made an expreis Declaration of his 
Mind, as aforefaid, doth much ill uftrate his Good Will unto Men. Rea- 
fon is a Rule, whereby the Creature is indeed obliged to A(5t. But the 
Creator, by the Declaration of his Laws, doth alfo tranfad and corref- 
pond with his Creatures J pirelerving his Majelly, and making his condef- 
cention both at once. 

ai. We fee, by all the Tokens of Love and Kiridnefs, that God doth 
infinitely more for Men, than Men do one for another. If then the 
Governing' Part of all Nations, have ever thought it expedient for the 
Good of the People, to Explain and Confirm the Law of Nature, by 
Pofitive Laws : We may much the rather believe, that God hath done it. 
But if withal, there are many things appertaining to the Law of Nature, 
wherein the VVilelt of Men, in our prefent Corrupt Eftate, are at a lofs, 
and need to be allifted : We cannot conceive that God, who has fo 
abundantly confider'd our Neceflities in all other refpedts ; fliould, in 
this, be wanting to us. That He who has enricht the World with fo 
great a Furniture, to gratifie every Senfe, and to anfwer every Corpo- 
real Difeafe : Should yet provide but one only Remedy, the Law of Na- 
ture, to cure thofe of our Minds. 

■2.-}^. Sundry Legiflators, the better to recommend their Laws to the 
People ; have thought it neceflary to propofe them, as the Edidls of 
fome Oracle. If then it be expedient, that Men ihould think, there are 
certain Laws' in being, which come from God : it is much more agreea- 
ble to his Divine Goodnefs and Majefty, to have given the World his 
Laws J than only, to have permitted Men to Counterfeit them. 

i4. All Men do admit of thefe two things ; That Religion is of ufe to 
the Government of the World: And, that Truth, is preferable unto 
Fallliood. But to fay, that all Religion, or fuppofed Revelation, comes 
from Fallhood ; is to affert, either that God could not eftablilh Religion, 
fo necelTary to the Government of the World, by Truth ; or that he 
chofe to do it by Falfliood. Or, which is all one, that the World is by 
Him fo conftituted ; as to be better governM by Fallhood, than by Truth. 
Where asnothing can be more contrary, to all that we can duly think of 
him, and to the I'ruth and Reditude of all his Works. We can by 
no means therefore doubt, but that he hath given his Pofitive or Exprefs 
Laws, both to this, and to all others, Celcftial and Terreflrial Worlds. 


H M 




Sheweh , That the 'B I B L E, and 
Firft, That the Hebrew Code, 
or <)ld Teftament, is Gods 
Pofitive Law. 


Of the INTEGRITT oj the Hehren> Code, 

^' ^■^^^ll^^^i^^l^f^ Aving fhewed, by how many and great 
_^ ■^^^j^fel^^B^^'^ Reafons, we are aflured, That God hath 
^^fc^^^^^^ll^^^^j^t given his Exprefs Laws to the World : 
^^B wiili^^ ^^^^^P^^ ' ^^^'^ "°^ prove, that thefe Laws are 
BP^^^^^^J'' f-T ' ^^^^ contained in the Writings, commonly 

■ Wf^^ i^^S^ called, theB IB LE.- beflowed on us both 

■ ^^^^ L—---— i J^^^ as a Comment, and the Paralypomena^ 
W '^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^o ^^^ L^^^' °^ Nature. I fliall prove, 

■ '^^K^^^^m^^^^^ That thefe Writings, are not Counter- 
m ^S^^^^^^^v^^ ^^^^^ impofed on us ; but Authentick and 

^^^^^^^ Entire. And that the Contents hereof- 

are True and very Excellent, and worthily entituled to a Divine O- 
riginal. And this, I hope, with that Evidence, That no Man can 
have better, to believe, there was once l mofl famous City, called 
Jerufakm ; or that himfelf is indeed, what he is called, the Son of his 
reputed Father. « 

2, ril begin with the Writings of the Hehnvo Code. And prove 
in the firfl Place, that they are Authentick and Entire, And firft it is 
plain, That the Originals, from the Beginning, were kept under the 
fafeft and mod facred Cuftody. The Poems fuppofed to be Homers^ 
were collected, either by Fiftjlratus^ as fays Yaufanias in his Achaka ; 
or by Lycurgus, as Plutarch^ after the Interval of a long time, from we 
know not whofe Hands and Keeping, Yet upon the current Teftirhorty 
of Antiquity, no body doubts, but that he was the Author of theni., 
And the like may be faid, with refped: to the Authority of many othe^ 

M m Books'; 

'^ Of the INI EGRlir B^ o k i V. 

Books. Whereas the Ten great Commands, commonly called, the Moral 
Law, contained in the Two Tables of Stone : fo foon as received by 
Mofes, were immediately put into the Ark, Deut. lo. 5. and with the 
Ark preferved i'n the Tabernacle and the Temple, above 800 Years, 
viz. until the Temple was robb'd and burnt by Nehuchadnezzars Ar- 
my. When, as Polyhi/ior, cited by Ei^fehus, Pr. Ev, 9. 39. as a very 
Learned and Famous Author, and who gives a large Account of the 
Jewi/h Affairs, faith expredy, ' The Babylonians neverthelefs left the 
' Ark, with the Tables which were kept in it, in the Hands of the 
Prophet Jeremy. As being perhaps, from what tliey had heard befcl 
the Philijlm^ afraid to meddle with it. And the Judicial and Ceremo- 
nial Laws, contained in the Five Books of Mofes, were by him alfo 
written in a Book : And this Book was laid, and kept by tiie Priefts, in 
the Tabernacle, and in the mofl Holy Place within tlia Veil, Deut. 
3I.X4, X5,i6. So aptly did yawwd'/, Sat. 14. (lile this m)ok, Arcanum 
Folumen ; both with refpedt to the Matter therein contained, and as 
being preferved under the mofl Sacred Cuflody. 

t}. Nor was the Charge the Priefls had of this Book, given privately, 
but in the Prefence of the Elders of Ifrael^ viz. the 70 Elders before 
inflituted, and mentioned N«w^. 11. 16, Who, as Witnefles hereof, 
had either another Original, or a Copy, given them of the fame, with 
Authority to compare them together at any time, Deut.-^i.^. Which 
feems to be the Reafon, of the H. Priefls employing the like Number, 
for Tranflating it into the Greek Tongue. 

4. Again ; who is there that doubts, whether the Book called Doomf- 
Jay-Book, be that which William of Normandy appointed to be rnade ? 
tho' kept, as we fay, in bugger-mugger for above 600 Years. Whereas 
this Sacred Book, which Mojes wrote ; to make it univerfally known, and 
acknowledg'd : was read every 7th Year, in the Feafl of Tabernacles, 
both to the Jews, and to Strangers, from all Parts of the World. Not 
fome particular Law, but the Body of the Law : for the doing of which, 
the feven Days of the faid Feafl, were more than enough. For which 
Caufe, it was alfb impollible, the Priefls fhou'd prefume to make any Al- 
teration herein : as being fubjed, both to the Scanning of the 70 Elders; 
and the Obfervation of all that heard it. And if God was pleas'd to 
give it fo great a Sandion, by punilhing thofe in an extraordinary man- 
ner, who brake it by fome fmgle Adls ; as Nadah and Ahihu, and fome 
others: What mufl they have expeded, who by falfifying the fame, 
fliou'd have occafioned a General and Perpetual Violation of it. 

f . It is alfo evident, that from this Original, many Copies, and from 
thefe, many more, were taken through all lucceeding Times. For firfl, 
their Kings were exprefly required to take a Copy of it, £>?«/. 17, 18. 
Therefore alfo Jojhua, God's Vice-Roy, over this People, immediately 
upon the Death of Mofes, was commanded to meditate in it Day and 
Night J and to do according to all that was written therein, Jof:. 1. 1, 8. 
Which he cou'd not do, without a Copy, whereunto upon all Occa- 
fions to have Recourfe. And from the Reafon of this Command, the 
Succeeding Judges, were all under the fame Obligation. Nor can we 
think, that the good Kings, particularly David, Afa, Johojhaphaty 
Hezekiah, Jofiab, did any of them fail to do as they were required. Or 
that any of the aforefaid Elders, were w ithout a Copy for their private 
Ufej befides that they kept, as it's mofl likely, among the Publick Re- 

Cha p. J. of the tiebreiv Code. I5<- 


cords, for their Ule in common. For neither will any Judge or Juftice 
of Peace, be without the Laws of his own Country. And that many of 
the Priefts and Levites had Copies hereof, is molt certain. For how was 
it pofTible for them, pundually to perform their Office, according to the 
Law of Mofei^ xChron.-^o.i6. and ^i.z, 5. and to teach the People 
their Duty, which was alfo their Office, Malach.i. 7, had they no Co- 
pies whereunto to have recourfe, as their Guide and Warrant ? We are 
alfo told, z ChroH. 14. 4. That Afa commanded Judah^ To do the Law, 
and the Commandments. Therefore the Priefts had every where Copies 
whereby to teach them. And x Chron. %j. 7, 8, 9. 'tis faid, That the Five 
Princes, Two Priefts, and Nine Levites, which 'jehofhaphat fent to teach, 
in all the Cities of Judal^ had the Book of the Law of the Lord with 
them : that is, a Copy of that, before t!ie Priefts. And it is probable, 
that for the better, and more fpeedy Performance hereof, the Kingdom 
was divided, according to the Number of the Princes, into Five Circuits • 
and that each of them had a Copy. And it feems to me, that Thefe, 
as the King's Apoftles, did appoint other Priefts and Levites, by whom 
y'l/o/fj is faid, Ath 15. z^. to be read of old time, upon the Sabbath 
Days in every City. And thofe of the Levites^ who applied themfelves 
to write thefe Copies, and to teach the Law ; are called in the New Te- 
ftamcnt, ypx/itiJfj.Teii -?« No'(U,«j ^ vojuo^i^cia:{gi?,oi. And 'tis very likely 
that they wrote thefe Copies, for others as w^ell as themfelves ; chiefly for 
the Schools of the Prophets : and that every School had a Copy, as well 
as every com miilion'd Prophet : and that thofe were called to be Prophets, 
who had moft addided themfelves to the Reading and Obfervation of 
the Law ; both as a fpecial Means of their Sandtity, and the Founda- 
tion of all that they were to declare to the People. And in the time of 
the Captivity, befides fundry Propiiets, Jeremiah^ Ezek/el, Daniel^ and 
others; there were great Numbers of Priefts and Levites, in all the 
Provinces of the Babylonian Empire, Juft iVIen, who would not be without 
a Copy of the Law. And how fentelefs is it to think, That the Prophets, 
Ha^ai and Zechary^ and the Levites with them, were without a Copy 
upon their Return to Jerufalem, where they had fo much occafion for 
it? asm building the Altar, and olfering Burnt-Offerings thereon, and in 
keeping the Fealt of Tabernacles, and in doing all other things, as it u 
written in the Law of Mofes, which they mention, Ezra ■}. z. 4. as the 
Rule they went by. Or, to fay, that Ezra had the Law only in his 
Head, as fome Men have dreamed ; when he came up with a Commit- 
fion from Artaxexres^ To enquire concerning jTw^^/^ and Tifr^/j/ew, accor- 
ding to the Law of God which was in his Hand^ Ezra 7.14. Or when 
afterwards under the Government of l^ehemiah^ the People defired him, 
not to write it, but forthwith to bring and read it to them, which he 
did accordingly, Ezra 8. i, 2, 3. Or that the Prophet Malachi, would 
have fo feverely reproved the Priefts and the People of the jewSy for 
their manifold Breaches of the Law ; and exhorted the Religious among 
them, to perfevere in their due regard to it, Mai. 4. x, 3, 4 ; had it not 
been a Book very well known to tiiem all. And when Antiochus, after 
this, became the Enemy of the Jews, one principal Command given to 
his Army, was to deftroy all the Copies of their Law, they could meet 
with, I Mace. i. 56. 60. An evident Proof, that there were at that time, 
a great many of them. And confequently, at all other times. 

6. Nor 

,26 Of the INT EG R ITT B o o k IV. 

' ~ " • ■ 

6. Nor may vve doubt, but that as the Original Boolft of the Prophets, 
and the reft compriz'd under one Name of the Hagiographa^ were kept 
among tjie Pubhck Records .• So were they alfo copy'd into many Hands; 
as many as Uke the Prophet Daniel, 9. x. lov'd to read and compare them 
together. But 'tis likely, there were not many who had compleat Co- 
pies, till after the Captivity : When by Ezra, Ezekiel, Daniel, Morde- 
cai, Zeruhhahel, Nehemiah, Haggai, Zachary, Malachi, and other emi- 
nent Perfons, moft of them Contemporaries, they were colledled into 
one Volume. Who being many of them Prophets, and forefeeing, that 
after themfelves, no more would be fent ; as alfo by the Teftimony of 
Jofephus , againft AppioK, it appears there were not : could not but 
conclude it neceflary, to fix th^ Books of the Sacred Canon. Which 
Books were the fame, as were ever after received by the Jews, and the 
whole Chriftian Church unto this Day. As appears, not only in the 
great Agreement between the Copies among the Jews, and ours: 
but alfo by the Tranflations, which were after made of the Hebrew 

7. For firft, befides the moft Ancient Samaritan Pentateuch, tranflated 
not long after Ezras time j when tht Samaritans had built their Temple 
upon Mount Gerizim : Arijlohulus, a Peripatetick Philofopher, and a 
Jew, tells us, C/. Al. Strom. 1. That not only the Exit of the Jews^ 
from Egypt, but the whole Law of Mofes, ^ oAm vo/xo^i'^cti mi^Y,yy.cni, was 
by fome Hand tranfiatcd into Greek, before Alexander s time : albeit 
both thefe Verfions are now loft. 

8. But in the Reign o^ Ptolemem Philadelphus, not much lefs than 300 
Years before our Saviour's time ; aTranfl^tion was made of the Entire 
Hebrew Canon, as left by Ezra, and the Contemporary Prophets, w hich 
quickly grew famous throughout the Eaft ; the true Copies whereof, are 
likewiie now extant all over the World. For that King having colleded 
a great Library ; it was fuggefted to him by Demetrius Phaleriusy the 
Keeper oi it, a Philofopher, and once Govcrnour of the Athenian Com- 
mon-wealth ; and by Arijlceas, a Man of Honourable Place in the King's 
Court : That among other Books, there was none M'ould more adorn 
and enrich the fame, than a Greek Copy of the Mofaick Law. And the 
King,tolliew how deftrous he was hereof, fent his Letters of Requeft,by 
a folemn Embafly, to Eleazer, then High Prieft ; with a Prefent of a 
Hundred Thoufand Jews, whofe Freedom coft him, at lo Drachms per 
Head, near 660000 Talents. Whereupon Eleazer choofing jx Grave 
and Learned Men, Six out of every Tribe ; fent them with a Compleat 
Copy of the Law to the King. Who having received them honoura- 
bly, for their better Retirement in the Work they were to do, appoin- 
ted them the Great Tower in the Ifle Pharos, near Alexandria. 
Wherein each of them had a Study, with his particular Task, to 
himfelf. Which when they had all finillied and reviewed together ; a 
Copy of the whole, was publickly read in the King's Court, and then 
put into his Library ; and the Elders difmift with Noble Prefents for 
themfelves and the High Prieft. 

9. Some Particulars of this Account, taken chiefly from Arijixoiy 
have been doubted of. As how fix Men could be chofen out of every 
Tribe, when ten of the Tribes were in Captivity ? Were this fo, yet 
fomt of every Tribe, ftill continued in their own Countrey. But that 
the Ten Tribes always remain'd in Captivity, is a great Miftake. 


C H A p. 1. of the Hebrew Code, ' ^-j 

For the return of thefe, together with that of Judah^ was predided by 
mod of the Prophets. And we -are therefore informed by Ezra i. jo, 
that not only the Priejis and Levites, who came along with him, but 
all Ifrael dwelt in their Cities. And Ch. 6. 17. that the Sin-Offering, 
was of II He-Goats, according to the Number of the Tribes. And fome 
additions which have been made to Ariftceois Hiftory by other VVri-^ 
ters, are certainly fabulous : as the TranHation of the whole, by each of 
the 71. Which cannot confift with the different Stile and Skill of 
the Tranflators, ufed in the feveral Parts, and obferved by fome Learn- 
ed Men ( Jerome^ Brought on ^ Ujher ) who have taken pains to compare 
them with the Hebrew Text, 

ID. But we are not to be guided in the Senfe we have of that Book, 
either by the Mifreports of fome Ancients, or the Capriccio's of one or 
two Neoterkks. Much lefs as to the fubftance of the Hiftor)'. Con- 
firmed to us, by the forementioned Arijlohulus^ Euf. Pr, Ev. i-\. in a 
Book of his to Ptolemy Philometor, not long after this Bufinefs was tranf- 
aded. By Jofephus, in his Book againft Appion. By Philo^ in his Life ^ . 
of Mofes. By Ju(iin Martyr^ in his Difcourle againft the Gentiles. And 
by the Egyptian Annals, Galefin. Comment, de "jz. Interp.p. 9. And thofe 
alfo, who have doubted of the Book entitl'd to Arifiaas^ have yet ac- 
knowleged the Subftance of it to be Unqueftionable. 

II. And that the Tr anflation made by the 7 x Elders, took in the whole 
Hebrew Code, is alfo certain ; the Prophets, and the Hagiographa, as is 
obferved, being ordinarily, by the Rabbis, comprehended under the Ti- 
tle of the Law. And is that which Juftin Martyr, and Clemens Alexandria 
vus, both affirm. And l\\OM^V*Ierome, as Bifhop Walton notes, feems 
once to doubt of it ; yet in fundry places, as contra Ruffinum, z. and 
Epift. ad Suniam & Fritelam, he plainly owns it. But the truth hereof 
is evidenced, by nothing more, than the many Copies, which Arijlaas 
and Jofephus both tell us, Demetrius permitted the Alexandrian Jews, to 
take from the Original. Which by Secundary Copies, became fo nu- 
merous every where ; that they were not only privately ufed by the Jews^ 
who then generally underftood Greek very well ; but in Egypt, where 
the Jeiw that ufed them, were therefore called //f//i?«(/?J ; and all over 
Greece, and Ajia, and even in Jerufakm, were publickly read in their 
Synagogues, for above loo years before our Saviour's Time ; as Jofe- 
phus, Philo, xhtTalmud, and many of the firll Chriftian Writers, do all 

1%. And that the Copies we now have, are the fame with the moft 
antient, is as certain. For firft it is affirmed by Juflin Martyr, cont. 
Gent.hy Tertullian, Apol. ch. 18. and by Chryfoftom, Or at. cont. Judaiz.ThiA 
the Original it felf was preferved in the Serapeum in their Times. And 
v^ hat they fay, is credible, both in it felf, and from their Teftimony. 
For it might be eafily refcued, with fome other Books of Value, when 
in Julius Cafar's Time, Ptolemy's Library, wherein it lay, was burnt. 
And though the Temple of Serapis, the place o( Cleopatra's Library, built 
after the Deftrudion of Ptolemey's, and wherein the faid Original is fup- 
pofed to have been put, in the Second year of Commodm was alfo burnt : 
Yet not the whole Strudure; as is manifcfl: from the fame Place 'm Ter- 
tullian. And Amm. Marcellinus, mentions both the Temple and Library 
therein, as famous in his time. And though by the Command of Theo- 
dofius. This, and the reft of the Idolatrous Temples in £gy/>^, were deftroy* 

N n cd; 

38 Of the INTEGRITT Book IV. 

ed ,' yet this was not done, till the Year of Chrifl: 389 : Whereas Chry- 
fqftom fpake the faid Oration, as Bifliop UJher oblerves, Synt.Ch. ^. be- 
fore the Year -^^6. If then the Original it felf was extant for fo long a 
time, it was eafie to compare the Copies with it, and morally impolfible 
but that the Curiofity or Religious Care of many, {hould make them 
to do it. And whether it furvived the Ptolemean Library, or no ; there 
was Time and Opportunity enough in the fpace of zoo Years, for the 
like Comparifon to have been made made before it was burnt. And that 
there were Copies both of this Tranflation, and of the Hebrew Code, in 
the Library of Cleopatra^ is acknowledg'd by all. 

1:5. The next Step in proof, that the Copies we have of this Tranfla- 
tion, are True ; are the feveral Editions wiiich have been made of it ; 
and firft, thofe of Origen. Who having got the Greek Verfions of A- 
quila, Symmachus, and Theodofion^ three Judaizing Apoftates, and that of 
the Septuagint : the better to fliew the difference between them, placed 
them together in four Columns ; which Work he called Tetrapla. Then 
having learned the Hebrew Tongue, and procured a Copy of the He- 
brew Code, he added two more Columns ; in one, the Hebrew Text and 
Letters j in the other, the fame Text, in Greek Letters : and this he cal- 
led Hexapla. After this, meeting with two more Greek Verfions from 
the Hebrew, and adding them to the refl, in eight Columns, they were 
called Oclopla. Which Work was fo highly efteemed , and publickly 
known, as Jerome tellifies, Praf. in Ifaiam^ Ut omnes Bibliothecas impleve- 
rat^ ^ 'vulgatumfit diiium. Laflly, he alfo publilhed the Tranflation of 
the Septuagint by it felf : Having firfl: compared it with the Hebrew, and 
noted by Allerisks what was detedive, ^nd by Obelisks, what redun- 
dant therein. Copies whereof being eafdy had, were kept in all, both 
Publick and Private Libraries. 

14. With the afliftanceof Origens Hexapla^ a Copy whereof was kept 
in the Library at Cafarea ; EufeliuSy Bilhop of that City, put forth a 
Corredt Edition of that of Origen^ laft mentioned : many Errata^ by the 
Omillion, or Miftake of Origens Notes, having crept into the Copies ta- 
ken of it. Next to whom, firil Lucian^ a Presbyter of Alexattdria^ 
and then Hefychius^ Bifliop of Egypt^ made two other Editions, with the 
afiiftancc of the fame Hexapla^ as Jerome^ Epifl. ad Sun. ^ Frit, affirms. 
And the Tranflation of the yx, anciently extant in the fame Hexapla, 
has always been, and is now publickly read in the Greek Church, which 
never had any other, as Bifliop Walton and others obferve. And that We 
alfo, and all the Weilern Churches have the lame, plainly appears, in that 
rhilo, Jofephus, Origen, Amhrofe^ Augufline^ Chryfoftome, and other ancient 
Jews and Chrillians, cite the Old Teftament Scriptures, according to the 
beft Greek Editions now extant, viz. the Roman, and that of [the Alex- 
a«</rw«Maoufcript ; as we arealTuredby thofe, who have taken pains to 
compare them together. 

15, And that which yet further fliews the Legitimacy of the faid E- 
ditions, is the great Antiquity of the Manufcnpts hereof now extant. 
The Roman, we have from the Vatican Manufcript , the Venetian, and a 
Third, brought from yv/d^«4 Gr^c/d. The firft whereof , being written 
in Capital Letters, witliout Chapters, Verfes, or any Diflindtion or 

" Diflance of the Words; without Accents or Afpirations ; all Marks of 
the greateft Antiquity ; is judged to be written, near 1400 Years fmce, be- 
fore Jerome's time. And between this, and that from fliagna Grcecia^ there 


Chap, I. of the Hebrem Code, 159 

is a great Confent. The latter of the two forefaid Editions, we have 
from a Manufcript prefented to King Charles the Firft, by CyriU^ late 
Patriarch of Alexandria. Who faith, it was the Tradition in Egyfft^ 
that it was writtenipbout 1300, now near 1400 Years pad, a little af- 
ter the Council of t^ke. 'Tis written in Parchment, in the Ancient 
Capital Letters, without Chapters, Verfes, or Diftindion of Words, 
ji without Accents or Afpirations, a is frequently put for g, and the con- 
trary ; i for «, fju for v, and the like ; not by miftake of the Scribe, 
but throughout the Volume : all Signs of equal, if not greater Antiqui- 
ty, than that of the Vaticaiv And between thefe two Codes, the A- 
lexandrian and the Vatican, there is a great Accord. There is alfo a 
Greek Verfion of the Book of Gfwi?/^ in the Co//(?»/d» Library, very a-' 
greeable to the former ; and is fuppofed to be more ancient than 
either of them. The Antiquity of all which, and of fundry other 
Manufcripts now in being, fliews that they were copied from fome one of 
Origens Editions, or of the others aforefaid, grounded thereupon, tmd 
at that time every where known qnd difperled. 

16. Next to the Greek Verfion of the jx, fdllowed the Targumm^ or 
two famous Paraphrafes, upon two feveral Parts of tlie Old Tefla- 
ment, in the Chaldean Tongue, a Dialed of the Hebrew. The Tar- 
gum upon the Law, by Onkelos ; the other upon the Prophets, by Jo- 
nathan, Scholar to Hillel^ Redor of the Univerfity at Jerufalem, and 
Contemporary with Onkelos ; as both»of them were with Gamaleel , St. 
Paul's Mafter. Befides which, there were others, upon the reft of the 
Hagiographa '-, except Ezra._ Daniel^ and the Chronicles, which needed 
them not, a.s Schickard notes. Which Paraphrafes, the two fk{[ efpe- 
cially, do ftrongly prove the Integrity of the Hebrew Text, which 
they are obferved to follow with great Exadnels. Shewing, tliat the 
Differences now feen between the Septuagint and the Hebrew ; proceeds 
not from Erratas crept into the Hebrew, wherewith the (aid Para- 
phrafes every wliere agree, and wherewith they equally dirler from the 

17. Soon dfter thefe, in, or near the Time of the Apoftles, the Hebrew 
Bible was alfo tranflated into the Syriac Tongue, another Dialed: of the 
Hebrew. This is Ihewed, by Learned Men of later time , Wid- 
manfiadius, Tremellms^ Troflius, Gefner. Teftified by Ephraim Sy- ■ 
rus, and before him, by James Syrus, Contemporary with the Nicene 
Council, both of them Syriac Commentators upon the Bible, as Greg„ 
Nijfen, and Zozomen in his Hifi. j. 15. report, and who both mention this 
Tranflation as very ancient. And the fame is obferved to be often cited 
by the Greek Scholiall upon the Pentateuch, and by Chryfojlome, Theo- 
doretyznd other ancient Authors. And by Dr. ^Pocock, HiJl.Arab. p. 184. 

is clearly diftinguiilied from the Syriac Verfion, which was made 
afterwards from the Greek. And was difperfed, and publickly read, in 
the moft ancient Churches in Syria, Mefopotamia, Chaldaa, Egypt, and 
all over the Eart. And of this Syriac Tranflation made from the 
Hebrew, Billiop IValton affirms, that there are divers Manufcript Copies 
now preferved. 

18. Befides thefe, there were other ancient Verfions. As the Samari- 
tan Pentateuch, taken from the Septuagint. Frequently cited by Jerome^ 
and other Writers of the fame lime ; and publickly read by the Sa- 
maritans in Sichem, Damafcus, and other adjacent Places at this very day. 


140 of the INTE GRIT T Boo k IV. 

The Mafiufcript Copies whereof, procured by Morinus^ Bilhop UJher^ 
and others ; agree in every thing of Moment, both with the Greek and 
Hebrew Texts. And the Particulars, wherein this Verfion is noted by 
the Ancients, to differ from the Hebrew, are the fanie in the Copies we 
now poflefs. There is Hke wile the ^thiopick Verfion, taken from the 
Syriac, about the time of the Apoftles, SabeO. Suppl. H'tft. Lib. 8. 
and now in ufe. And that called the Vulgar Latin ; confiftin g partly, •/■ 

*< ^t-t-ff*^ ^X^<«^ ^^ '^^^'' ^^^^"^ ''^y 1^^°^^ Ixovci the Hebrew ; and partly, of a former, 
1 7 1 J '^y called the Italian^ taken from the Septuagint, and by Flaminius Noh'd'i- 
tc^ A* ffi-^Ci^'^ us^ raifed from the Dead, out of the Writiugs of the Ancient Dodors. 
i^X^A^ {(Th/i~ The Agreement of all which Tranflations aforefaid, both one with ano- 
•"^ ther, and . with the Hebrew Code ; may fuffice to latisfie us of the In- 
tegrity hereof. That is to fay, that the Sacred Canon, which Ezra and 
the Prophets, his Contemporaries, left to the Jeivs^ was the fame with that 
we now enjoy. 

19. This will further appear, if we confider the Guard vihich hath 
been put upon the Original Text, by the Mafora. A certain Critka Sa- 
cra^ wherein are delivered, the Varieties of Writing and Reading, 
throughout the Old Teftament. Not performed by any one Author, 
but the fuccelTive Labours of many, and continued for fome Hundreds 
of Years. Probably begun about the time of the Maccabees. Certain- 
ly, before the Jerufalem Talmud, a Hebrew Comment on the Law ; 
which is obferved to mention fome of the Maforetick Notes, and was 
firft publiflied, as faith Calvifius^ in the Year of our Lord, 396. 

lo. In this Work is noted the Number of Verfes in every greater Se- 
<3;ion ; and the middle Verfe of every Book. Lead anyone, through 
Knavery or Negledt, fliould take from, or add any to them. As aUb, 
how often Words of fliort or full Writing, are diverfly written, and 
where. How often, and in what Place, and Form , every Word is 
found. How often the Particles Eth and Vah^ come together, fo as to 
deceive a Copier, without a 1 able of Diredion : that lb the Reading 
might be preferved every where Uncorrupt. They note even the Num- 
ber of Letters, both in the whole, and in every Book. Which are the 
middle Letters, and which terminate the Fourth Part. How often each 
Letter of the Alphabet is found, and how often thofe which are called 
Finales. How many, befides the ufual Manner of Writing them, are found 
greater, and how many lefs, or changed one for another. A very anci- 
ent Work, fays Montanus^ as is telti.fied by Jofephus , againft Appion. 
Which Punctualities, though fome of them did not fo much conduce to 
preferve the Text ; yet all of them fliow, The Infinite Care which was ta- 
ken, that there might be no Millake, if it were polhble, fo much as in a, 
fingle Letter. 

XI. To thele Notes, were added thofe of the Poll- Talmud ick Rabbis, 
in the famous School at Tiberias^ mentioned by Epiphanius^ 'Jerome^ and 
other Chrillian Writers. Thefe were the Authors of the Various Rea- 
dings, called Keri^ and Ketib .- the former fignifying, Read j the latter. 
Written. Noting, when a Word which was written one way in the 
Text, was to be read, as in the Margin, otherwife : When, to be read, 
tho' not written 3 or when written, tho' not to be read : Where thofe 
are joined, which fliould be feparated, and other Remarks : Of all which 
Capellus^ in his Crit. Diff] ;. gives an Account. Which very much ferve 
to preferve the True Reading. ^ 

11. The 

Chap. 1. *ofthe Hebrew Code. ^ ia\ 

%z. The laft part of their Labour, that is, the laft begun, was the 
Hebrew Pundarion. Of this, neither in the Caldee Paraphrafts, nor in 
Jerome, nor other more ancient Chriftian Doctors, is there any menti- 
on. Nor in either of the two Parts of the Talmud, the Mifchna^ or the 
Gamara. And is therefore, by the befl skilled in Hebrew Learning, judi- 
cioufly afcribed to the Rabbi's of Tiberias aforefaid : by them invented 
about 500 or 600 Years after Chrifl:, and by Gabriel Syo^ita firll put in 
Practice, the better to fecure the true Reading. At firft, in the great 
Mafora, the Vowels were only two, Chamets and Tfere- : under the for- 
mer whereof, was contained Patach, and Segol under the latter. 
But the later Rabbis, who collected the Lefler Mafora out of the Grea- 
•tcr, for more certainty, added and diftinguifhed by Name, fundry other 
Notes of this kind ; Buxt.Tib.i. 13, Not pro arbitrio, but according 
to the true Reading, fucceiiively delivered by many Learned Hebrews in 
every Age, to their own time. And have therefore, been of that 
great Ufe to. following Ages, as to be imitated by the Arabians, Syrians^ 
Terfians, and other Orientals. So that we have as great Aflurance of the 
Integrity of the Sacred Text, by the joint Help of all the aforefaid Means, 
as we can defire. ' * 

x3. 'Tis true, that fome few Pafiages have been inferted into the Ori- 
ginal. 1\\t Mafora nox.t%, that thofe two Verfes, Jojh. 2.1. 36,37. are 
wanting in all the mod ancient Copies. Which, and lome other Pat- 
fages, might be added, either by Ezra and the Prophets, his Contempo- 
raries, or by Malachi alone, furviving all the reft. There are alfo cer- 
tain Alterations by the Rabbi's, called Tukkun Sopherir/i, or the Corre- 
dions of the Scribes, viz. Ezra, and the Prophets aforefaid : in which the 
mod ancient Reading, is altered in the Text it felf. So Gen. 18. I2. 
In the moft Ancient Copies, it was read, The Lord fiood yet before Abra- 
ham : For which, fays the Mafora, the Scfibes have written. But hhr^.- 
hzm flood yet before the Lord : and fo it is now read irt all the Hebrew 
Copies, and in all Tranflations. And they count in all, about 16 of the 
like kind. 

24. Nor is it to be denied, but that fome few Alteratiofis, not as Cor- 
rections ; but Errata, have flipt into the Hebrew Text, As appears, by 
the Difference between the Maforetick Notes ,• both thofe of the firft Ea- 
ftern and Weftern Rabbi's, that is, of Babylonia and Taleftine ; relating 
unto Words and Letters ; and thofe of Ben Afcher and Ben Maphtali after- 
ward, relating unto fome certain Points and Accents. By fome at 
leaft, feeming Inconfiftences ; as in z Kings iz. 8. compared with xChron. 
zz. %. concerning the Age of Ahaziah the Son of Joram. And by Tome 
Omilfions : there being no certain Catalogue of the Perfons fucceeding 
Zadoc to the Captivity. For in that Catalogue, i Chron.6. which is the 
perfedeft, Urias, mentioned for one in the Book of King^s and the Chrff- 
nicles, when Abaz was King of Judah, is omitted. Which, and fome 
few alike, rauft needs be the £rr<?f^ of Tranfcribers. And although the 
various Readings in the Margin, are numerous, counted by BroHghton^ 
Epifl. to the Parliament, to be 848 : yet thofe in the Text, are fo very 
few, that Mont anus, (Comment, de Var. Le£i. makes this Remark 5 That 
whereas in the Copies of all forts of Greek and Latin Authors, efpecially 
Manufcripts, there are many Particulars wherein they differ one from ano- 
ther : between all the Hebrew Copies now known, whether written with 
Points, or without, there is a moil exad Conformity. Which fliews, 

O o that 

Of the iNi EGKlir Book iV. 

that though, as fome have obferved, there are fome various Readings 
in the Text it felf ; yet they are very few : And it is agreed by ali, that 
thefe few, relating rather to the Orthography, than the Senfe of the 
Words, are of no moment to be regarded. 

. z5. And it is impofiible that there fliould be many, or thofe mate- 
rial, if we farther confidcr ; Firft, that before the Invention of Points, 
as the Aralians and Samaritafis^.folikGw'iCethe Helrews, did ufe three 
of their Letters, called Matres Lecfionis, viz. Jkphy Vau, and Jod, inftead 
of Vowels : To which, Jerome adds two more. He and Aji». With 
the Help whereof, they were able perfed:ly to read their Bibles, without 
any Points; and fo continue to do in their Synagogues to this Day: As 
alfo do the Samaritans and the Mahometans^ their own Books, Seal, ad' 
Buxt. Sen. Bpifl. z45. Nor therefore can it be thought, that in any Age, 
before the Ufe of Points, there wanted thole, who with the Help of the 
Vocal Confonants , were perfectly skilled in the true Reading. But 
when the Rabbi's faw Learning like to decay among them, and their 
Language more in danger of Corruption, as they were mixed and Mat- 
tered more and more among other Nations ; the Pundiatioii was 
then thought of, as neceflary for the better Security of the Text. 
"" 1 6. Nor can it be thought, that they would or could corrupt the Text, 
cut of Malice againft the Chriftian Religion, as fome have vainly fuf- 
peded. Not when they had the Bible in 'their own Hands, before 
Chrift. For the Jews^ and all the Orientals, took all thofe Prophecies 
relating to the Mediah, and State of the Chriftian Church, that is, the 
Kingdom of Chrift, in a Literal Senfe ; with Expedlation of a Worldly 
Kingdom, whereof Jerufalem fliould be the Head. How then could they 
mincioufly corrupt their Bibles, againfl Chrifl's Spiritual Kingdom, and 
the Chriftian Religion, which they dreamed not of? Not could either 
the Jews^ or the Chriftians, do it after Chrift, when the Copies were 
difperfed all over the World, and it was become impoffible, for all of 
either Religion, to agree herein ; and both of them were jealous Guards 
upon each other. And though ^j-a//^/, and the other two Apoftates, 
played Tricks ; yet was it only in their own Verfions : Nor were thefe, 
ever received in the Church. 

xy. Neither wanted rhe Jewifli Scribes, in any Age after Mofes^ that 
Reverend Regard to their Law, which both its facred Cuftody, and the 
exprefs Command, Deut. 4. ^. not to add nor diminifti any thing therein, 
were intended to beget in them, fo as to make them moft fmcere and 
careful in writing the lame. And Arijlaas tells us, that when the Tran- 
flation of the 71 Elders, waspublickly read before Ptolemy^ with the Prin- 
ces and EmbalTadors then prefent, and the Multitude of the Jews ; Impre- 
cations and Maledidions were made, according to the Cuftom of the 
Jews, againft thofe, who fliould prefame to add or alter any thing there- 
in. How much more ought we to believe, that they always had the 
like regard to their own more Sacred Text ? So as not at all to doubt the 
Veracity of Philo, in what he affirms, in his defence of them, Euf. Pr. Ev. 
8. 6. That they had never altered one Word therein. Nor what the fame 
Author in the fame Place, and Jofephns cont. Appi.l.\. do both teftifie. 
That the y^w'-y would rather fufFer all manner of Torments, than confent 
to alter one Tittle of it. So that we have all the Afliirance of the Inte- 
grity hereof, we can defire. That is to fay, that the Sacred Canon, 
which Ezra and the Peophets, his Contemporaries, left to tiie Jews., 



Chap. I. oftheHehrervCode. t ij.o 

was the fame with that we now enjoy : which is what I undertook to 

x8. Nor are thofe few and lefler Errata found therein, inconfulent 
with its being of a Divine Original. For we are to look upon it as 
Divine, only fo far forth, as the Contents hereof were given by God^ 
or tranfad:ed, in fome extraordinary way. But as it was v/ritten, and 
hath been copied, it is, and muft be called Humane. So that inftead 
of any ground we have, to expedt the Copies of a Divine Book, ^Ax\\- 
ovit Errata: it's a great Wonder, there are no more in it, than thofe we 
find. And argues, that the great Sandtity hereof, and the profound Re- 
gard Men have had for it, from the Beginning ; has been the Caufe of 
it : and that the Copiers of this Book, had they been employed in co- 
pying any other, would have made Errata infinite more. 

^9. To look for Copies without Errata, is to exped, that God fliould 
make unerring Scribes, by a continual Miracle. And why Ihould he do 
th.s to keep Men free from Error, any more than from Sin .•* Since no Sin 
can be committed, without a Breach of the Divine Law : Whereas 
fome Literal or other Leller Faults, may be made without the Corrup- 
tion of it. Why did God give Men Reafon and Virtue, but to ufe 
them ? and wherein can they do it better, than in taking care of this 
Book ? As if they were to be Men, in all other Undertakings, and meer 
Animals in this. 

■\o. God may as well permit Errata \n the Bible, as in Nature: he is 
as much the Author of the one, as of the other. Is it then impo.Tible to 
dillinguifli the Divinenefs of this Book, from that which is Flumane ? 
Is the Defign or Model of a good Piece of Architedure to be under- 
valued, becaufe in the Work, there is a Brick or two broken by the 
Workmen, or mifplaced ? If God, for fundry Reafons, hath made Na- 
ture capable of producing now and then a Moniler, or of making 
fome other Default j iliall we difown the Divine Strokes apparent in every 
Beauty .•= yea, in every welUlhaped Animal ? Shall we deny the Glory of 
the Sun, or from whofe Hands it came, becaufe of its Spots ? 

^^i. We are then to conclude, that the Divine Majelfy hath permitted 
fome lefler Errata in this Book, to give the greater Occafion unto Hu- 
mane Induftry. To invite Men to Itudy it more throughly, and to com- 
pare the Contents hereof, with Times and Things more exadtly. To 
prove humble Minds, who look not fo much at the lefier Faults, in this 
Book; as at the greater, it difcovers in themlelves. And to (hew the 
Pride of thofe, who are ready Obfervers of any thing herein, which may 
tempt them unto Evil ; but of nothing which tends to make them better. 
And if, with the Permiflion of fome leifer Faults, h& hath fo difpofed of 
Humane Means, as to prevent any that are dangq^Qus : We are not to 
wonder, if he thinks not fit, to make any perfeit and unerring Scribes. 
That is, if he thinks not hirafelf obliged, to remove the Cavils of fome 
Men, by altering the State of Humane Nature. 



144 Book IV. 

c H A P. n. 

Of thetRVTH and EXCELLENCT of 

the Hebrew Code Andfirfi, as they afpar from 

i.T Have made it evident, That the Copies we now have, of the He- 
X brew Code, are True Copies. But a True Copy, may contain 
thofe things, which are Falfe ; may pretend to be a Hillory, and be a 
Fable. I ihall therefore prove in the next place, that the Writers of this 
Book, have delivered to us the Contents hereof with the greateft Since- 
rity and Truth. And that thefe Contents withal, are very Excellent, and 
worthily referred to a Divine Original. 

z. For the clearing of this, I Ihall begin with Foreign Proof, viz. The 
Agreement of Profane, whether Jewifh or Ethnick, with the Sacred 
Writings : and the high Eftimation, which the VVifeft of other Na- 
tions, whether Hiftorians or Poets, Philofophers or Legiflators, have ever 
had of them. 

J. Jofephus^ who purpofely wrote the Story of his own Nation, doth 
in Sybllance througout agree with them. And in regard the Fidelity of his 
Accoant, lb far as relating to the Roman State, was attefled, as himfelf 
faith, both by Titus and Agrippa^ under their own Hands : we have no 
Caufe, but to believe, that he hath all along ufed the like Sincerity with 
relped to the Jewifli. And many Particulars, mentioned in the Bible, 
both of the 'jews and of their Anceftors, and of the World from the 
Beginning ; have been reported for certain Truths, or imitated by the 
Hillorians of other Nations : as by Sanchuniathon the Vhccntcian^ about 
the time of Sampfap ; Manethon the Egyptian, fometime before Aa- 
tiochiis Epiphanes ; Berofus the Bahylonian ; Herodotus^ Eupolemus^ and 
Tolyhijior^ all Greeks ; Cajior and Thallus, alfo Greeks, who wrote the Af- 
fairs of Syria ; Hellanicus and Philochoru^^ who wrote thofe of Attica^ 
and Herennius, Philoti, and Hecateusthe Alderite, about the time of A^ 
lexander^ who wrote each of them an entire Treatife of the 'jevcs alone : 
with many more, whofe Works were kndwn, both to Jofephus, and al- 
fo to AfricamSy Origen, Tattan, Eufehius, and to fome, later than thefe : 
who fpeak of them, as oi /ut.oixiq-ci. S'iaffcvSs, Men famous in their own 
Age and Countrey,V>|^rom thefe I flialltake my Proof. 

4. Mnfes faith, ^^4fH^ r • That in the Beginning, God created the Heaven 
and the Earth '^ an^he Earth was without form, and void, and Darknefs 
was upon the face oj the Deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon th^ face of 
theWaterS' Andthe Phanician Theology, faith Sanchumiathon, fuppo- 
feth, r -^j oXm oi^-)^Ljj, &c. That the Principles of tiie Univerfe, were a 
Dark Aer, filled with Spirit, and a Deep, and confufed Chaos. Which 
comes almofl to the Words of Mofes, a little tranfpofed. 

5-, We are told. Gen. i. 29, That God gave Adam, befides Herbs, alfo 
the Fruits of Trees, for his Tood. And the Phoenicians fay, r 'Ai>5ia, 
&c. That Aien^ by whom the Hiftorian means the Firft Man Adam, 



^ H A p. II, of the Hebrew Code. 

found out the Fruits of Trees for his Food. And DW(9r»i- receives it 
from Antiquity, that the firll Men liv'd upon Fruits and Roots. 

6. We have an Account, Gen. ^. of the Serpent's tempting £w and 
her Husband, to eat the forbidden Fruit. As if thereby he would make 
himfelf the Author of their becoming Gods. And Sanchumiathon faith. 
That Ta'dntus did afcribe fomething of Divinity to the Serpent ; and 
that the Egyptians and Phcetikians approv'd of this Opinion. From 
whence aUo, fays Eufehius., Pra:p.Ev.\o. Pherecydes took occafion to 
make a Diflertation concerning the Deity, called Ophion. And "tis 
likely, he might alio have refped: to the Brazen Serpent in the Wil- 

7. 'Tis faid G(?». -^.zi. That God made Adam and his Wife Coats of 
Skins, and cloathed them. And in the Phoenician Hiftory, That Uforis., 
that is, Adam., firdwore Coats of Beafts Skins. Cam\s faid, Ge«. 4. •5, 
To hring an Offering to the Lord of the Fruit of the Ground. And Porphy- 
riiu receives it from Theophraflus.^ that hereof were made the firfl Sacri- 
fices. The Heathen World, it feems, taking notice of Cains Sacrifice, 
rather than of AheFs, as that which feemed left Natural, and of the 
Younger 'Brother. 

8. The great .Age of the Antidiluvians, is pointed at by Manetho, Be- 
rofus, Molus, Hefif<Eus, Hieronymus Egyptius^ Hecatceus., Hellanicus^ Achu- 
Jelaus, Ephcrus., and the Phcenician VVriters : Who all affirm, faith 
yo/^/'/'«j. That the Ancients lived 1000 Years. And as for the Age of 
the Poftdiluvians for fome Centuries, the Annals of Phanicia^ ^i>ypf> 
and China^ agree herein with the Tenor of the Sacred Story. And 
therefore as Mofes reckons from Adam to Mizraim, exclufively, but 
Ten Generations. So the Phoenician Hiftoriao,- reckons but Teh from 
yEvum^ that is, Adam., to Mifor, that is, Mizraim ; though indeed inclu- 
fively. Very near the juft Number which i^i^/ifi" gives; but apparently 
patched up of both the Lines of Cain and Seth. Yet he agrees with Mo- 
fes in making Fukan one of his Ten, and his Brother, the Inventors of 

Mufick and Alchymy. Only the former, which Mofes afcribes to Ju' 
hal., that is, Apo/Io ; he, to Vulcan. 

9. But //i?W<?/^«j, according to the Account given him by the Egyptian 
Priefls, is ilrangely exad:. He^ tells us, that of the Gods, there were 
three Orders. Of the firll; Order, were Eight. Doubtlefs, called the 
Firft, becaufe defcended of Cain., Adam's Eldell Son. For Adam^ with 
his whole Line by Cain., fo far as it is fet down by Mofes., Gen, 4. 
do make juft: Eight, anfwerable in number to the Eight primi Dii., On- 
ly he mifplaces Pan., for the firft: of the Eight, whom I take to be Cain., 
quafi Kan. For the fame Lines, being differently produced, do make both 
vr and X : and fo, by the Negligence of fome Scribe, xccv might eafily 
be changed in vrxv. And P^«, is old Latin , -a| well as Greek. 
And as the Latin P, is like the Greek P, in Sound : io in Figure, to the 
Hebrew p (A'o/'/?) wherewith Ca/w is written. 

10. Of the Second Order of Gods, he faith there were Twelve. And 
it is plain, that they were fo called, not becaufe thty were all Juniors to 
the Dii Primi : but for that tliey vi ere of the Line of Seth^ Adam's 
Younger Son. Of whom, from Seth., inclufively, to Askenaz, the laft 
named of the Line of Japhet, Noah's Eldeft Son, Mofes reckons juft 
twelve, according to the Number of the Second Order of Gods. 

P p ii.Thofe 


As th^y affear Book IV. 

1 1. Thofebf the Third Order, are faidty the fame Herodotus^ to be 
born of the Dii Secundi. Of which Third Order, Diony/ius, tliat is, 0- 
fyrisy'is by him accounted One ; and was accordingly dcfcended of Noah^ 
one of the twelve Gods of the Second. 

^ IX. Of the Flood and t^oah's Ark, mention is made, faith Jofephus, by 
all that have wAtenthe Hiflory of tiie Barbarous Nations; as Berofus^ 
Hierofiymus Egyptius^ Mnafeas^ Nicholaus Damajceaus, and many others. 
And Ahidetius^xn his Commentaries taken out of the Median and Ajjyrian 
i\f chives, Euf.Pr.Ev.g. iz. gives an Account of Saturn's^ that is, No- 
mI/s, prediding the Flood ; and of his fending Birds out of the Ark, 
after the Stormy Rains were over, to fee if the Waters were alTwaged ; 
and that they returned, and were Cent out again, and fo a third time ; 
according to the Sacred Story. And we muft fuppofe , faith P/ato de 
Legibus^-^. that there were fome Relicks of Mankind, who (aved them- 
felves from the Flood upon the Mountains. And we are informed by Mo- 
fes^ that the Ark relied on thofe of Ararat. 

13. Of the Tower of Bale I, Herodotus^ and divers other Ancient 
Hiftorians, make mention. In fo much, that Polyhijior calls it ^ iVopa- 
joi« vov 'TTjpyov^ the Subjed: of every Hiftorian. And Eupolemus 'and Ahy- 
denus^ EuJ.Pr.Ev.^.id^. 17. both aim at the Mofaick Account hereof; 
and the fcattertng of the Builders into all Parts . of the World ; 
with the immediate Caufe of it, the Confufion of their Lan- 

14. Not long after, the A ffyrianshuWt Nineveh. Said by Jonah^i,. 3. 
to be an exceeding great City of three Days Journey. And by Na- 
hum 5, 16. To have multiplied her Merchants above the Stars of Hea- 
ven. Which agrees very well, both with her ancient Situation for 
Trade, upon Tigris-^ as Pliny^ Herodotus, znd Ptolemy, all confent : and 
with the Defcription given of it by Diodorus, th^t it was 150 furlongs 
in length, and 90 in Breadth ; and fo in compafs, 480, that is 60 Eng- 
lifli Miles. Built with much Ground, both between the feveral Elou- 
fes, for feeding of Cattel, as Babylon alfo was .• and between the Houfes 
and the Wall, as not only Babylon, but alfo Rome, when altered by Au- 

13-. Diodorus, Strabo, Pliny, Tacitus, and others, take notice of the 
burning of Sodom, by Fire from Heaven, and the EfJeds of it. Longo ah 
Hierojolymis recejfu, faith Solinus, triftis finus panditur , quern de Calo 
ta^um, teftatur humus nigra, ^ in Cinerem Joluta, &c. 

16. Profane Story likewife gives a large Account of fome of the Pa- 
triarchs and other eminent Perfons. Of Abraham, Berofus in Jofephus^ 
and Eupolemus \n Eufebius, fay, that he lived about the Tenth Age or 
Generation after the Flood : as the Scriptures alfo fay. Eupolemus tells 
jis his. native Plac^ wz. Ur, hy the Greeks called Chaldaopolis, a City in 
Babylonia. Melo, cited by Polyhiflor, faith of his two firfl: Wives, as 
he calls them, that one of tliem was his Kinfwoman, the other an Eg^p' 
tian; as we know they were. That of the former he had one only Son, 
by the Greeks called Tixayra, ' from Sarah's faying at his Birth, That 
God had made her to laugh, Gen. xi. And that by Hagar he had twelve 
Sons; meaning the Twelve Princes, born of IJhmael, Hagar s Son, 
Gen. 17. 20. And Cleodemus mentions alfo his Children of Kettura, and 
names fome of them, 'viz. Afurem^ and Aferem, that is, Asfhurim and £- 
t'^^fr. Gen. 25. 3,4. Eupolemus, \\\%N\QiQxy overtime Armenian Kings, 


Chap. \l from FO R El G N T K F. §47 

and his Entertainment hy Melchifedeck. Nkolaus Damafcetius and Ar- 
tapams, his going in the time of a Famine, unto Pharaoh King of 
Egypt, the Plaguing of the King's Court Ibr Sarah's ^zkc, and his Re- 
turn to Syria upon his receivmg his Wife again. Polyhiflor, God's 
commanding him, to offer up his ion, and his oiiering a Ram in his 
Head. They all agree, that he was a very wife Man, and well 
_ skilled in AUronomy. And Hecataus , wrote an entire Volume of 
W his Life. 

|H 17. Of Jaroh, Theodotus in Eufelius, a mofl; excellent Poet, tells us, 
^m That the City K/kima, that is, Shechem,Gen. 34. z. was by him taken in 
^B the time qf Emmor^ that is, Hamor, the Father of Shechem. Afcribing 
IP that to Jacob, which was done by two of his Sons, That before this, 
for fear of his Brother, he went and lived with Lahan in Syria, was mar- 
ried to his two Daughters, and cheated with Leah the Elder firfl. Of ' 
whom, faith he, he begat Eleven Sons and Beautiful Dina : coming 
i within one of, the Number of his Children, tho' but Six of them begot 
of Leah. And Artapems gives an Account of his going into Egypt with 
all his Houlhold, to his Son Jofeph; and his living there, cv iH -570a« Kojo-ai', 
that is, Gojhan. 
i 18. Ariftaas, in his tliftory of the Jews, faith, 'That 7oiwasthe Son 

I * of Efau, by his Wife Bajfura ; a mofl jufl; Man, and very Rich. 

* That God, to try him, permitted his Eftate and Cliildren to be deftroy- 

* ed, and himfelf fmitten with a grievous Ulcer. That Eliphaz, King of 

* the Temanites, BaldaJ, Tyrant of the Sanchai, and Elihu, the Son of 

* Barechiel,x.\\tTohite, came to comfort him, though in vain. But that 

* God exalted him afterwards. 

19. Of Jojeph, Artapamts,'m Ev. 9.23. gives a large Accouut, 
' That his Ikethren envying his Wit, and confpiring againll him, fent 

* him away by certain Arabians into Egypt, where he was made Lieutenant 

* of the Kingdom. That he caufed the Land to be furveyed, divided and 

* cultivated : Whereby the meaneft of the People, before opprcffed, had 

* their Ihare : with much more, well agreeing to the Sacred Text. Philo 
alfo, among other Poets, in his Book^/? Hierojolymis, Euf. pr. Ev. 9. 24. 
fpeaks of his placing Jacob in a fruitful Countrey, given him by the 
King ; his Gift of interpreting Dreams ; and his being Lord of Egypt. 

LK And Tragus Pompeius makes the like honourable Mention of him, fay- 
IB ing. Ejus excellens ingenium veriti fratres, clam interceptum peregrinis 
|B^ Mercatoribus vendiderunt. And a little after, Regi Egypti percharus fuit : 
nam ^ prodigiorum Sagacijfimus erat, &" Somniorum primus Intelligentiam 
condidit. Nihilq^ue Divini Juris Humanique ei incognitmn videbatur : adeo ut 
Jierilitatem agrorum, etiamante multos annos, provider it ; periijjetque omttis 
Egyptuf Fame, nifi men it u e]us. Rex ediilo Jervari per multos annos Fruges 
jujjijfet. Tantaqueejus experimentafuerunt, ut non ab Homine,jed a Deo, 
Rejponfa dari viderentur. Which differs very little from the Mofaick 

zo. Polyhijlor from Artapanus, and he from the Egyptian Prieffs,^.i-j. relating the Hidory of yW^^/^y at larg^e, faith, 'That 
' he was the Son of a Hebrew Woman, but adopted by Merrhin, Phahna- 
' mth the Egyptian Tyrant's Daughter, That for his Skill in all kinds 
'of Philofophy, and his great Wifdom, they gave him Divine Honour, 
'and called \\\vi\F{ermes. But being envy'd, and his Life fought ; killing 


?48 Of the J ruth and Excellency Book IV. 

'hisincended Aflafline, by his Brother Aaron's Advice, he fled into Ara- 
^/a, and there married the Daughter of /^ijgae/, Prince of the Countrey. 
Where, in praying for his People, appeared, to him a Fire burning with- 
out Fuel, with a Divine Voice commanding him, to go, and dehvering 
the Jeivs from Egypt^ to condud' them into their own Countrcy. Then 
he relates the Tranfadion with the King of Egypt, the Miracles he 
■wrought, and the Plagues following the King's Contempt of them : 
And in the End, the marching of the Ifraelites through the Red Sea, the 
Egyptians following them, being drowned. That after this, they 
wandered in the Wilderne(s Thirty Years, and were fed there with 
Corn from Heaven (as it is alfo called /y^78.z4.} like Panick, white 
as Snow. Ezekiel ^\^o, the Tragick Poet, tells the Story of Mojes^ 
from his Birth, to his March out of Egypt^ very exacfiy. The Op- 
pofition given him by Jannes and Jami>res, is related by Numenius the 
Vjthagorean. 'Sot only Herodotus, //!>. z. but Polemo, Apicn^ Ftolemeus 
the Menclefian Prieft, Hellankus, and Thilochorus, Authorj cited by A- 
fricanus, Tatian, and Juftin Martyr, contr. Gentes, do all witnefs, that Mojes 
was Prince of the Jews, and led them forth of F.gypt^ in or about 
the Reign of Amafis, perhaps Armais. Manetho alfo, as cited by Jo- 
fephus, though lie tells a wild Story of the Reges pajtoresy yet wit- 
nefles, that the Jews were not Egyptians born, but Strangers, who 
departed from Egypt, Old and Young, a great Multitude, with all 
their Subftance, and without Oppofition, through the Wildernefi, to- 
wards Judcea, where they built jerufalem. When tlie Egyptians purfued 
the Ifraelites, Mojes encouraging them, tells them, that the Lord would 
fight jor them, Ex. 14. 14, And Stralo, lib. 16. witnefles the fame of 
him, dvri'^OTrAaev, to Jgg^ -zjrps/SaAAgTo, X<z/ to Oftoc. That is, Inllead 
of Arms, he let before them the Memorial of God's Mercy to them 
in the Holy Paflbver, and the Divine Power. Eupolemus will have 
him to be the fird of Wife Men ; that he taught the Jews Letters, 
and gave them their Laws. And particularly that noted by Strabo, 
by which Idolatry is condemned. For which the Jews are alfo cal- 
led by Pliny, 13.4. Qens contumelia Numinum inftgnis. 

21. We have a large Account of the Conqucfl: of Canaan by Jo- 
fhua in Procopius. And Eupolemus, in his Book Of the Prophecy of E- 
lias, faith, ' That Mofes was (ucceeded by Jefus the Son of Nava, 

* (Noivyi) that isj of Nun ,• i, being miftaken by fome Scribe, for f 

* That he fet up the Sacred Tabernacle, cv l.-nKol, that is, in Shilow ; 

* and died no Years old; which was his Age. And Strabo adds this 
Teftimony of him, That Mofes's Succeflbrs lor fome time, obferved\he 
Laws he gave them, and were truly Religious. That is, all the days 
of Jo/hua, and of the Elders who over-lived him , as the Scripture 

zz. Canaan, into which Jojhua brought the Jews, to reprefent the 
Fruitfulnefs of it, is often called, a Land flowing with Milk and Ho- 
ney. And God by the Prophet tells the Jews, that with Corn, Wine 
and Oil, he had fuftained them. Nor was it in any of thele Re- 
Ipeds over-praifed. For though it be now in a great part barren ; 
yet Plin. 13. 4. tells us, That Judcea was then famous for the choiceft 
Dates, above any other Place. And Arificeas, That in his time, it a- 
bounded with Corn of all forts, and with Vineyards, That it was 
impoflible to tell the Number of Palm-Trees, Olive- Trees, and Fig- 


—_, ___ , ___ , ^ , 

Chap. 11. of the Hebrew Code. I^b 

trees; befides the Faflurage for raifing innumerable Cattle; and was the 
great Market, for the Arabians and all the Countries about. And be- 
ing Mountanous, could not but abound with Melliferous Plants of the 
beft kind. 

x^. Eupokmus faith, Eu.f. pr. Ev. 9. ^o. 'That after Jo/hna, aroCe Sa- 

* w«e/ the Prophet, Saul, and Davie/ ; to whom the laumxans and di- 

* vers other Nations, paid Tribute, That he fent Ships for Gold to 
^Urphen^ ivfxpn, that is, Ophir, an Ifland of the Red Sea, then abound- 

* ing with Gold Mines, That he reigned 40 Years: and having been a 
' Man of Blood, was commanded to leave the Building of the Temple 

* to his Son, For which he received Diredtions by an Angel, whofe 
Name was Aiafot^^oiv, meaning, no doubt, the Prophet Natha>i ; David 
being faid z Cbron. 19. 25. to be inllruded herein by Gad and by 

1^. Theodottis, Hipficratea, and Mochus^ Phs:mcians^ and Menander of 
Pergamus., cited by Tatian in Eufehius, mention the League made be- 
tween Solomon and Hiram^ by Eupokmus caWtd Suron, King of Tyre and 
Sidon^ and Vhxnicia. As alfo the Supplies of Workmen and Timber, 
which he received from. this King, and from Vaphres King of Egypt. 
And the latter, gives a very particular Account, though partly true and 
partly falfe, of the Temple, and the Sacred Utenfils belonging to it. 
He is alfo faid, zChron. 8.4, to have built, with other Cities, Tadmor 
in the Wildernefs , after called Palmyra, but now all in Ruines ; 
whereof fome Travellers have lately given us a very good Ac- 

1$. Berofui gives an Account of the Bahylonian Captivity. As alfo 
Volyhijior^ who faith, that "Jeremiah having foretold the "jews of it, 'joa- 
chim would have burnt him alive. But that Nebuchadnezzar being in- 
formed of the Prophecy, came and took Samaria firfl: , and then Je- 
rufalem, and the King therein Captive, with all the Gold, Silver, and 
Brafs of the Temple, 

io. Of this Nebuchadnezzar., Jbidenus, in his Hillory of the Ajfyrians, 
faith, that Megafthenes reported from the Chaldaans, that he foretold 
the Conqueft of Babylon by Cyrus, in an Extafie, beginning with thefe 
Words, I Nebuchadnezzar. Wherein the Hiftorian aims at that Dream 
of Nebuchadnezzar, related by Daniel, i, 32. which was fulfilled. 
And the Second Dream, which the Hiftorian miftakes for the Firft, Ch. 
4. 4. the King indeed begins with thofe Words , 1 Nebuchadnezzar. 
The (ame Megafihenes alfo fays, ' That when the King had told his 
* Dream ; he was fuddenly taken away, and vanifhed out of the fight of 
' thofe about him. By thofe Words, either ignorantly mif-relating, or 
wilfully concealing, the King's being depofed for a time from his King- 
dom, and driven from among(t Men^&c. as was emphatically predicted by 
the Prophet, Ch. 4. 3 1.31, ^ 3. 

Z7. All agree with the Scripture, Dan.^. 31, That Balthafar, that is, 
Belfhafar, was the lad of the Babylonian Kings. As alfo, that upon the ' 

taking of Babylon, he was killed, Dan. 5. 30. Telfified both by Bero- 
dotiu, who calls him Lahinitus ; and by Xenophon, Injl. lib.-], who calls 
him Labonidus ; and mentions the two Soldiers, Gobria and Gadara^ by 
whom he was (lain. And may well confift, with what Berofus in Eu- 
febius faith, ' That Cyrus, to whom he rendred himfelf, permitted him 
to liveinCaramania. For the Life, which that excellent Prince had mer- 

Q^ q cifuUy 

As they apfear Book iV. 

cifully given ; might yet be taken away by thefe Soldiers, ignorant 
of Cyrus's Grant, and hoping to merit by what they did, 

x8. Daniel 5. i. 30, 31. alfo faith, ' That the fame Night wherein tjie 

* City was taken, Belfbafar made a great Feafl: to a Thoufand of his 

* Lords, and drank Wine before the Thoufand. And Herodot. lih. i. :}8. 
fays hkewife, ' That the fij^/o«idt«j, becaufe it was a Feftival Day, made 

* themfelves merry with Dancing and Caroufmg, till the City was ta- 

* ken. *Tis alfo acknowledged, that upon the Death of Belfhafar^ Da- 
rius the Mede^ according to Dan. j. 31. Took the Kingdom : that is, 
being delivered to him by Cyrus the Conqueror. And therefore, as 
Dan. 6. 1, faith, That it pleaftd Darius, to fet izo Princes over the 
Kingdom: Xenophon^Inft.Q. Mth^That it pleafed Cyrus, to fet Princes o- 
ver the Nations he had fuhdued. 

xg. 'Tis faid, Ejih. 1. 14, 'That there were Seven Princes, Chief o- 

* ver the Kingdom. And by Plato, L. de Leg. 3, ' That Darius dividend 
*the Kingdom into Seven greater Provinces. We arc told, Eth. x. iz. 
That the Women of the King's Seraglio, were brought to him in their 
turns. A.ndi{o Herodotus, L. T,. G<). 'Ev Tns/TpoTrri y> ywcuy^i poni'dca roTi 
Vepav'n. The Inhabitants of Shujhan and Elemais, are by Ezra diftingui- 
flied, £zr. 4.9. Andfoby FlinyG.xj. Nehemiah 1.1.^. and 2.1. 
faith, ' That he wept in Shufhan the Palace, about the Month ChiJJeu. 
Where alfo Athenaus^Dipnof. L. iz. affirms, that the Kings of Pcrfia 
ufed to Winter. ' All Hiftorians, faith Africanus, agree, that the Be- 
' ginning of Cyrus's Kingdom, and the End of the Captivity of the 
' Jews, met together. Of whofe Return into Judaa, Diodes alfo gives an 
Account. And Volyhiftor and Hecatceus, of Cyrus's Order, for Re- 
building the Temple at Jeru/alem. VVhere the Old Teftaraent 

30. From thefe, and many other like Inftances which might be giv- 
en J the Confent between the Sacred and the Profane or Heathen Wri- 
ters of the Scripture Story, is very evident. And it would have been 
more fo, were it not obfcured,' partly, by the different Names given to 
Perfons and Things, in the one and the other : So Belochus in the Scrip- 
ture is called Phul ; EeleJis,Baladan : Mardocempadus, Merodach-Baladan ; 
Minus Junior, Tiglath-Pi/efer ; Apries, Pharach-flophra ; Camhyfes, Aha- 
fuerus ; Cyaxeres, Darius • Jihd fo in many more, And partly, from the 
Loft of mod of thofc Authors, Syrians, Chaldaans, Phoenicians, and 
Greeks before mentioned -, of thofe efpecially, who purpofely wrought the 
Jewifli Story. 

31. But the Memorials we have of their Works, imperfedt as they 
are ; are yet an Evidence of the Opinion themfelves and others 

' had of thofe things, in the Report whereof, their Diligence and 
Curiofity were fo far employed. The Jews, JeruJ'alem, and the 
Temple, having been always fo Celebrious ; that when after their Cap- 
tivities, they were defpoiledof their Glory: even then, the Affyrians, 
Greeks^ and Romans, honoured with Sacrifices, the Moft High God, 
whom that Nation worlliipt ; and their Temple with Gifts. Even then, > 
as Straho fays, there was a great Veneration paid to that Sacred Place. 
Then it was, that Appianus in Syriacis, fpeaking of Jerufalem, fliles it 
The Great and Mojl Holy City. And as the Pfalmiit, Pf. 48. z. 'calls it the 
Joy of the whole Earth ; and Pf. 50. z. the Perfedion of Beauty: So 
Plin. 5-. 1 4. though he pompouilydefcribes Alexandria and Babylon, yet 


Chap 11. from FOREIGN PROOF. 15, 

prefers Jerufalem before them both, calling it, Longe Clarijfimam UrbiuYn 
Orientn. For the fake whereof, chiefly, it was, that the Jems them- 
felves, as ^orph. de Orac. Philofophiti^ tell us, were ftiled by Apollo's Ora- 
cle, 'Ke^^f^xr^oi 'E^pocToi, of that Renown, as to be worthy Emulation a- 
bove all People. The Account then, which the aforefaid Authors give 
of t!iem, whether received from themfelves, or the Regifters, or Re- 
ports of other Nations ; plainly fliews, that they looked on the Particu- 
lars, as Things famoufly fpoken of, and believed j and worthy to be re- 
corded, and read of all Men. 

-^z. And this further appears, in that many Particulars, con- 
tained in the Sacred Writings, were not only reported, but imi- 
tated by Men of other Nations, the beft Eileemed. As firlT; 
in their Fables and Fabulous Poems, with refped both to Perfons 
and Things. What is Ovid's In nova fert animus , but an Imper- 
ieSi Tranfcript, from Mofes's Account of the Creation ? In the begin- 
ning hereof, Mofes faitji. That the Spirit of God moved upon the 
Face of the Waters. And Orpheus ., At hen. :}8. That all things were 
generated of the Ocean. Paradice in Plato's Sympofium^ is Jupiter's Gar- 
den-. And is alfo the Pattern of the Orchards of Alcinous^ and the 
Hefperides. The Golden Apples kept by a Dragon ; were the Forbidden 
Fruit, which Eve was tempted by the Serpent to eat. God's Saying, 
Let us make Man after our Likenefs ; and appearing to Adam and Eve^ as 
is probable, in Humane Shape ; and faying, after the Fall, The Man is 
lecome as one of us ; and the Devil's faying, Te Jhall he as Gods; and the 
Diftindtion made between the Pofterity of Cain^ called the Sdns of 
Men, and that of Seth^ called the Sons of God; £wc//s Tranflation ; 
and God's Command of Princes, Thou^alt not revile the Gods: are Paf- 
fages, from whence arofe all the Idolatry in the World , and the 
ftrange Affectation Men have had of an Apotheofis. In fo much, 
that anciently, as Tzetzes faith, Every King was called by the Name of 

35. On the Saying to the Woman, that her Seed fhould hreak the 
Serpent's head; depends the Fable of Hercules's killing the Serpent of 
the Hefperides. f^ulcan, who is faid to be an Artificer in Brafs and Iron ; 
is no other than Tuhal-Cain : the Hebrew B, n, when it hath no Point 
in it, being pronounced as an V Confonant. And f^enus^ Vulcan s Wife, 
is TuhaLCain's Sifter Nahamah, which fignifies Beautiful. And Jul>al^ 
faid to be the In venter of Mufick, is the fame with Apollo^ wherein there 
are the fame Radical Letters. 

34. Plato's Atlanticus, is nothing elfe but a Fable, built upon Mofes's 
Hiftory of Noah and the Flood, and the Caufes which brought it up- 
on the World. Bacchus, is ISfoah ; anciently, faith Stuckius ^ called 
Boachus,for l<loachus : as might eafily be, bymiftakingS^/^^ 3, for Nun 3, 
not much unlike ; and the Story of the one, apeth that of the other. As 
do thofe aUb of Janus and Siiturn; by both whom, Noah is meant. 
Jupiter, I take to be Japhet. For tho' Jovis and the other oblique 
Cafes, are derived of Jehovah : yet Jupiter, is another Word ; and 
derived, not of juvans pater, a crude Conceit, but eitlier of t,io 
mocTh^, or rather oi Japhet, tlie Elder Son of Noah, as Jupiter was of 

55. The Fable, of Heaven being ftormed by the Giants; arofe, from 
what the Builders of the Tower of Babel faid, Let us luild us a City, 


1^2 0\ the 7ruth and txcellency Book IV^ 

aHi/ a Tower, ivhqfe Top may reach unto Heaven. The Egyptian Neptune , 
as Bilbop Uper guefles, was that Rameffus ^ firnamcd Miamurni, who 
commanded the Hebrew Infants to be drowned. VVhofeSons, Amem-' 
phis znd Bujiris, Poeta, {^ys Aul. Gel. Ferocijfimos, tanquam ^ Mart 
genitoS; Neptuni film dixere. The Story of Romulus and Remus ^ tlieir 
being call into Tihur, and afterwards nurfcd and educated by Fauflu- 
lus's Wife; what is it, but an Allufion to that of Mofes > Or the taking 
of Romulus up to Heaven in a Storm, as Livy defcribes it, but an Imi- 
tation of the taking up of Elijah ? Or the Comparifon which the Po- 
ets make, of the feveral Ages of the World, to feveral Metals ; but an 
Off^fet of Nebuchadnezzar's Dream ? ^« Poetarum fays Tertullian, qui 
mnde Prophetarumfonte putaveriti And afterwards, Tribunal apud Infe- 
ros, Pyrephkgeton. Elyfii Campi, ^ fimilia, a Poetis Stq; Philofophis, mutu- 
anrur de nojtns Sacramentu, utpote antiquiorihus. For all Fables are but 
the Images of Truth. To fuppofe then, the Invention of thefe, before 
the Relation of Truth, as the Ground of them : is to fuppofe, that Men 
iirft learnecf to paint the Figures of Beads and other Creatures, and that 
af^terwards God made them. 

36. The very ExpreiTions of the Sacred Writers, are much imitated, 
both by Fabulous, and Philofophick Poets. Mofes faith, that God made 
Man after his ovon Imaze. Phocylides, Trviv/j^ ic^l ©s5 eiitoov. The Soul is 
the Image of God. Mofes forbids the taking a Bird from her Neft, to- 
gether with her Young. Phocylides, MmJ^tis t^vSicti ^ff-hih af^ Trw/Tas 
cxicda. Let no Man dellroy all the Birds of a Neft together. From which 
Imitation, the Author is fuppofed by fome, to have been a Chriftian, but 
not proved. 4/^p/j prays. That God would give him, neither Poverty, 
nor Riches. AnTHprace, who, it feems, had feen the Book of Pfalms, 
Bene ejl, cui Deus oltulit parca, quodfatjs efl, manu. "Jeremy faith, ' It is 
'good for a Man, that he bear the Yoke in his Youth. And Sophocles, 
To (ptQpv CM ©g», ugAai x^h (pipeivf What God will have us bear, let us 
bear becomingly. We are told by Solomon, ' That no Man knows what a 

* Day may bring forth. By Theognis, ' That no Man knows, 0, tj vv^ 3(^) 

* Yif^i^s^ dv^^ TSA«, what a Day and a Night may bring to pafs. Solo- 
mon faith, * That without Knowledge, the Mind is not good. And Sopho- 
cles, to the lame efied", hh dv yivono m >(5t;t/J5, xaAa? fpovav, 'Wildom is 

* inconfiflent with an ill Mind. ' There is no Juft Man, fays Solomon, 
' which finneth not. And one of the Minor Poets, 

There is not a Man upon the Earth that is undefiled. 

The fame King tells us, * That God has made every thing beautiful, 
*inhisSeafon. And Sophocles, I^avra. yi y.ciipu,Ka,?\.cc, ' That every thing 

* is good in its Seafon, In the Defcription of Old Age and Death, the 
fame Perfon faith, ' That the Duft Ihall return to the Earth, as it was, 

* and the Spirit fhall return to God that gave it. And Phocylides, 

'S.uf^yi OK yaiYii i^o}J^-i, ^ ts-drfu I cimtIui, 
AvofjSpot foovts iafjJv. dhp ^'' dvoi TrVi^i /ucc S'e^ixraj. 
Our I3odies, which are made of the Duft of the Earth, (hall be re- 
folved into that again •• But the Heavens fliall receive the Spirit. 


Chap. II. of th^ Hebren? Code. 159 

Solomcn, praifing his Spoufe, faith, ' That upon her Temples were 
' threetcore Queens, and fourfcore Concubines, and Virgins without 

* number. Like to which, is that Strain of Mufaus upon Hero, 

That when Hero fmiled, a hundred Graces were produc'd in one Eye. 

In which Infiances, they all came as near as they could, or would to 
the Sacred Text. 

■^7. But no Poet imitates the Scriptures more than //t/wifr. *An in- 
*quifitive Traveller, fayi/'^/z/Jwiiti in his Attica, into all Countries.; 
and therefore doubtlefs among the Jews. What is the taking of fair 
Ganymede by Jove into Heaven, II. zo. but an Allufiog to what is faid 
of Emcb, Gen, 5". That being a mofl excellent Perfon, God took him. 
Balaam rides Pofl: to Balac upon his Afs, and on the Road, God o- 
peningthe Mouth of the Afs, there is a Dialogue between them. In 
like manner, Juno, II 19. makes Xantbus, Achilles' s Horfc, upon his 
Career, to (peak to him ,- and Achilles anfwers him. There is only 
this difference, The Poet will have the Horfe to be the Prophet. Ho- 
mer futTers fcarce any part of the War between the Greeks and th Tro- 
jans, to be tranfaded, without the immediate Interpofal of fome of 
the <Gods. Herein imitating the Sacred Story, both in the Books of 
Mofes, and in thofe of Jojhua and the Judges, and ofcthe Kingx of Judah and 
[frael, from firft to lall. David, after whom Hmer lived, according to 
Arijlotle, i^Yczrs^ to Philochorus, in Diog.Laerf. zhout 87. to Vel. Pa- 
terculus, zhont i6r, ?A\d to Herodotus, about 188 ; being both a King 
and a Poet, helollov.smuch. Z^Kt^ic^t^ /m-^yisi, yjiXetjvifh, a'l^^ipi vaj.m, 
fays Agamcmtfon^ praying to Jupiter. Than which, nothing can be liker 
D<iT7//'j Stile in fome Plalms. The Poet tells us, II. 1. That the Gods 
eat Ambrofia. That is, Manna., which David, Pf. 78. calls Angels 
Food. And frorii the falling of Manna in the VVildernefs, we have the 
AwhrofiaCampi. David faith, Pf. 104. 15. ' That Bread flrengtliens, and 

* Wine makes glad the Heart of Man. So the Poet, //. 9. ' Let's refrefli 
*ourfelves with Bread and Wine; for thefe"give Men both Strength 

* and Heart. The Pfalmifl, Pf. jg. %. fpeaking to God of the Enemies of 
the jTm'i, complains, that they had given his Servants to be Meat to 
the Fowls of Heaven, and their Flclh to the Beafls of the Earth. And 
David td\^ Goliah^ 'that he would deal in like manner with the Phili- 
'' ftins. So the Poet, //. %%, makes Achillea to tell Heclor , that 

* he fliould lie dead in the open Fields, till he was devoured of 
'Fowls and Dogs. A-tW faith, Pf. 10.14. ' That the Poor committeth 
' himfelf to God : and Pf. 146.9. ' That the Lord preferveth the Stran- 
*ger. 5o the Poet, 0</. 14. tells us-, "That the Poor and the Stranger, 
' are always in the Hands of God. 

38. ril add but two more Inftances of this Poet's Imitation, both of 
them vety remarkable. In one of them, hd.\%. he transfers the Cir- 
cumllances of the TranfacStion between the Ifraelites and the Egypti- 
ans, Ex. s r . 1 X. to that between Penelope and her Wooers. For as God 
is faid, to bid the Ifraelites, to borrow Goods of the Egyptians, Y.'H. iz- ^S"* 
So Pallas, puts Penelope in mind, of taking Prefents of the Wooers. 
As that was done, a little before the Egyptians.^ fo this a little before the 

R r Woo- 


1 54 As they af fear Book IV. 

Wooers, were all deftroyed. Thofe by one Man, Mqfes ; thefe, by 
one, Ulyjfes. The Goods of the Egypt ians^ were not given, till they 
were borrow'd : nor were the Prefents made to Penelope, before they 
• were asked. The fudden Deflrudrion of the Egyptians was in the Night. 
And when, Od. xo. the time that the Wooers fliould be deftroyed, was 
come, the Houfe wherein they were, became dark. And as the Ifrae- 
lites were then order'd, to fprinkle their Door-pofts with Blood j So the 
Beams of Penelope's Houfe feemed to be bloody. 

J9. The other, in //. zo. is taken from Pfal. i8. inferted alfo z Sam. xi. 
into David's Story. In which, David makes a triumphant Defcant upon 
his being delivered 'from all his Enemies, and from Saul. Much of 
which, the Poet borrows, to exprefs JEnsass b^ing preferved from A' 
chilles. God isfaid, Verfe 13. to thunder with fiery Lightnings in the 
Heavens. Homer faith, Jove thundered terribly above. Verf. 7. fays 
David, ' Then the tarth ihook and trembled. Says Homer, * And Nep- 

* tune ihook the Earth on every fide. In the fame Verfe, fays David ^ 

* The Foundations of the Hills moved, and were ftiaken. And Homer 
the like, of the Plains beneath, and the Tops of Ida. Verf. 1 5-. fays 
David, ' The Channels of the Waters were feen, and the Foundations of 

* the World were difcovered. And in the Poet, Pluto bids Neptune hold 
his Hand, left his difmal Dwelling (hould be difcovered. Verf. 14,15. 
Thunders and Lightnings precede the Sea-Storm. And the Poet will 
have Phcehus to oppofe himfelf to Neptune. Verf. 16, 17. Da^ 
vid exprefleth his Deliverance by God, in faying, ' He fent from above, 
he took me, he drew nic, out from many Waters. So Neptune car-, 
ries /Eneas from Achilles, over the Heads of the Trojan Army. Verf. 
17. Dflw^ faith, 'that God had delivered him from his Enemy, too 

* ftrong for him. And Neptune asks, who betrayed /Eneas to Achilles^ 
much the ftronger ? And Verf. 19. he fays, 'that God had delivered him, 
' becaufe he delighted in him. And /Eneas is laid by the Poet, to be be- 

* loved of the Gods. 

. 40. The like Imitation of the Scriptures is obfervable in the beft Phi- 
lofophers"of all Ages and Countries. DifputantPhilofophi^izysMinutius 
Felix ^ eadem qute dicimus : non quod nos Jimus eorum vefligice fuhfecuti ; 
fed quod illi de divinis pradicationihus Prophetarum, ^umhram inter polatte 
Feritatis imitati fint. And Artfiolulus the Peripatetick, and others, fay 
as much. And, Soli Chaldcei fapientiam adepti Junt, © Hehrai, Deum 
Regem per fe genitum fantle colentes : was an Oracle cited by Jufiiny in his 
Oration to the Gentiles. 

41. Togiveof thefe, aSof the Poets, fome Inftances. Xenophon tells 
us, that Qyrus, a little before his Death, difcourfed to thofe about him, 
of the Immortality of the Soul. And no Wonder, after he had the 

, Opportunity of being inftruded herein by fome of the Captive Jews . 

F)'//;<3go;-^, by moftlaid to be no Gr<?f^^ but however, having 'dwelt a 
long time at Mount Carmel, and 'there converfed with the Jews : bor- 
rowed of them, a great part of the Philofophy which he brought with 
h\m into Greece; zsjofephus, *AnJlohulus^ Hermippus, Strabo, and others 
cited by Eujehius, and Clemens Alexandrinus, do affirm. His Dodtrine 
of Monotheifin, the Nomen Tetragrammaton, his Precepts about Sacri- 
ifices, and about Meats, and many others, are evidently taken from the 
Mofaick Law. Of Numenius the Pythagorean, Origen I'aith, that in his 
Firft Book, de Bono^ he made much ufe of the Exprellions and Allegories 


ChapAL from FOREIGN PROOF. 155^ 

of the Prophets. Nor did Ariflotle, as we learn of O. Alexandrims, 
omit Opportunities of converfing with Learned Men Of that Na- 

4x. Above all others, Plato difcovers fevery where, his great Acquain- 
tance with the Books of Mofest and thofe Jews^ who being expelled 
their Countrey by the Affyrians, were numerous in Egypt at the 
time of his being there. This Philofopher, in Sympos. defcribiog the 
Deity, faith of him, 'AvtO jj^rJ' aJro, y^S' aJ-ra, y.ovoeiSii^ ae) or. Aiid in 
TimaOj Illas temper is difliHtliories, erat^ & erit^ j^ternte EJfentice mn 
rede attrihuimus. Agreeable to God's own Definition of Himfelf," T am 
that I am : and his bidding Mnfes to tell the Jews, that, / am had lent 
him unto them. The fame Philofopher, Epi( Hermiam, cited by 
Eufehius, prap. Ev. 1 1. 6. aflerts the Divine Trinity. As alfo do Tlotinus 
and other Platonifts. The Dodrine whereof, was part of the Jevvifh 
Cabala, as I (hall fliew hereafter; Pla'to, in Timceo,. tells us, ' That in the 

* Creation, God firft made the Earth, and Fire, that is. Light. And that be- 
tween thefe, he placed Water and Air. That he made the Sun and 
Moon, for the Account of 1 ime, and other Ufes ; and with thefe, the 
reft of the Stars. That at length be made a Speech to the Created 
Gods, in order to the making of Man ; whom he calls the beft, and 
moft excellent part of God's. Workmanlhip. And when he had made 
an end of his Work,- he was therewith greatly pleafed, as being made 
Beautiful, after the Image of his own Goodnefs. ks Mofes fays, 

* That God faw every thing he had made, and particularly Man after his 

* own Image, and behold it was all very good. And the Pfalmifl, 

* The Lord fliall rejoice in his Works. So that this Book is nothing 
elfe but a Paraphrafe upon the Firft Chapter of Genefis .- though cor- 
rupted by the Philofopher, with many Additions of his own. He 
owns too, with Socrates in Phileho, the R%ular Government of the 
Univerfe, by a moft Wife and Divine Providence. And L. de Leg. 4. 
he faith, 'that God having the Beginning, Middle, and End of all 

* things in himfelf, and proceeding in an exadt Method, fliews both 
*his Divine Power and Vertue, which run throughievery part of U- 

* niverfal Nature. He fpeaks in Sympofio, of the Exiftence of Good 

* Angels or Daemons; and fo, de Leg. -4. And of the Reality of 
Dreams and Vifions, by their Means. And in L.deLeg. 10. both of 
Good and Bad, who ad their Parts over thi? Lower World. In his 
Dialogue de Anima, and his Timaus, of the Immortality of the Soul, 
the Judgment after Death, and the End of the World. In his Phile^ 
hus, of God's beiog the Chief Good, and the Author of all true Happi- 
nefs : and there, and elfewhere, of other Particulars contained in the 
Jewifh tahala and the Scriptures. Which made Clem. Alexandrinus^ 
Strom. L. i. after Numenius the Pythagorean^ to fay of him, 

What is Plato, but Mofes in an Athenian Drefs ? 

And Cicero, L. de Leg. 5 . obferving the Sublimity of his Difcourfes bor- 
rowed from thence, to give this Philofopher, and him only, of all o- 
thers, the Title of Divine. With whom alfo Cicero himfelf had 
learned to fpeak of the Creation, after Mofes, Eft homini cum Deo St- 
militudo. And, Fas nee efl^ nee unquam fuit, quicquam nift pulcherrimum 



of the Truth and Excellency Book IV. 

facere Eum^quieffet npt'mus^ Lib, de Urtiverf. And fo had Plutarch^ to 
fpeak of God himfeU, in his Book of the Syllable '^£«, infcribed upon the 
Dclphick Temple ; which, faith he, is tiie perfedt Name of God : rifAv 
y) o;/TW5 m^elvcct^ /^'Ti<r'i' ^^U That IS, ' For we our felves, have no fliare 

* in true Being. 

43. Many things contained in the Sacred Writings, have likewilebeen 
imitated by Princes and Legiflators : both in (uch Policies as they have 
ufed, pro re nath^ atid in their Stated Laws Trogus Tompeiiu faith, that 
Philip of MacecloMf was wont, It a Populos & Urles^ ut Illi vel replenda vel 
derelinquenda.qua:qi Loca videbantur, ad Lihidinem fuam transfer re. And 
Diodorus^ ' That Alexander intended to have done the like, between the 

* Cities of Europe and Afia. And the Athenians were adually tranfplant- 
ed by Antipater into Thrace. As were alfo the Saxons into Belgium:, by 
Charles the Great. All of them herein imitating Jofeph, of whom it is 
faid. Gen. 47, xi. Tl^at he reftioved the . People in the feveral Cities by 
Exchange, from one End of Egypt to the other. 

44. Abraham \s ^^\A, Gen. 14. 15. To divide his Servants, and to 
purlue the Armenian Kings by Night. A double Policy, both in the Time, 
and in the Manner, he took to dp it. Both which were alfo ufed by Jo- 
Jhua-, but feveral ly, upon two Occafions. The former, when he came 

upon the Five Kings of the Amorites, fuddenly, marching all Night, 
JoJJ}. 10. 9, The Latter, upon his taking o*f Ai by an Ambulh, Ch. 8.1.-8. 
for which he had particular Diredion from God himfelf : as doubtlefs A- 
hraham alfo had. And no Points of Military Prudence, have more often 
been imitated by all Nations. The former, conftantly ufed by the Ro- 
mans ; .as much beholden to their Expedition, as their Valour, or any 
thing elfe, for mofl of their Vidories. Nor did they feldom put the 
the latter in pradife : as appears by the Hiftory of their Wars, and 
the Inftances, Frontinus^ a Roman Senator, in his Book de Stratagematis^ 
hath given, in the Chapters, de Infidiis. And the fame, was one of Ha- 
nihal's principal Arts. And part of the Policy, which Jofhua^ by diredion 
ufed againft Ai^ was enticing the People out of the City, by a feigned 
Flight. Which ^as imitated, among others, hy Cato, Strat. •5.10. a- 
gainjQ: the LUcetani. The Inftances, which the fame Author gives, de 
Explorandis Hoflium Confiliis ; are but Imitations of Mofes and "jojhua^ in 
fending the Spies, firft to Canaan, and then particularly to Jericho. The 
Gi/(?A5i'/^f J requiring thofe who efcaped from the Fight, Judg.iz.6. to 
fay, ^^/^/t'//^ hath taught the Generals of Armies, to give aijd demand 
the Word, all over the World. 

45-. Romulus' s direding the young Men, to take evg-y Man his Wife, 
of the Daughters I think, ofthtSamnites, while they were dancing with 
them : what was it, but a Leflon learned of the Benjaminites ? Who being 
reduced to thefelf-famc (freight, Jud. zi. i. 20, 11,2-5. as ^^^^ the Roman 
Youth ; caught every Man his Wife, cf the Daughters of Shiloh, when 
they came out to dance. 

46. Among other Ways, ufed to animate the Soldiers unto Battle j 
Archidamus the Spartan, when he fought with tlie Arcadians, Aulus Poft- 
humiuSy when with the Latines, Lucius Scylla, Caius Marius, and others, 
have taken this, to feign their Aflurance of Vidory, by the Prefence, 
or the Promife of the Gods. An apiOi, but palpable Imitation, of the 
Real Aflurance frequently given to the ''^ews, to the fame end. 


C H A p. il. oftheHebrenpCode. lej 

47. When DaviA''s Captains brought him of the Water of the Well of 
Befh/em Jor which he longed, i Cbr. 11. 17, 18, 19. he would not drink any 
of it, calling it, the Blood of thofe that irought it ; but poured it out unto 
the Lord. So among other Indances, Frontinus gives, _^emaJmo^um ea ^ 
quihus deficimus, videantur non deejfe, ut ufus earum expleaturt one, is in 
Alexander. Who when in theDeferts o^ Africa^ Himfclf and his Army, 
being aflided with Thirft, Water was brought him by one of the Soldi- 
ers in his Helmet: he would riot drink it, but poured it down before them 
all upon the Ground, Factum Nohile^ as Frontinus calls it , but beneath 
that of David ^ as in fome other refpeds, fb, -in that, what Alexander 
did, was but a Copy from David's Original. 

48. It is like wife very apparent, that other Nations have borrowed of 
the Jews^ fundry of their beft Laws. To do this, they wanted not Op- 
portunities by converilng with the Jews • both in their feveral Captivi- 
ties, and in their own Countrey. Where, upon reading the Law, every 
7th Year, all Strangers were required to be prefent. And their being fo, 
was an Introdudion, to a freer Communication with the Jewifli Priefts. 
"Tis alfo likely, that many travelled and came among the Jews, chiefly 

for this purpofe. Ariftocrates, cited by Plutarch, fays, ' That Licurgus , 
* in his Travels, converled, among others, with the Gyw^o/o/)/;//?-^ in /»^/^, 
Delcendants or Difciples of the Jews. And Tliny of Solon, Dicunt cog- 
nitionis & multarum rerum ufus gratis, vagatum per Orbem fuijfe : And it 
is fenfelels, to think, he would omit Judaa, then fo famous. And Di- 
ogenes Laertius faith the like of Plato. And Plutarch of the Pelafgi, that 
when they had travelled through the greater part of the World, fome Au- 
thors relate, they fixed upon that piece of Land", whereunto, for their 
Military Strength, which the Greeks call 'VujuLu/, they gave the Name 
of Borne. That th^ wandered for a long time, is certain : no doubt, 
for thebefl: Seat ancF Laws, they could meet with. And of Muma, that 
he was defcended of the Sabines, a Colony of the Lafedamonians. And 
therefore, that many of the moft Ancient Roman Laws, were taken from 
the Spartan ; as Ten of the Twelve Tables, were afterwards fron:y:ho(e 
of Athens, and other chief Cities of Greece. And it is certain, that 
many of all thefe, were derived from thofe of Crete : then every where, 
as Plato teftifies, of great Fame. And to come at laft, to the Fountain, 
Why not many of the Laws of Crete, in like manner from the Jews ? 
with whom, being fituate much nearer to them, than either the At ticks 
or the Spartans, they had the Opportunity of a more early acquain- 

49. Bat nothing can be more convincing, than Examples hereof. And 
firft, the Divine Adminiftration of the Judaick Law, recorded by Mo- 
fes, has been Imitated, or Believed, by the mofl: ancient and bed Legida- 
tors. Minos gave his Laws, as coming from Jove ; Lycurgus, from A- 
poUo ; Numa, from the Goddefs Egeria. Solon, it leems, was content i^ 
ihould be known, he received his at fecond hand. And it fufficed Plato, 
to begin his Books of Laws, with his alTerting the Primitive Deriva- 
tion of all Laws from Divine Authority : and affirming his fo doing, to 
be TO (TiPtat/oTo-Tov, that which was mod juft. What was the Capitol up- 
on the Tarpeian FJill, whither iV«w<a went to confult the Chief Augur, biit 
fomcthing to anfwer Mount Sina, or the Temple on Mount Sion ? And 
the Ten Tables of Roman Laws, extradted from the Grecian, probably di- 

S f gefted 

,c^ As they af fear Book iV. 

'^ » . _^ 

gefted into as many, but an Imitation of the lame Number Ten, in which 
the firft Great Commands were comprehended. 

50. The Gentiles^ though mif-underllanding the Firfl: Command; 
and that in Exod. xz. i8. ' Thou flialt not revile the Gods, did therefore 
retain Folytlieifm : Yet the VVifed of them, all agreed, in acknowledg- 
ing one Supreme God. • 

51. Tho' roiftaking the Senfe of that Paflage, ' Let us make Man in 

* our own Image ; and fome others ; gave moft Nations occafion to 
reprefent the Deity by Humane Shape ; and God's appearing to Mofes, 
Exod. 5.4. and to all the People, fc'x, 19. and 24. 17. in Flaming Fire ; 
gave occafion to the Chaldceans and Terfiam to worfliip Fire: Yet 
Pythagoras^ and fome other Philofophers, condemned all Idolatry, And of 
Numa^ Plutarch teftifiex, that he forbad the Romans, to attribute to God, 
the Figure of Man or Bead. ' WhicH, faith CI. Alexandrinus, he learn- 

* ed of the Writings of Mofes. Nor had that People any Pidture, or Sta- 
tue, of the Deity for the fpace of 160 Years. 

5z. ThQ Athenians, Romans, and other Nations, had alfo their Sacred 
Fire, like that upon the Altar of Burnt-Offering, which was always kept 
burning. Their Altars, as for the Tabernacle and in the Temple, were pla- 
ced, as Fttruvius alfo diredis, toward the Eafl:. As all Fables were founded 
in Truth : So all falfc and profane Sacrifices, on thofe inftituted by 
God himfelf, whether made with Animals, or the Fruits of the Ground. 
The Latter, beft approved by the Egyptians, and moft others, in the 
firft Ages, as feeming to them, more natural, and after the Example 
of Cain, the Elder Brother. And among other Offerings made by 
the Spartans, Plutarch mentions that of the Firft Fruits, according to 
the Command, Deut.x6.z. Impius ne audeto placare Denis, Irarn Deorum ; 
was an Athenian Law, Cic. de Leg. L. r. And was the Senfe of all the 
External Purification, required by the Law of Mofest^ 

53. The Officers, after their Vidory over the Midianites, Numb.-]. 
50. 54. brought an Oblation of the Jewels they had gotten, to the Ta- 
bernacle. Imitated, as by other, Nations, Co the Romans. VVho upon 
their Vid-ories, ufed to make their Oblations to Jupiter Capitolinus 5 
as Romulus did of his firft Spoils. Camillus having overcome the Vei- 
entes, dedicated the Tithe of the Prey to Apollo. After the Example of 
Abraham, who becoming Vidor over the Armenian Kings, gave the 
Tithe of all he had to Melchizedech, the Prieft of the Moft High 

5-4. * Thou fhak not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain ; 
is one of the Great Commands. And Numa appointed an Oath unto the 
Romans, fay Plutarch and Livy, as the chiefelt Obligation unto Faith 
and Truth. The Penalty ol this Law is, ' For the Lord will not hold 

* him guiltlefs, that taketh his Name in vain. And the Athenian Law, 
Cic. de Leg. z. faith, Perjurii, posna humana, Dedecus ; Divina, Exitium, 
' If a Man vow a Vow unto the Lord, he is required pundually to per- 

* form it, Numb. 30. x. And Cicero faith, it was another Law of the fame 
Commonwealth, Sanile Vota reddunto. Diomedes his Vow, to facrifice 
whatibever he firft met, upon his Return into his Countrey, and fo kil- 
ling his Son : was grounded on the Report of Jephthas having done 
the like to his Daughter. 


Chap I[ "from FOREIGN PKOOF. ~ 

5-<^. The whole Gentile World, though they underflood not t\\Q 
Reafon of the Weekly Sabbath : yet had their Feflival Days, as the 
Jews had, and by the Mofaick Law, were all called Sabbaths. 

56. ' After Religion, fays Plato, fie Leg. 4. follows the Honour due 
' to our Parents, rhan whicii, nothing could be more plainly and aptly 
fpoken of the Fifth Command. In the firfl; Ages, Fathers were Prin- 
ces and Governouis. Therefore Mofes hxdis t\\t Jews, to reverence the 
Aged, as well as their Parents. And fo did the Laws, both of the Athe- 
nians, and the Spartans. And all Ariflocracies, have had the Jewifli EI- 
derihip, for their Pattern. 

"■57. That Pallage of PlatOy de Leg. 4. is remarkable.. ' The Tradi- 
' tion, fays he,- which is according to Primitive Truth, teacheth us, 
' that no City is ever free from Labour and Alilid:ion, if any mortal 
' Man, and not God himfelf, be the Lord of it. Whereby it feems, 
he knew by the Scrpturcs, which he calls primitive truth ; that the 
State of the Jfiw, in the good Days of Samuel, was a Theocracy, and 
what Mifchiefs Samuel told them, would follow their having a King, 
viz. Such a King, as was to rule them after the manner of the Orien- 
tal Kings their. Neighbours, And dejlir too, when Anthony put the 
Crown upon his Head, fending it to the Capitol, had learned to fay. 
Solum Jovem Romanorum Regem ejfe ; as Cicero^ Paterculus, and Cafius do 
all tellifie. 

y8. The fame Plato ^e Leg. would have his City divided into twelve 
Tribes ; as was the Nation of the Jews. And both Lycurgus and He, 
that the Fields and Houlf s, (hould be divided among the Citizens by 
Lot : as was the Land of Canaan. And bccaufe it is faid, that Jojhua 
call: the Lots before the Lord, C^. 8. 10. andProi;. 16 33. that the dif- 
pofal hereof is of thd; Lord : therefore Plato de Leg. 15. faith too, 
v^jxeti zXripov, mr ^eoi, that God himfelf, is the Difpofer of the 

59. The Inheritance, if there were no Sons, by the Molaick Law, 
was to pals to the Daughters; if no Daughters, to the Father's Bre- 
thren ; if none, to the Grandfather's Brethren ; if none, to the next 
Kinfman, Numk 17. 8.--11. And the Rule prefcribed in the twelve 
Tables, is much the fame, y«/2. /«//. L. ;. tit. i, z. And adopted Chil- 
dren had the fame Right in both thefe Nations. 

60. God, the better to fliew, how much he abhorred Murther, com- 
manded, that a Beaft, if he killed a Man, fliould be put to Death, Ex. 21. 
x8. And P/^^£? ordains the fame. The Punilliment of Corporal Injuries 
was like for like, Ex.xi.zi.zi;. Andi Pasna ex Lege duodecim Tabula- 
rum propter Memhrum ruptum, Talio erat, Juft. Inft. 1. 4. tit. 4. But if Sa- 
tisfadion was given by a Fine ; it was to be fet by the Judges, Ex. %x. 
xz. And{o {kys Sextus Cacilius in Aul. Gel. zi.i. Nolo hie ignores, banc 
quoq; ipfam Talionem ad ejiimationemjudicis redigi, necejfariofolitam. And 
in cafe of Damage done by a Bealt, there is the like agreement be- 
tween the Law, Ex. xi. ^55, 36. and thai of the twelve Tables, Si Eqms 
calcitrofus cake percufferit , aut Bos cornu petere folitus^ cornu petierit , 
noxte dedantur. 

61. Drunkennefs, by which a Man puts himfelf into a Condition of 
being injurious to him(elf and others; is often branded and puniihed 
in the Scriptures. And Nadab and Abihu, profaning the Divine Ser- 
vice, when they were drunk, were llruck dead. Upon which Occafion 


Ill ' » ■• 

1 60 Of the 1 ruth and Excellency Book IV- 

that Command was given, Lev. 10. 9. Do not drink Wine nor ftrong 
Drink, when ye go into the Tabernacle of the Congregation, Icaft ye 
die. And P/ato informs us, de^Leg. z. that by the Law of the Carthagi- 
fiiatis^ no man that was to enter upon an Office, or Bufmefs of Moment, 
might fo much as tafle any Wine. Which was alfo, in part refembled 
by another of Ljcwrgaj; and by f/d-/*?, much recommended. TheDiete- 
tickLaws, Lev. 11. were hke wife imitated by the fame Lycurgus ; who 
is faid by Plutarch^ to liave regulated the Laceelamonians, both in the 
Quality and Quantity of tlieir Food, prafcriptis Ohfoniis atque Epulis. 
6z. The Law of Mofes, Deut. 15. 5. which permits a Man to marry 
his Brother's Widow, where there is no Heir, was imitated by So/oft^ 
who permitted a young Woman of Fortune, if her Husband proved im- 
potent, to lie with his next Kinfman. Yet allowed any Man, that feized 
an Adulterer, after the Example of Phineas, forthwith to kill him. And 
punilhed Incefl:, fays Cicero^ fupremo fupplkio^ as Alofes did. And both 
thefe Crimes, and Sodomy, were puniHied with the like Severity by the 
Julian Law. Juft. Inflit.L- 4.7". 18. Lycurgus alfo forbad the Spartans x.a 
joyn in Marriage with any Strangers : As Mofes did the Jeivs^ with any of- 
the Nations round about. And the Degrees of Affinity prohibited in Mar- 
riage, and that, fecundum Jus vetus Romanum ^ Juft. Infl. L. i.T. 10. 
are much the fame with thofe fet down in the Mofaick Law. 

6^. The ftealing of Lands, by a Man's removing his Neighbour's 

I Land-mark, was prohibited by /*/!?f<)ri(?jLf^. 8. almoft in the fame Words 

as by Mojes. A Thief, if the Theft was found in his hand, was required to 
reflore double, Ex. 22.4. In like manner, 5o/o«„ fays A.Ge/l.u. 8. Sua 
lege in Ftires^Aupli pana vindicanflum exiftimavit. And ^lato prefcribes 
the like Punifbment. But if the Thief had not wherewithal to do this, 
he was to be fold, Ex. 22. ■^. And, fays A. Gell. 20. i. l-ex duodecim Ta- 
hularum., Furem in fervitutem tradit. The Divine Law, Ex. 22. 2, t,. will 

j have no Blood flied for a Thief, if killed in the Ad:, before Sua-rifmg. 

' So Pktd^ if any one fliould kill a Nodurnal Thief, would have it to be 

no Crime. And fo the Decemviri, Gel. il, Furem turn demum occidi pernn- 
, . 6^. The giving of a falfe Teftimony, was to be punifhed by the Rule 

j z.-€.- /M fiSk ^t/a4^ of Retaliation , Deut.xi).\6-i<^. And the ancient Romans, A. Gel. 20.1. 

I i^ ^ 6^fiu4^Wi ufed to cad one convided of a falfe Teftimony (I fuppofe only in a Ca- 

I ^'^ /y^ sxifcr mAMcr ^xx.'iS. Cafe} from the Tarpeian Rock. But the Greeks, thinking as it feems, 

" /t>,^/^^'5/9'^^A^ that God, by the third Command, had referved to himfelfthePunifhment 

•fu^OxrhLunhUh^f:t^^o{ this Crime : no Legiflator among them, for a long time, took further 

fiM^ Ut4^e> hx. notice of it, than to hold the Criminal inDifgrace. Qharondas the Cata- 

l-*jj^f(ruhJ^ut.Cip- „jan, as Arijlotle {zss, Pol. 3.10. being the firfl that ordained a 

Muld. •" . 

6$. We are commanded to love our Neighbour as our felves. And 
Plato de Leg. 5. advifes his Citizens, to abhor all blind and partial Self- 
love. The yieivj- were required, D(?«/. 14. i. ufe, after the manner 
of other Nations, that foolifli and hypocritical Shew of Love, in cutting 
themfelvcs for the Dead. And it was one of Solon s Laws, Cicero de Leg. 
2. Mulieresgenas ne radunto, neve Lejfum funeris ergo halento. Lycurgus 
to prevent Covetcufnefs, fuffered the Currency of no Gold nor Silver 
Coin, but only fuch as was made of Iron. Plato, though he allows of 
both, yet of no more than is neceffary for daily Ufe. Very agreeable^ 
not only to what is required of all Men, Make not halle to be rich ; but 


^HAP. II, m of the Hehrerp Code. 161 

of Kings in particular, Deut. 17. xj. Not very much to multiply to 
tlicmfelves Silver and Gold. And as all lending upon Ufeto the Poor, 
and with Extortion unto any, was forbid to the /eivj ; fo among the anci- 
ent Terfians^ Greeks and Romans, Co long as they continued Virtuous ; no- 
thing could be more odious, in it felf, or for the Confequenccs of it ; as is 
teftified by Jppian, and other grave Authors. 

66. It was required of the Jews, that all Caufes relating to any^of their 
Laws, too difficult for inferiour Courts, (liould be finally heard and de- 
termined, either by the Sentence of Mofes and die 70 Elders, £a-. 18. z6. 
znd Numk 11.16, 17. or by other Supream Judges, after his Death, 
Deut. 17, 9, 10. Which was alfo imitated by Hippodamus the Milefian , 
who ordained, fays Arijlotle, Pol. x. 6. among other things of great Mo- 
ment, One Chief Court of Juftice ; to which ail I'uch Caufes, as feemcd 
in arty other, to be ill decided, ihouldcomeby Appeal. And, Nemo tarn 
integram potejiaiem in judiciis habere debet, quinab eo provocare Ikeat ; waS 
Meaenas's Advice to Augujius. 

67. Thefe Judges were to adminiflerjuftice indifferently linto all: e- 
fpecially to the Widow and Fatherlefs • and to the Stranger. Of the 
Former, God is pleafed to fay, £.x. xx. 23. 'That if, being afHided, they 
cry unto him, he woyld certainly hear their Cry. Which taught Plato in 
like (nanner to fay of Gt)d, 'b-jXa.^ h'lxtpepojv tS TraGoW©- ylyvirof, * That he 
' becomes an eximious Guardian to the Afflided. Of the Later, thd 
Jews are commanded, Ex. zz. xi, Not to vex or opprefs, a Stranger: 
andfo^A-. X3.9. and eifewhere. Which the fame Philofophcr fo well 
remarked, as to fay, that of all Injuries, thofe done to Strangers, '<^ «s 
0eov aV/ij3Twp,Va ri/u'j)fov f^AAov , God took a particular Care to re- 

68. Now from the foregoing Inllances, thefe things are very plain : That 
a great Number of Particulars, contained in the Holy Scriptures ; have 
been reported, not by a few, but by many, and thofe of divers Nations. 
Notbym^n Men, but fuch as in their own time and Countrey, were of 
the bell Underilanding and Fame. That they have not only reported 
them, as Things Univerfally kno\\ n, and acknow ledged to be true : but 
alfo, that they looked upon them as Examples, right worthy of their I- 
mitation. As in Poetry and Hiftory ; fo in Things of the greateft Mo- 
ment, the Rules of Virtue and good Government. Thofe Rules, on the 
Succefs whereof, they could not but alfo fee,thelr own Glory to depend, as 
well as the Peace and Happinefs of their Countrey. And therefore it is 
as plain, that notwithftanding the Imperfedt Account they had of thefe 
Rules ; yet in making choice of them for the aforelaid Ends, the greateft 
they could not propole to themfelves : they fliewed a Belief, of their being, 
of all they had met with, the moll Excellent, and as the Jews pretended, 
of a Divine Original. 

t t CHAP. 

i62 As they appear ^ Book IV. 


Of the tRVTH and EXCELLENCT of 

tbe^ Hebrew Code, as they appear in it felf, 
Jndfirft, if we confider the WRITERS^ to 
whom we are beholden for it, 

i.'V To Book was ever fo well writ, but through 111 Will, or Mif-un- 
X >f derftanding, it has been undervalued. And fo it fares with the 
Bible it felf. As Bad Men take it to be their Intereft , fo Witty Men, 
their Reputation, to make it a Fable. And they who are weak, learn to 
fay, as others do. Some, from the Matter, others, from the Style, Me- 
thod, or on fome other account, either tax it with Fahhood, or think 
meanly of it. And lome, only becaufe it is become Cheap and Com- 
mon. As mofl People admire the Tail of a Glo-worm, which is 
a rare Sight ; more than they do the Sun, which fliines upon them e- 
very Day. 

%. Neverthelefs, we have feen the Opinion, which the VVifefl: Part 
of the Heathen World have ever had of it j and particularly, of the Old 
Teflament. And if we look upon this Book, not by Report, or in broken 
Parcels, as they did ; but as we have it in our Hands Entire : nothing 
can command a greater Veneration. Provided, that with due regard apd 
judgment we perufe the fame. 

3. Andfirft, the Truth hereof, may be looked upon as undoubted, 
were it for no other Reafon, but the great Antiquity of thofe Writers, 
above all others, to whom we are beholden, whether at the fit|t or fecond 
hand^ for the Contents hereof. Among prophane Authors, of whofe 
Writings we have any Memorials, now extant ; Sanchmiathon^ the Phce- 
«icw» Hiflorian, about the time of ^d-w^j/^w, and above 300 Years after 
Mofes, is the mofl; ancient. And if we have any true Remains of Orpheus 
among the Greeks ; yet he lived much about the fame time, with that 
Hiftorian. After whom, there is none extant before Homer ; later than 
JD^'yi</, by fome Years. Nor had they any certain Account of Thiqgs, 
as y«/?/« Martyr^ Afrkanus, and others obferve, before the Olympiads j 
inllitutedin the time of UzziaJ.\ King of Judahy 700 Years alter Mofes. 
Who lived, Cays CI. Alexandrims, not only before the Earliefl: Writers 
among the Gentiles^ but mofl; of their Gods. And of the Romans^ Livy 
tells us, lib. 6. that there was very little Writing among them, for fome 
Centuries after the Building of the City. In which time, Una fuit cuflo. 
dia, fidelh memoria Rerum Geftarum. The Books therefore of the Old 
Teflament, and efpecially thofe of the Pentateuch, the Foundation upon 
which all the refl; are built; being of that Antiquity, as to precede all 
the Hiftory of the Heathen World ,« and much more all their tables ; we 
have reaion, were it from hence alone, to look upon them as the Records 
of fincere and honeft Truth. All Fables, being the Corruption, or Difguife 
of true and plain Hiftory precedent to them. 

4. We 

Chap. 111. from the WRITERS hereof i6^ 

4. We are next to confider, That Mofes living nearer the Beginning of 
Things, than any other known Writer ; and within the time of Longe- 
vity : had hereby the greater advantage for the recording of Truth. 
For if we compare the Age of the Antediluvian Patriarchs, with the 
time of their Birth ; it appears, that in the Conveyance of the Sacred 
Tradition from Adam to IJoah^ there was but one Remove interpofed. 
For as Enos lived and converled with his Grandfather Adam^ near 700 
Years ; fo l^oah with Enos above fourfcore. And as Enoch converied with 
Adam^ above 300 Years i fo l^oah with Enoch ^ one and thirty. Befides 
whom, l^oah alfohved with Cainan, 179 years i with Mabahleel^ 1^4,. 
\<i\t\\ jared^ 366; with Methufe/ah^^^^ ; and with his Father Lamech, as 
long. From whofe concurring Teftimonies, he could not but receive 
very good aflurance of the truth of Things from the Beginning. 

5. If again, we compare the Years of Noah after the Flood, and the 
Age of the Pofldiluvian Patriarchs, with the time of their Birth, unto 
Mofes: it appeats firft, that ^^rdr/^<7/w lived with NW.' 57 Years. So that 
in tiie Tradition of the Sacred Story, from Adam to Abraham, there were 
but two Removes interpofed, viz. either by Enos or Enoch, and by Noah. 
And befides AW;, ^^rj/;awalfo lived with Nine more of the Pofldiluvian 
Patriarchs; and of thefe, with ?em himfelf, 175 Years. It is plain too, 
that Ifaac lived with Sarah his Mother, 57 Years ; and with Abraham, his 
Father, 75 ; and j^aco^ with Ifaac izo. Gen. 35.2,8. for their full Inftru- 
d:ion in all Particulars. And tho' Ifaac was 60 Years old, when Jacoh 
was bom, (?<?^. xj.i^. yet .S'lfw living 500 Years after the Birth of Ar- 
phaxad, it is evident, that not only Abraham and Ifaac, lived with Sem, 
hnt Jacob too; no lefs than 50 Years. And Jofeph hkewife, being born, 
not till the 9 \fl Year of Jacob, as by comparing Gen. 41. 46, 47. and 45-. 
II. and 47. 9. it appears, he was not ; died not above 60 Years, or there- 
about before Mofes was born. And therefore lived with many of the 
Pofterity of Levi, one of JacoFs Sons ; and particularly, with Amram, 
Mofes's Father, at lead 10 Years. 

6. Now, as from Adi^m to M(fes there were but 25: Defcents; a lefs 
Number than moft Princes, and fome private Gentlemen are able to 
Ihew, of their own Anteceflbrs .• So, from what is before noted, it is very 
plain. That in the Sacred Tradition, there were but Six Removes, ws. by 
Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Jofeph and Amram, intervening between A- 
dam and Mofes. And thefe were all of 'em, either Eminent Prophets, or 
of the Holy Line, to whom more efpecially God was pleafed to make 
himfelf known, and all things elfe neceflary, from the Beginning. And 
the Age of Men beginning confiderably to be fliortned about the time of 
Abraham ; that Defedt was foon over-anfwered, by tlie Number of Jacob's 
Pofterity : v\ hich became a Multitude of Witnefles, to the Truth of all 
things received from their Predeceflbrs, relating to the Creation, and the 
Flood, and the whole Sacred Story, 

7. It is alfo very reafonable to believe, that Mofes was not the firft, who 
ufed Letters: but that the Records of many things were made by Jofeph 
in Egypt. Who can tliink that Prince, or his Ofhcers, by his Dirediion, 
could take and keep any tolerable Account of the Stores which were laid 
up in the Seven Years of Plenty, throughout all the Land of Egypt ; or 
of the Confumption hereof in the Seven Years of Famine, without a 
Regiliry ? Or of the Survey of the whole Countrey, and tlie Sale and 
Purchace of every Man's Land, without Books or Rolls, fit for thefe U- 


J 64 

Js they affear 


O O K 


Ufes ? And if he had Writing enough, whatever it was, for thefe j then, 
for any thing contained in the Firft Book of Mofes. 

8. Nor can it be difproved, but that fome fort of Charaders, Literal 
or Verbal, were ufed by the Holy Liqe frorii the Beginning. Whereby 
all requifite Memoirs might be conveyed to Jofeph^ and to Mofes^ as well 
as by Oral Tradition. And is that, which for preventing of any Error 
or Doubt, in the Account of fome Particulars, feemeth to have been 
neceflary ; as of the Pedigrees and Ages of the Patriarchs, with the 
time of their Births ; which are all pundtually fet down. And therefore 
the Pedigree from A^am to Noah, Gen. 5. hath this Title prefixed to it ; 
This is the Book , Sepher, the Chartule, of the Generations of Adam ; 
as if Mofes had it ready drawn up to his Hand. 

9. The Account we have of Things before Mofes^ is comprifed within 
the Book of Genets. The Contents of tlie other Four Books of the Pen- 
tateuch, are of thofe Things, whereof /J/ij/e-y was an Eye-witnefs from firft 
to laft. And the Records of all the Five, were of equal Antiquity with 
Himfelf. There are, it's true, fome Padages, which neither Mofes ^ nor 
any Man of his own time, can be fuppofed to have writ. As that, Gen. 
I z. 6. The Canaanite^^i then in the Laj^d. The Catalogue of the Kings, 
which are faid to reign in Edom^ Gen. 36. ;i. before there was any King 
in Ifrael. That Parenthefis, Num. 2. 3. Novo the Man Mofes was very meek, 
above all the Men which were upon the Face of the Earth. That in Deut. z. 
I z. The Children of Efau drjlroyed the Horims out of Seir, and dwelt in 
theirftead; as Ifrael did unto the Land of his Poffejfion^ which the Lord 
gave unto them. And part of the laft Chapter of the fame Book ; 
■which gives an account of the Death and Burial oi Mofes ^ with his Cha- 
racter. But thefe, and fome few more excepted ; we have no Caufe to 
doubt, but that the whole Pentateuch, both the Legiflative and Hiftori- 
cal Parts hereof, were recorded by Himfelf, or his Order for the doing 
of it. 

10. Of the Judicial Law, it is exprefly faid, £a-. 14. 4. 7. *That he 
* wrote it all, together with the Covenant annexed to it, in a Book called 
"' The Book of the Covenant : which he alfo then read to the People. Of 
the reft of the Law, 'tis a!fo evident, that Mofes wrote it all : both as it 
was by him fummed up in the Book of Deuteronomy : and the whole Law, 
as deUvered in his other four Books at large, called all together, The Book 
of the Law^Deut. 31.24.z6. and The Book of the LaWof Moks^JoJh. z-^. 6. 
Which Titles can have no other meaning, than as aforefaid. For if Mofes 
wrote his own Summary of the Law, with fome Additions to it, that is, 
The Book of Deuteronomy, as he did : who can think, he would or could 
omit the Recording of it, as he received it from God Himfelf ? That it 
was not as neceffary for him, to take care of the Foundation, as of his own 
Superftrud:ure ? 

11. Nor have we any good ground to doubt, but that the Hiftorical 
Part of the Pentateuch^ was Hke wife wrote by his Direction, in his own 
time, if not by Himfelf, His Recording of liindry Particulars, is expreft. 
When Jojhua had fought with Amalek, and beaten them ; Mofes had a 
fpecial Command, £a-. 17. 14. to write the Memorial of it. VVhen he 
hadfetup the Tabernacle, he was required to take the Sum of the whole 
Camp, from twenty Years old, and upward, N"«w. s. z. When God com- 
manded the Seventy Elders to be brought before him, to receive the Spi- 
rit of Government, Num. 1 1 j tho' it is not exprefly faid, yet may'be 

Chap. in. from the VV RATERS hereof 155 

gathered from Verf.t 6. That there was a Record then made of that 
Tranrad:ion. /'>fo/(?5 is alfo faid, iS7«»7, 33.2. To write the Goings out 
of the Children of Ifrael, according to their Journeys, by the Com- 
mandment of the Lord. And the Prophetick Song, compofed by God 
Himfelf, was not only rehearfed by Mofes to the People, but recorded 
with his own Hand, Deut.-^i.xx. There are alfo fundry Particulars, as 
the Offering of the twelve Princes for the Tabernacle, Num. 7. the 
Names, Inftrudions, and Ad:s of the Spies, Hum. 13. and many others of 
this Nature ; that is, accompanied with that Variety of Places, Per- 
lons and Things, and of Circumflances relating to them: that though 
their being recorded, is not exprefl ; yet no Man can fuppofe the Me- 
morial hereof, was left to fluduate on the uncertain Waves of Tradi- 
tion. Add hereto, thatmoftof the Hiftorical Part of thefe Books, hav- 
ing (b natural a Connexion with the Legiflative ; either as the things 
therein mentioned, were preparatory to the giving of the Law, or as they 
explain theReafon of fome Particulars therein, or ihewthe Occafion of 
fome Others : It is not conceivable, how Mofes could omit the recor- 
ding of 'em in this Connexion all together. And it is from this near 
and natural Relation between them ; that the Preface to the Book of 
Deuteronomy^ comprehends 'em both under the Title of the Law. For 
it is there faid, That on this fide Jordan in the Land of Moab, Mofes 
began to declare this Laiv^ faying/The Lord our God fpake to us in Horeb, &c. 
and fo he continues for Four Chapters, an Introdudion of pure Hiflory, 
before he hath one Word of the Law it felf. And it doth not appear, 
but that this very Preface was writ by Mofes^ or by his Diredion, 
as well as the following Hiftory : whatfoever Spimfa^ or his Oracle, 
Ahen Hezra, thought to the contrary. In that the Prepofition n^y, fig- 
nifies as well, On this fide., as Beyond t, as doth the Latin Prepofition, C«j 
and as is moll; evident from the Context, in Deut. 3. 8. and other Places, 
where the fame Word is ufed, and cannot fignifie, Beyond., but , On this 
fide ; as our Englilh Tranflators have alio truly rendered it in the faid 
Preface. And tho' we fliould fuppofe this Preface to be writ by fome 
other ancient Hehreto after Mofes ; yet it is manifeft, that he compre- 
hends the large Hiftory of Four Chapters, under the Title of Law. So 
then, by the Book of the Law, which /Wo/^j commanded the Levites^ to 
put by the fide of the Ark, Deut. 3 1 . x6. and whereof mention is made 
xChron. ly.g. and in other Texts, and in x Kings z-].ii. called, The 
Book of the Covenant : we are tounderfland, the whole Pentateuch. And 
therefore to conclude, that the Contents hereof, excepting a few PafTa- 
ges in ferted afterwards by fome other Sacred Pen, were all recorded in 
Mofes's time. 

1 1. The Book of Jofhua is probably fuppoled by Ahravanel^ Praf in 
Jo/h. to be writ by Samuel. That it was writ before David's time, is ar- 
gued from C/.'. 15. 63. where the Jebufites are faid to dwell at JerufaleWf 
with the Children of Judah, who could not drive them out. Whereas 
David, z Sam. f, 7,S,(). a ftually overcame them, and took their Fort. 
The fame i'iiwwf/ is like wife thought to be the Author of the Books of 
Judges, and Ruth. The Prophet Jeremy, of the Books of Samuel and 
oi the Kings, fzr^j, by fome, of the Books of Chronicles. The Book 
called by his own Name, was writ, at leafl the greater part, by Himfelf; 
the relf, by fome contemporary Prophet. And Nehemiah doubtlcfs, wrote 
his own Story. For the Pedigree fet down, Ch.ix. unto Jadduah, fuppo- 

V u fed 

. i55 Ai they affear . b o o k I \\ 

fed to be the High Priefl: who met Alexander in his Paflage unto Perfia, - 
is inferted by another Hand. As is alfo another Hiftorical Paflage from 
Verf. 43. to the End of the fame Chapter. That the Prophet Ha^ai 
or Zechari, wrote the Book of Efiher, is not unlikely. And the Prophet 
0/ ' /"/f/ Ifaiah, the Book of Jok The Author's alluding to the Sun's (landing 
^^^1!/ /?^ ftillin the time of Jo/buayCh.g.y. (hews, it could not be writ by Mo- 
'^rt^jD!^ \/f(^^'^ f"- ■^"'^ ^'^ making ufe of the Chaldean Aftronomy ; that it was writ 
^' 'Vwi^'^-**^ ' after 5(?/owo« had introduced that Learning. David, and other Sacred 
^^ Poets, wrote their own Pfalms : tho' it appears by fome of 'cm, thac 

they were not put together, as we have 'em, until after the Captivity. 
Solomon, not only his own Song ; but his own Proverbs ; or that they 
were didated by him. For they are not faid, to be colled:ed from Tra- 
dition, but copied out, Ch.z^.i. And no doubt too, the Book of £rc/(f/f- 
afies ; tho' Grotius, from fome Chaldakk Words therein, thought other- 
wife. But that King, medling with the Chaldean Learning, might affed: 
fome Exotick Words, as well as Religion. All the Prophets, from firfl; 
to laft, wrote or didated their own Prophecies. And Jeremy, his Book of 

13. Now, as the Compofers of mofl of thefe Books, are known to us : 
fo, whoever were the Authors of the refl ; or of the Paflages after- 
wards inferted into any of 'em : Thus much is cettain, that the Particulars 
herein contained, were put from time to time, as they were tranfaded, 
into the Publick Records. For firfl:, in the Book of Jojhua, fome things 
are Recorded upon his Special Command: as the Defcription of the Ho- 
ly Land in Seven Parts in a Book. Which Book he alfo made ufe of in 
dividing the Land by Lot, C/». 1 8, and 19. And foane things were writ- 
, ten with his own Hand ; as the Sermon he preached to the People, Ch. 14. 

I and the Covenant he thereupon made with 'em, Ferf. x6. Nor can we 

think with any Senfe, but that all other Particulars contained in this 
Book being mixed with Circumftances, and the Names of Perfons and 
Places, in lb great Variety ; mufl of necelfity be regiflred, as they were 
tranfaded. And it (eems to me mofl likely, that the Book of Jafher, 
mentioned Ch. 10.18. was the Journal of the Ads of Jojhua, out of 
which Samuel extraded this Book. TheBookslikewife ofthey«fi[i,(?j, of 
Ruth, and of Samuel, are tor the fame Reafon as that of Jojhua, to be e- 
fleemed Extrads of the Publick Records ; tho' the Hiftorians do not 
tell us they are. But he who wrote the Books of the Kings, frequently 
cites the faid Records, unto which he all along refers his Readers. That 
as many as would, might examine by the Records themfelves, the 
, Truth of what he thence extraded. The very Title of the Books of 
Chronicles , Dihre Haiamim, that is, The Words of Days ; flievvs, that 
they were taken from the Pubiick Journals, wherein every thing was fet 
down, day by day, as it was tranfaded. To which Journals, the Au- 
thor of thefe Books, doth hkewife often refer. To one, under the Title 
of The Book of the Kings of Ifrael : and to another, which he calls, The 
Book of the Kings of Judah and Ifrael. By which Books, are not meant 
the Canonical Books we now have ; but the Publick Journals of thofe 
Kings; as by comparing zChron. 3-5. 18. with z Kings ii. and fome o- 
ther References, is very evident. Both Daniel and Ezra, together with 
their own Ads, recite feveral Decrees taken from the Publick Records of 
the Babylonian and Perfian Kings. Whereunto hkewife the Author 


. ^ C H A p. ill. from the FFKI f EKS hereof. 161 
II f — 

of the Book of tfther^ Chapter i. 13. and Chapter 10. z. feems 
to refer the Reader, as to the Original , from whence it was col- 

14. It is further certain , that the Perfons, to whom the Regiftry 
and Cuftody of thefe and other publick Records, was committed , 
were the Priefts and Prophets. It was the Office, wliich anciently 
belonged to the Roman Pontiffs. As alfo to the Chief Priefls in E- 
gypt, and in mod other Nations. And tiiat among the Jews^ it be- 
longed to the Perfons aforefaid, is affirmed by Jofephus, in his Book 
againfl: Appion ; where he would be fare, not to be miftaken. 
There was alfo a Defignation hereof to the Pried s, when Mofes de- 
livered the Book of the Law into their Hands, £)f«^ ^1.9. And the 
Kings were required to take their Copies, from the Original, in the 
Cultody of the Priefts, Dent. 17, 18. And what was done then by 
Mofes, was an Example and Warrant unto all future Times, in that 
Nation. And was that which naturally accompanied the Supremacy 
of the Priefthood in that Commonwealth : which continued from 
the Death of Mofes, until by Divine Authority, it was transferred to 
their Kings. Unto whom, fome of the Priefls, were then alfo Prin- 
cipal Secretaries of State. Nor did the Kingly Office, vacate that of the 
Priefls aforefaid. 

15. And that the Prophets had alfo the fame Office, appears, partly. 
In that many, and perhaps, mofl of 'em , were themfelves of the 
Prieflhood. And partly , in that they either wrote , or dictated 
their own Prophecies : many of 'em intermixed with State-Hiftory, 
and all of 'em having relation to the Publick. But chiefly, from the 
Reference we find made, by the Author of the Chronicles, unto fe- 
veril of their Joyrnals. For the Ads of David, to the journals of 
Satxuel, Nathan and Gad: For the Ad:s of Solomon, to thofe of Na- 
than, Ahijah, and iddo : For the Ads of Ahijah, to that of Iddo : For 
the Ads of Jehojhaphat, to that of Jehu the Son of Hanani : For the 
Ads of Rehohoam, to thofe of Shemaia and Iddo ; and for the Ads of 
Uzziah and Hezekiah, to that of Ifaiah ; all of 'em Contemporaries 
with the Kings, whofe Ads they undertook to record. 

16. It is alfo manifefl, that thefe Perfons were every way qualified for 
the due Performance of the faid Office. For in a Commonwealth, 
wherein there were no Laws, nor any Parts of their Government, 
but what were incorporated into their Religion : what could be more 
proper, than for the Priefls to have the Confervation of thefe Laws ? 
and the Regidring of all Publick Aflairs, which could be no other 
than fuch as had Relation to thefe Laws, that is, to their Religion ? 
And being moreover, it was one part of their Office, To teach the People 
their Duty, Mai. i.d,']. And to fit as Judges in the Supream Court of Ju- 
dicature, wz. that unto which all Inferiour Courts made their Appeals,D(r«/. 
17.8.— 13. they were hereby obliged to record all Proceedings, and to 
make their Obfervation of the King's and Peoples Conformity or Con- 
tradidion to the Law, and of whatfoever followed thereupon. Nor were 
they barely put into their Office, but Anointed and Confecrated to it, 
Ex. 28.41. By virtue whereof, as many of them asrefigioufly obferved 
the Law, were undoubtedly blefl with Wifdom and great Integrity. E- 
fpecially the H. Priefls, who had alfo the Judgment of Urim and Thum' 
mim^ Num. 27. zi. that is, of perfed Underllanding, fo far as appertain- 


[68 ^s they appear Book IV, 

cd to their Charge. Unto which it was fo infeparably annexed, that 
even in our Saviour's time, when the Jewi/h State was fo far corrupted, 
that the High Priefthood it felf was bought and fold : Caiaphas then 
prophetically advifed the ranfoming ot the whole Nation , by the 
Death of one Man. So that the H. Priefts, and the reft in their Place, 
were all of them, as I may fay, Prophets in Ordinary : endowed with 
a Spirit of difcerning, not only Truth from Falfhood, but what was fit- 
teft, as ferving moft for God's Honour, either to be omitted, or put in- 
to the Sacred Record. 

17. The Prophets fo called, were qualified by their extraordinary 
Commiflion. Whereupon they abandoned all Worldly Satisfadtion, and 
devoted themfelves entirely to the Service and Honour of God. Mofes 
fo wile a Man, bred up at Court, and the adopted Son of Pharaoh's 
Daughter, might eafily have fucceeded in the Kingdom : but we know 
his Choice. And the Prophets after him, took him for their Pattern. 
How fimple was their Food ? a few Loaves, Biskets and Honey, the' 
lent from a King, i Kin. 14. 3. yet were not improper ; becaufe prefen- 
ted to a Prophet. Nor was that of the Baptift, much unlike, Locufts 
and Honey. How mean was their Cloathing .■^ a fort of courfe Hairy 
Stuff, was that they all wore. Therefore Zechary^ Ch. 13, 4. tells the 
Jews^ that the Prophets fliould be alhamed of their Vifions, neither fliould 
they wear a rougli Garment to deceive. And , Ifaiah^ Ch. 10. z. is bid 
to loofe his Sackcloth from off his Loins : which it feems he com- 
monly wore, tho' a Courtier, and Prince of the Blood Royal. And 
therefore alfo the Baptift, is faid to be cloathed in Camels Hair. And 
their Dwelling was anfwerable : a Bed, a Table, a Stool and a Can- 
dleftick, were all the Furniture of Elijhays Palace ; a little Chamber, 
built him by a rich Shunamite on the Town- Wall, j, Kin. 4. 10. Kot 
for any want of Refped, as appears, yerf. 16. but becaule flie knew 
it would pleafe him beft. But for the moft part, they were ill-dealt 
withal, and defpifed. Upon the Delivery of their Meflage from God, 
they were often mocked and mif-ufed, xChron.-\6.iG. and malici- 
oufly perfecuted, Mat. ^. ix. Micajah and Jeremy were fent to Pri- 
fon, and forely afflidied. Elijah and Elifha, threatned, and fought to 
be killed. Zechariah actually flonedto Death. And a great many of them 
at the Command of Jezehel^ ftain with the Sword. Nor M'as there 
a Wicked King, but had his Hands in their Blood. Death too, 
was . the Doom of every falfe Prophet. And the true Prophet, if 
difobedient, was in great danger ; as appears from Jonah ; and the Man 
of God that was ilain by a Lien near Bethel^ i Kin. 13. z6. and the 
Warning given to Jeremy^ Ch. i, 17. 'Be not difmaied at their Faces, 
* left I confound thee before them. So that to be a Prophet, was to 
be poor, hated, contemptible, and liable unto Martyrdom. Unto all 
which, nothing could be a Counterpoize, but a Divine Commiffion, and 
their preferring the Honour and Favour of God, before all other 
things. In doing this, their Courage became Invincible. With this 
Authority, and thel'e Ends, Ezekiel's Forehead, is as an Adamant har- 
der than Flinty Ch. x. 9. And Jeremy^ as an Iron Pillar and Brazen Walls 
ayiinfi the whole Land^ Ch. 1. 18. Jeroloam is foretold the Ruin of his 
Houl'e, in his own Court, Amos'j.xi^. Ahah^ to his Face, WloereDop 
licked the Blood of Naboth, fl^all Dogs lick thj Blood., even thine-., i Kin. 
zr. 19. Thefe were the Perfons, who were taught, neither to flatter, nor 


> H A p. Ill, from the VFKI f LKS hereof. i6i 

to fear any Man ; but to Ipeak the naked Truth ; and who were im-; 
ployed, in pcning their own Prophecies, and the Sacred Story. And 
that they ufed the fame religious Care, in writing, as they did in fpeak- 
ing tlie Truth : is fo far further evident, as the Reafon for tlieirfo do- 
ing , was the ftronger. For if it was of fo great a Moment, that 
nothing but Truth, fliould by them be fpoken : how much rather, witii 
relped to all other Nations, and future Ages , that nothing but Truth 
ihould be recorded ." 

1 8. And their Writings have all the Marks of Truth, that can be de- 
fired. In their Account of lime, an Eflential Part of good Hiftory, 
the Jews were very pundual. This appears, partly, from their Calen- 
dar. Whereof Scal/ger, de Emend. Temp, hath this Elogy ; Methodum 
Computi Judatci, argutijfimam & eldgantijlimam e(fe^ nemo harum rerum pau- 

, lo peritior, injictahitur. For which, Calvifius^ in his Prolegomena, 
gives this Realbn ; Nemo enim noflrorum Aftrommorum, Motum Longitudi- 
nis Lume a Sole aquahilem, eadem facilitate Tahulis comprehendere potuit. 
And partly, from the Examples we have in Scripture, of the Care that 
was taken in this Particular. Mojes hath fet down, doubtlefs, as it was 
left recorded by the Patriarchs^ not only the Year whereip the Flood 
hapned, but the Month and the very Day, viz. in the 6ooth Year of Noah's 
Life, in the zd Month, in the 17th day of the Month, Gen. 7. 11. Tis 
faid, Ex. 12.41. that at the end of 4'iO Years, that is, from Ahraharas 
firU going to dwell out of his own Countrey; the felf-fame day, it 
came to pafs, that all the Hofts of the Lord went out from the Land 
of Egypt. In Num. 1. 1. That the Militia was muftered in the firlf Day, 
of the xd Month, in the xd Year after the Ifraelites were come out 
of Egypt. In Deut. i. :;. ThisxMofes began to declare the Law contain- 
ed in that Book, in the 4C/Z' Year, in the ii/i? Month, and the Firfl: 
Day of the Month. Xnjojh.^. 19. That the People came up out of 
Jordat}., on the lor/jDay of the Firfl Month j that is, of the 417? Year. 
In I Kin. 6. i. That Solomon began to build the Temple in the zd Month 
of the 480//^ Year. The Years of the Judges and Kings, are all along 
expreft. And in the Preface to every Prophetick Book, fave one or 
tv\ o, we are told in w hofe Reigns the following Prophecies were fpo- 
ken. Sometimes the Month and Day are fet down. And Zechary 
and Ezeklel, arc very particular, as to mofl of their Prophecies. Which 
Examples fuffice to fliew, that they obferved a mofl exad: Chronology 
in all their Journals, tho' with them, it be now loft; fo much only ex- 
cepted, as is preferved in the Scriptures. 

19. They were alfo very exad in their Pedigrees, above any other 
Nation. To Ihew this, two In fiances alone will fuffice. That in Num. 
I. 18.46. where 'tis faid, that the whole Camp, confifling of above 
600000 muflered Men, declared their Pedigrees, atter their Families, by 
the Houfe of their Fathers. The other, in i Chron.g. i. where it is al- 
fo faid. That all /fr_ael were reckoned by Genealogies, written in the 
Book of the Kings of Ifrael and Judab. And therefore u here- ever we 
meet with any which feem to be imperfed: j we are to look upon 
them, only as Abflradls ' of thofe, which were regiftred at large in the 
faid Journal-Book. 

xo. The Account which they give of things, is likewife, as often as 
is neceffary, very particular. Such is that of the Tabernacle, Ex. 25^ 
^c. Of the Elevation, and Refling of the Cloud upon it, Num. 9, 15. 

X X to 

1-70 As they appear Book IV. 

to the end. Of the Borders of the Holy Land, Num. ^4. Of the Bor- 
ders and Situation of the Lands allotted to the feveral Tribes, Jo/h. i-j. 
to 19. AndCh. 17. 8, 9. 'tisfaid, that Ma»aj}eb had the Land ofTappua ; 
but that Tappua, on the Border of Mauajfeh, belonged to Ephraim ; and 
that certain Cities of Ephraim^ were among the Cities of Manajfeh. 
As fome Towns here in Englattcl, which belong to one Count}', are 
fituate in another. An hiltorical Point, which no tabulator, would 
have thought of. The miraculous Overthrow of tlie Thiliftins, by 
'Jonathans means, is introduced with lo punctual a Defer! ption of the 
Two Rocks between the Palles, i Sam.i^.^, 5-. as gives it the Natural 
Face of a true Hiftory. And every where elfe , the Account of 
Things, is fo far exad-, as to fliew, the Authors did not report 
them by guefs, but had a certain Knowledge of what they wrote. 

21. The fame is further manifeft, from their way of writing, with a 
peculiar fort of Simplicity, not to be met with in any other Books. 
Jacob's Sons tell "jofepVs Steward, Gen. 44, 9, 10. ' With whomfoever of 
*us the Cup is found, let him die, and we will be my Lord's Bondmen. 
The Steward replies, * Let it be according to your Words, He with 
' whom it is found, fliall be my Servant, and ye Ihall be blamelefs. 
Which Reply, tho' not at all according to their Words , yet was 
according to their Senfc, That whoever was guilty, they were content- 
ed, fliould be punidied. 'Ye Ihall be fold unto your Enemies, fays 
^ MofeSy Deut.x^. 68. for Bondmen and Bondwomen, and no Man fliall 
' buy you. That is, as the bafeit of Slaves, ye ihall be often cheapned, 
* and bought laft. ' Ye have flain my Father's Sons, fays Jotham to the 
''Shechemites, Judg. 9. 18. Threefcore and ten Perfons, upon one Stone. 
Tho' himfell^, one of that Number, had made his Efcape. And yet he fpake 
truly. His Bufinefs not being to count 70, but to tell them of their Crime. 
Which was, their Intent to have flain himfelf, as well as the reft .• and 
was all one in the fight of God, from whom he now fpake to them, 
as if they had adually done it. In which, and many other like Para- 
ges, the Sacred Writers, from a Confcience of their own Sincerity, 
where the Senfe fufiiced, Ihew a Negled: of that Precifenefs in 
Words, which Knaves and Tellers of Tales, think themfelves obli- 
ged to ufe. 

X2. Without any affeded refining upon any Man's Saying. When 
Pharaoh asked Jacob, How old art thou ? he anfwered. The Days of the 
Tears of my Pilgrimage, are an hundred and thirty Tears ; feiv and evil 
have the Days of the Tears of my Life been, and have not attained 
unto the Days of the Tears of the Life of my Fathers , in the Days 
of their Pilgrimage, Gen. 47. 9. A Romancer would, no doubt, have 
furnifhed the Father of the Twelve Patriarchs, and of the Lord of 
Egypt, with another fort of Speech. But Mofes judged it beft, to give 
us the plain Man's own Words, as he received them recorded by 
Jofeph, who heard him fpeak them. When Joah had flain Abfalom, the 
Hiftorian invents not a gaudy Paraphrale upon David's Pafijon ; but 
tells us, z Sam. 18. 33. T.hat as he went up into the Chamher over the 
Gate, he wept, and f aid, my Son Abfalom, my Son, my Son Abfalom, 
would God I had died for thee, Abfalom, my Son, my Son. Extreme 
natural, and no queflion but the very Words of that aiFedionate King. 
When Adonijah was brought from the Altar before King Sokmon, 
I Kin. 1.53. Ihouldwe not have had a Dialogue between the two Bro- 
thers .•> 


I Chap. ill. from the WRITERS hereof 

thers ? No : the Hiftorian only tells us, That Solomon faid unto 
him, Go to thine Houfe. And if we confider the Wifdom of 
that Prince, they were, no queflion, the very Words, and all that 
he fpake. 

23. Without interlacing their Story, with Matters which have no re- 
lation to it: Or with any Critical Remarks of their own. Both which 
are frequently done by Profane Writers of the beft Note. But if. 
they infert any, they are fuch as are pertinent, and meerly Hiftori- 
cal. After the Lightening and Hail, Ex. 9. Mofes^ between his Pro- 
mife to pray for Pharaoh and his performance of it , inferts 
this Parenthefis : And the Flax and the Barley ivere Jmitten^ jor the 
Barley was in the Eat^ and the Flax was hoUed : hut the Wheat and 
the Rye were not fmitten^ for they were not grown up. A Paflage fo 
plainly, but punctually brought in, as it muc/i illuftrates the Majefty and 
Truth of thatHiftory. 

24. Without any Pomp, or intent to amplifie : tho' upon Arguments 
of that nature, as would have tempted any other Writers to it. Of 
Three Judges together, we are only told their Names, how long they 
judged, what Children they had, and where they were buried. 
For nothing further being fit to be recorded of them ; the Holy Wri- 
ter, would not, like niofl Hiftory-mongers, try his Skill to make up 
their Story. The Account of Men and Things for 1600 Years be- 
fore the Flood, is all comprized in the firll Six Chapters of Genefis. 
A certain Argument, that the Author was fo far from improving his 
Invention, tho' in fo large a Field : as both to keep ftrid^ly to 
what was delivered to him for undoubted Truth: and to omit a 
great many Particulars, which, as a Prophet, he faw unneceflary to be 
made known to us. So likewife the Story of the Kings of Judah and 
Ifrael^ filling, no doubt, many Volumes of the publick Journals : Yet 
being feledted, according to the fame Prophetick Judgment, is all redu- 
ced unto three or four fmall Books, 

zf. Without any vain Repetitions. Some things are thought to be 
repeated, which are not; as what relates to Mankind in Gen. x. For as 
the x6tb Verfe, declares God's Eternal Decree ; fo the 2.yth^ x2th^ the 
Execution of it. The bringing of Water out of a Rock, feems to be 
related by the fame Hiftorian, both in Ex. 17, and in Num. 20. but 
was indeed performed twice : firft at Rephidim, and afterwards in the 
VVildernefs of Zin. And fome things, tho' they are repeated, yet 
not vainly, but with great Reafon for it. In Ex. iz, 42. the pre- 
lent, and all future Ages, are twice admoniflied, to make fpecial Ob- 
fervation of the Night, in which the Children of Ifrael marched out 
of Egypt. The Parts and Furniture of the Tabernacle, are thrice enu- 
merated ; when commanded to be made, Ex. a^, &c. when performed, 
Ch. -^6. and when eredted, Ch. ult. And all is faid to be done, with this 
frequent Addition, ' As the Lord commanded Mofes. Thefe, and other 
like Repetitions , being ufed , the better to reprefent , either the 
Majefly of the Law-giver, or the Certainty and Weight of what 
is fpoken of. 

z6. And without any Impropriety of Speech. Poets, and other in- 
ventive Writers, while they are lludyingof Words; many times forget 
that Aptitude, in their Conceits, wliich a Reader, but of ordinary Judg- 
ment looks for : 


72 ^s they apfear Book IV. 

fays Homer of his Alexander ; whom in the fame Breath, he makes 
like a God, yet afraid of Achilles . J fjeJi'-^ti tci • 

thou falfe-hearted Piece of Impudence ; 

fays Achilles to Agamemnon. Let Achilles be Homers Hero, or what 
you will more ; the Language is abfurdly feigned to be given by one 
Confederate Prince to another, and the General of the Army. 

It Jhall he faid hereafter, This is the MansTomh^ 

U^ho, tho fo 'valiant, yet ivasjlain by the Illuftrious He<Sor ; 

as that Captain ftiles himfelf. Whom Virgil zMo thought he might imi- 
tate , where he makes his Hero, ridiculoufly to begin a Story of 

himfelf, with Sum pius y^neas. 

x7. But the Language of the Scripture is every where proper. Even 
there, where it feems to be otherwife. David (ttms, Pf. 86. i. to fpeak 
as Virgil's JEneas', Preferve my Soul, for I am holy. But David doth not 
make a Narrative, but a Plea. Nor is the Word, Chafid, well tranfla- 
tcd, Holy. The primary and proper Senfe hereof being, Merciful. 
And fo David fpeaketh properly and flrongly ; Wilt thou not he merciful 
unto me, who haft taught me to he merciful unto others t Jojhua is intro- 
duced, faying, Sun^ flmd thou flill. And very properly : forafmuch as 
what he faid, was in the hearing of all the People, Ch. lo, ii. to v\ hofe 
belt Underftanding, it behoved him to fpeak. Whereas, had he laid. 
Earth, ftand thou flill', to them, it had been perfeit Gibberiih. Nei- 
ther can any Man prove the contrary, but that the Sun did thereupon 
really ftand ftill : that is, ceafe for a time, from the Rotation 
it hath upon its own Axis ; whereby the Earth alfo flood 
ft ill. God faith, Gen. 9. 13. / do fet my Bow in the Clouds 
for a token of the Covenant, hetween Me and the Earth. And not 
improperly. For the Verb is ufed in the Preient Tenfe, / do, and 
not, I will; as if the Rainbow had never been before feen. Nor can 
any Proof be brought from the Do6lrine of Meteors, that the Rain- 
bow was indeed ever feen before the Flood. We fee, de fa^lo^ xhzt 
there are a thoufand Clouds for one Rainbow. And it is likely, that 
before the Flood, the Atmofphere, and the Clouds therein, were of 
that'nature, as never to produce that, which they now do fo feldom. 
'Tis laid, Gen. 6. 6. Ihat it repented the Lord that he Lad mide Man, and 
it grieved him at his heart. And very properly : ior it is fpcken unto 
Mankind ,• and therefore to the meaneft Capacity, after the manner 
of Men. They who are unlearned, have no critical Thoughts about 
fuch Expreftions; and therefore cannot be oiTended at them. And 
they who think they have W4t to remark them, Ihould alfo have 
Wit to think, in what fenfe they are ufed. And to know, that if 
they would have God to fpeak adequately to his Nature j he mufl: 
not fpeak at all, either to plain Men, or to Philofophers. For, as 


C H A P. ill. from the VV R ITERS hereof ~^ 



we cannot make, (o neither can we underfland, any Words, but fucli 
as anfwer to our Conceptions of Things. But no Man, can have an 
adequate Conception of the Divine Nature. And every where elfe, 
what is fpoken, is done with the greateft Propriety : whether by 
Men, one to another j oj by Men , unto God ; or by God, unto 

z8. Jn Gen. 24. v\e have the mofi: proper Language of a faithful 
Servant, InzA/«. 5. 13. of Servants very difcrcet and modeft. What 
can be liker, to a Devihih Wit, than what is faid. Gen. 39. 14, &c. 
Or by another of the kind, \K'in.%\.rj. What fitter, to be put into 
the Mouth of a cunning old Trot, i Sam. 14. 4. Or more becoming 
that of a Woman truly wife, i Sam. 15-. 24. In (?<?». 44. i8,i^c. we 
have a very humble and difcrect Petition. In 'jojf). 22. 22. to 29. a 
prudent Vindication made by Brethren. In i Sam. 24. 9. the like, 
made by a Subjeci. And 'ju(i<i^ 11. if. a flout and rational Remon- 
strance to an Enemy. In M/w, 17. 12,13. we have the Words of a 
ftomachful People. In i Kin. i%. 16. thofe of a Railing Mob. And 
Rifth 1. 16, 17. of a mod Generous and Rare Friend. What can be faid 
liker to a Cowardly Huff, than that in 2 Kin. 18. ic, ^c. Or to a bold 
General, than in x Sam. 19. 5-. The Counfel given, Gen.^^x. 33, ^c. was 
done with equal Underftanding and Modelly. And the Speech in 2 Sam. 
17.7, *^c-. was the beft contrived of the kind that was ever fpoke. 
In all which Examples, the Language being fo natural, unaffeded and 
unfludicd ; nothing can be plainer, than that the Sacred Writers did 
every where fet them down, as they found them in the Records of 
their own Nation : and that thefe Records were alfo faithfully 
made, by the Patriarchs, High Priefls, and other Prophets intruded 

29. David's Pfalms, being moft of them Prayers, were compofed 
with a Stile, fit for a Solemn Addrefs unto God. Yet agreeably^ vary- 
ing with the Subjedt Matter, and the Condition he was in. In the 
51/? Pfalm, 'tis very humble and grave ; futed to the Greatncfs of 
his Requells, and the weighty Reafons he prefents them withal. One 
may take more Pleafure, upon obferving in the 119//^ Pfalm, the 
Natural and Fervent Strains of a Man entirely devoted unto God: 
than in all the feigned and forced Periods of the mofl Celebrated 
Poet. The 104?/^ Pfalm, is an excellent Epitome of Natural Hillory : 
delivered with exad Method ; and elegantly, yet freely and unafte- 
dedly expreft : fo as to be fit for the Ufe of plain Men, as well as 
Scholars. There is not a clearer Demonftration in Euclid, than that 
iLort one, -PA 94. 9 Nor a more curious Epiphonema, in any Orator 
or Poet, than that wherewith the 144/// Pfalm concludeth. 

30. And becaufe he was a Prophet, as well as a Poet; in many of 
his Pfalms he foars very high: as in the 18, 45-, 46, 139, and others. 
As Dehorah doth in her Song, whereon flie rides, upon the Over- 
throw of Sifera, as on a Triumphal Chariot. And mod of the Pro- 
phets, and prophetick Parts of Scripture, wherein God fpeaketh unto 
Men ; are very fingular, for the Elegancy, Significancy, and Majedy 
of the Stile. From whence, more Noble Examples of all the Tropes 
and Figures, ufed by the belt Orators, may be taken, than from any 
other books whatfoever. As would better appear, * could we difcern 
all the Proprieties of the Eadern Languages, wherein much of their 

Y y beau- 

ijA As they af fear Book {V^ 

Beauty lies. And in particular, the Significancy of the Hebrew Verbs, 
by virtue of their Conjugations ; above what is performed in the Greek 
and Latin by Compofition. 

■^i. The Prophets, being of different Education and Temper, and 
living in Times, not always alike : received and delivered their Mef- 
fage in as many kinds of Oratory. Being chofen in this Variety, 
that nothing might be wanting, which could be reafonably done, to 
prevail with that Stubborn People, to whom they were fent. Their 
Meflage was adorned, for the mod part, either with Variety of Me- 
taphors and Allegories^ or Myftcrious Vifions. Partly, for that moft 
People are wrought more upon by Similitudes, than down-right 
Truth. Partly, becaufe this way, all that fit to be faid at once, 
was brought into a narrow Compafs h more becoming the Deity, 
than a long Speech. God tells the Jews^ z Kin. xi. 13. / ivill wipe 
Jerufalem, as a Man wipeth a Dijh , wiping it^ and turning it upfide 
down. In which few Words, there is more cutting Oratory, than in 
a whole Philippick. And becaufe fometimcs the Offender fhould be felf- 
condemncd ; as Ahah was by the Parable of one of the Sons of the 
Prophets; and David ^ by that of Nathan. Or becaufe, fometimes that 
after they had been long obflinate ; they deferved not to be fpoken to in 
plain Language. Nor was it without a Defign, for the better Safe- 
guard of the Sacred Text : which no Impoftors, when they under- 
Itood it not, would go about to corrupt. And till the time of their ful- 
filling, to keep, not only Men, but the World above us, ignorant of 
their Intent in fome things. 

:}x. When the Prophets fpeak of themfelves, how meekly is it? Mofes 
excufeth himfelf, as being flow of Speech. Ifaiah trembleth, becaufe 
he was a Man of unclean Lips. Jeremy could not fpeak, for he 
was a Child. David a Worm, and no Man. But when they fpeak 
as from God, the plained of them, have Expredions above them- 
felves. The Lion hath roared, who will not fear ? the Lord God hath fpo- 
ken, who can hut prophefie ? Amos^j.S. Whoje Height, fays God of the 
Amorites, Ch. 2.9. was like the Height of the Cedars, and he was flrong 
as the Oaks : yet I deftroyed his Fruit from above, and his Roots from be- 
neath. Sayings much too great for a Herdfman, had he not been a 
Prophet. Jeremiah, tho' bred up in the Countrey, yet his Stile is 
many times extraordinary. Is Ephraim my dear Son > Is he a pleafant 
Child i for fince I fpake againfl him, I do earnefily remember him ftill : 
Therefore my Bowels are troubled for him^ I will furely have mercy upon 
him, faith the Lord, Ch. 31. lo. than which, nothing could be fpoken 
more tenderly, by a God unto Man. Nor any thing better, to exprefs 
the Decree of Vindictive Juflice, than what is faid of Coniah, Ch. 21, 
14. As I live, faith the Lord, tho he were the Signet upon my Right Handy 
yet would I pluck him thence. Nor could the Execution of the like Ju- 
llice, be reprefented by a more lively Scene, than that in Ezek. 27. Or 
one of greater Majefty, than that in Jer. 25. 15. to 33. Fow plainly, 
and like a meer Shepherd, does Jacob fpeak his oun Words unto 
Pharaoh ? Gen. 47. 9. How Elegantly, the Words of God, in his Pro- 
phetick Bleffing ? Ch. 49. How wifely, Jotham, in his Prophetick Curfe > 
Judg. 9. 8. 

33. The Prophetick Stile, in which Things to come are fpoken 
of in the Prefect and Preter Tenfe, as if they were already come to 

pafs : 

Chap III from theVl^Kl I ERS hereVf, i^ 

pafs : was never fo much as imitated, either by the Oracular Priefts, 
or any other fort of Men. But was made ufe of by God, at once to 
reprcfent the InfaUibiHty of his Prefcience, and the Immutability of his 

34. Neither is the Altitude of the Metaphors, and other Elegancies 
therein ufed, equalled by any Poet. The Book of Job, I take to be, 
neither a Hiflory, as fome do, nor a Parable, as fome others : But a 
Divine Vifion, made to the Prophet Ifaiah ; and grounded upon the 
real Story of J oh. As was Ezekiel's Prophetick Jerufalew and Temple, on 
the Real. And in length, exceeds not much the Revelation made to 
St. "^okn. Which Book, efpecially toward the latter End, where God 
himfeif fpeaketh, and reads a mofl: methodick and Noble "Ledlure of 
Natural Hiflory, hath no where a Match. Nor the Song of Solomon; 
another Divine Vifion ; wherein that' King is made to amplifie upon 
the Allegory of Matrimonial Love between God and his Church. 
Grounded on the Words di Mofes, Veut, 7.6, 7, 8. and emphatically car- 
ried on by fundry of the Prophets. By Jeremy, Qh. 2. x. and 3. i. 
By Ezekiel, Ch. 16. and Ch. x]. By Hof. Ch. i.x. and C/^. 3. i. By Malncbi, 
Ch.z.ii. And by his Father David, in the ^'jth Pfalm, Entituled, A 
Song of Loves. Nor the Song which God gave to Mofes, to teach the 
Children of Ifrael^ Deut. "jx. To the Meafure whereof, a Pindarick Ode, if 
one may guefs, comes the nearefl:. But the Senfe and Stile, are inimitable. 
That one Expredion of David, P/al. 11 5. Who is like unto the Lord 
our God .^ mho humhleth himfeif, to behold the things that are done in Hea- 
ven : Or, that of the Prophet Ifaiah, Ch. 66. Heaven is my Throne, and 
Earth is my Footflool: are either of them greater, than anything in 
Homer, and all other Poets put together. 

35-. The Majefty wherewith Afo/fj exprefleth God's fetlingthe Laws 
of Nature, Let there he Light, and there was Light; and fo in the 
other Five Days Work : as it was obferved by Galen ; fo by Dionyjius 
Longinus, a better Judge of Stile, was much admir'd. But no Man e- 
ver had an Original Thought of thofe VVords, or any like them, 
but only Mofes, to wliom they were Divinely given. Nor has any 
Monarch, or other Legiflator, dared to copy the Stile , wherewith 
God gave his Laws unto Men. Since then, the Authors of the Ho- 
ly Scriptures, whenever they are the Voice of God, do always 
fpeak with fo great Propriety ; and many times fo much above the 
Ability, or Prefumption of any Man : it is evident, that they have not 
impofcd upon us, but have recorded as their own , and other 
Mens VVords, fo thofe of God himfeif, with the greateO: Sincerity and 

36. The Truth of the Old Teftament Scriptures, is further evident 
from the Authors ; in that they every where agree together : Both in 
what they write, and in the Ends they herein propofe unto themfelvss. 
Some (eeming contradictions are to be met with : and they do but 
feem to be fuch. As in mentioning the fame Place, or Perfon, by fe- 
veral Names. So the City, which in Jop^ua is called Lefhem, in the 
Book of fudges, is called Laifl). And the fame Man, who in x Sam, 
6. 6. is called Nachon; in^.^, is called, C/;i^(?». Orinufing 
of Round Numbers, without the Fradion belonging to them : as the 7x5 
are commonly called the 70 Elders. Yet fome Learned Men, have re- 


1^6 Js they affear Book IV. 

courfe hither fometimes, when there is no need. Deus Ifraelitis ^enun- 
ciate Tays the Primate Ufher^ eos quadraginta annos erraturos : Numero vi- 
delicet rotundo, pro amis ^9. 'lis true, that from the time of that Doom, 
Num. r^z. 1-^. they wandered but :j9 Years. But we are to begin our 
Reckoning, from their coming out of Egypt ; from which time, tliey 
had already wandered a whole Year ; which God tells them they fliould 
make 40 j and fo they did. Orelfe, from an Error in the Scribe. The 
firft-bornof the Families of the Levites^ being numbered, Num.-^. the 
Gerjhcmites are reckoned, 7500; the Kohatbites, 8600; and the Merarites^ 
6100 ; which together, make xz^oo. YttFerf, t^^. they are laid to be 
in all, but xiooo. Why fhould we fuppofe, with fome, that fo great a 
Fraction as 300, was left out, but only to exprels a round Number ? When, 
I think, 'tis plain, that in one of the firfl Copies, in tlie Number of the 
Gerfhomites^ "t, by an eafie Miftake of the Scribe, was put for "^j that 
is, 500, for xco, which makes the Sum equal. So Ahaziah is faid, 
■LChron. zx. x. to be 4X years old, when he begun to reign. Whereas, 
his Father, when he died, was but 40, Ch. xi.zo. The Scribe therefore 
miftook Mem for Caph, which makes xx. Or it may be from fome He- 
braifm, whereby a Word is taken in a fenfe, different from what is under- 
ftood by it in other Languages : as in giving the Name of Sons^ to the 
Pollerity atthegreatefl dillance. So Maacha^ 1 Kin. 1^.10. is called 
the Mother of A/a, butwas his Grandmotner. The Daughters of -2e- 
lophehad, are called the Daughters of Manaffeh^ though four Generations 
came between them. Or from mif-tranllating the Hebrew Text. So 
the t \\o Pillars in the Porch of Solomon's Temple, in our EngliQi Bible, 
I Kin.y. 1^. are truly faid to be each 18 Cubits high. But in x Chron. 
5.15^.. are falfely faid to be 35- Cubits high. For in the Hebrew, they are 
faid to be 35 Cubits in length. Which, with half a Cubit, for theBafis^ 
here omitted, added to each J maketh 36 Cubits truly and properly the 
Length of both together. But cannot be faid to be the Heighth 
of both together , unlefs one had been fet upon the top of the o- 
thcr. Or from the compendious way of Writing, ufed throughout the 
Sacred Hiftory. VVhiich, in recording the remarkable Tranfadions of 
4000 years, in fo fmall a Compafs, mull needs omit a World of Parti- 
' culars, every where, as not abfolutely neceflary to be mentioned. ' We 

* are verily guilty, fay the Sons of j^coh^ Gen.^z. xi. concerning our 

* Brother ; in that we faw the Anguiili of his Soul, when hebelought us, 

* and we would not hear. Yet in Gen. 3 7. to which this refers , we have 
not a Word of 7(?/^/>/jV Supplication to them. So Deut. 5. xp. Mofes re- 
cites a Speech, formerly fpoken by God of the Children of ifrael^ 
that there were fuch a heart in them ! yet is it no where ellc recorded, but 
here. So like wife, when Solomon confined Shimei to 'jerujalem^ \ Kin. x. 
'tis evident, Fl?r/^ 4x. 43. That 6'^iwd'i, not only promifed, but took an 
Oath to obey. Yet in the Recital of what palTed between Solomon and 
Shimei^ upon that Confinement, Ferf. 38. we have not a Word of his Oath, 
but only of hisPromife. In likem.anner, it would be hard to reconcile 
the Reigns of the Kings of //r^f/and Judah,to Chronology ; except we iup- 
pofe, tho' the Scripture is herein filent, fome of the Sons to reign for fome 
time with their Fathers, as was, and is ufual, in ibraeKingdoms, and as Solor 
mon did with David^ and Jehoram with Jehojhaphat. Upon the Return of 
the Jews from the Babylonian Captivity, the Number of thole who were 
Regiftred, is laid, both in Ezra 1.64. and in Nehem. ^.66. to be 41360. 


Chap. ill. from the VV KI T EKS hereof, i yj 


Yer the Numbers of the feveral Families put together, make, according 
to Ezra, but 298 1 8 ; to Nebcniiah, 5 lo^ji. Both which latter Numbers^ 
being fo very different from the former; it is impofTibie to be a Miftakc 
in the Author, or in any Tranfcriber tliat could but count 20. AncJ 
tlicrefore the Number of 42.^60, is to be underflood, as made up, either 
nit of the Ten Tribes, tho' not reckoned by their Families ; or o^ 
thofe, who, though of the holy Seed, yet could not fliew their Pedigrees,'., 
or fome other way. And the Numbers alfo of the feveral Families, asfet 
down in Nehemiah, differing fo very much from thofe in Ezra .• fliews 
they were taken from two feveral Rcgiltries ; varied upon fome good and 
realbnable Ground, tho' not mentioned. And the Sincerity of thefe 
two excellent Men, is the more apparent j in giving us the Copies of twd 
differing Records as they found them. . •';'* 

^7. But the Fancy which fome Men have, of 1 know not what ton- 
tradid:ions, arifes from no Caufe, fo much, as the undue Obfervation of 
the Sacred Story. From the time of "Jacob's coming with his Children 
into Egypt, to their going out from thence, were about ^15 Years. 
Yet 'tis laid, £a'. ix.^o. That the fojournmgof the Children of WrzeU who 
dwelt in Egypt, was 4-50 years. And very truly. For firll, by the Children 
of Ifrael, we are to underlland, with the Septuagint, fhem and their 
Fathers. 1 he fame Stile as is ufed Gen. 46. And tnefe are the Names of 
the Children of Ifrael, which came into Egypt, Jacob and his Sons. We 
are then to account from Abraham, who firfl began to fojourn, or to 
dwell out of his own Countrey. Next, it is not faid, That the Children 
of //rdtf/ fojourned in Egypt ^i^oYazts, as is falfely read in our former 
Tranflation ; but that they fojourned 430 years : and may cafily be 
computed, they did. For from the time that God firfl: called Abraham, to 
fojourn out of his own Countrey, where we are to begin ; unto the Birth 
of Ifaac, were xj years, Gen. iz. 4. and zi. 5, From thence, to the 
Birth of Jacob, 60 years, Gen. z^. 26. From thence to the Birth of Jo- 
Jeph, 91 years. Gen. 41. and 46, 47. a.nd^^. 11. and 47. 9. From thence, 
to the Death of Jofeph, no Years, Gen. 50. 22. From thence, to the 
Birth of Mofes^ tho' the Scripture isfilent, yet we may reafonably reckon 
64 Years : becaufe he is faid to be born in the Reign of a new King who 
knew not Jofeph, Ex. x. 8. and 2. 2. From whence, to the marching of the 
Ifraelites out oi Egypt^wtrc 80 Years, Ex. 7. 7. in all 430. Wherein was 
alfo fulfilled the Promife, G^». 15. 13, 14. That after 400 Years, they 
ihould come out with great Subftance. Which came to pals, about 
the 415^/j Year after the Promife was made, Gen. 12.4. 15-, 16, \6. com- 

38. The Age wherein the Levites were to officiate in the Service of 
the Tabernacle, was appointed, N«w. 4. 5. from 30 Years, to 50. But 
Chapt. 8. 24. the Age is fet from 25. to 50. Yet without any Contra- 
didlion. For it is plain, that they are two diflindt Precepts, each of them 
having its proper Title. The former, prefcribes the Age of 30, ad faci- 
endam Fundionem : the latter, the Age of 25^ , ad fubmimflandum Minijleri- 
um : S3X, fignifying, wotonX^^ militare, but turmatim concurrere ox Suh- 
minijlrare. So that from 25, it feems they ferved a fort of Apprenticelliip 
until 30. 

?9. 'Tis faid, y^y^. 15.63. That the 7^/«/ffj dwelt with the Children 
of Judah at Jerufalem, unto the time when that Book was writ. Yet 
Chap. 18.28. Jerufalemi') reckoned as parr of the Inheritance of the 

Z z Chit- 

lyH /Is they appear BooK.iV. 

Children of Benjamin. And fo it was too ; the Tribe of Benjamin^ be- 
ing an Appcndent to that of Judah ; and fome part of both thofe 
Tribes, liaving their Co-habitation in that City. Thofe of Judah^ as it 
feems, in that part only, or chiefly, which was built upon Mount Zion^ 
efpecially called^ The City of David ; albeit Jerufalem gave name to the 
whole Pile of Building : as in common Speech, London doth to Weftmin- 

40. David is faid, x Sam. 14, 24. to buy the Threfliing-floor of Arau- 
na^ with the Oxen and threfhing Inftruments, for 50 Shekels of Silver. 
In I Chron.xx. i^. he is faid to buy the Place of the Threfliing-floor, for 
600 Shekels of Gold. But firft, we need not to read, 50 Shekels of 
Silver. ^P^, fignifying any fort of Money, Silver or Gold. For tho' 
^?r/1 11. of that ii// Chapter, we read in our Englifh l^ble, For the 
full Price : in the Hebrew it is, For the full Money : by whicih Money, 
Gold is certainly meant, as comparing Verf.xr. 14, xf. together, is ap- 
parent : yet is it the fame Word, which in Samuel is rendred. Silver. 
We are next toobferve, that the Author of the Book of Samuel, writing 
not one Word of the Temple, or of the Ground whereon it was to be 
built : tells us only the Price of the Threfliing-floor for the Altar, and 
what was therewithal neceflary for the Sacrifices David was about to of- 
fer. But the Author of the Chronicles, giving us an Account of 
both, tells us the Price of the whole, viz. of the Floor, and of tiie Place 
or large Parcel of Land belonging to it : as is clear from Qiapter 

Xl. I, X. 

41. In I Kin. 6. i. the Hiftorian faith, i\\zi Solomon began to build the 
Temple in the 480//' year, after the Children of Ifrael marched out of 
Egypt. Which appears, fays Spinofa, by the Book of Judges., to be much 
too little a Space. But of fome Parts of that greater Space he would 
have, he only makes his Conjedures. And of fome, he is certainly out. 
As in afiigning xo Years to Sampfon, diftindfrom the 40 Years of Op- 
preffion by the Fhiliflins. Whereas his xo Y^ears were included within 
the faid 40. And therefore that which w as foretold of him, Judg. i ^ , i j . 
was only, that he fliould begin to deliver Ifrael out of the Hands of the 
Philifiines. And Chap. 15. xo. 'tis exprefly faid, That he judged Ifrael 
xo years in the days of the Philiftines : that is, in the Days, wherein the 
Thilijlins were Lords of Judea. So alfo, in accounting the 18 Y'ears of 
Oppredion by the Ammonites , diftindly from the xx Years of 
Jairs Government. Who, though he is faid , to judge, yet not 
to deliver Ifrael. We are therefore , to include the 1 8 within 
the XX. 

4x. Nor is there any good Reafon for accounting the times of Servi- 
tude^ diftind: from thofe of Liberty. In reckoning the Y'^ears of the 
Reign of King Charles the Second, do we not in all publick Records, be- 
gin from his Father's Death, tacking the Years of his Banifliment, to 
thofe wherein he adtually reigned ^ So when Othniel had fubdu'd the King 
of Mefopotamia, 'tis faid. That the Land had refi forty Tears. In u hich 
40 Y'ears, the 8 precedent Years of Oppreflion by that King, are to be 
included. The Learned Primate of Armagh, makes his Compute, not by 
reading Forty Y'^ears, as in our Englifli Bibles ; but in the Fortieth Year ; 
that is, from the time, wherein Jofhua firft gave them reft. The Cardinal 
Number being here put, as he fuppofeth, for the Ordinal : which, 'tis truej 
the Hebrews never ufe farther than the Number Ten. But here it can- 

Chap. ]IJ, from the Ul^KiatRS hereof ' 179 

not be Co. For then the Particle ?, which (lands for the Prepofition In ; 
fliould have been put before the Number, as it is in Deut i. ■;. where the 
fame Cardinal Number, is indeed put for the Ordinal^ and not 
have been omitted , as it is in this Place, and throughoat the 

Book. ... 

43. It feems therefore to mc, that the Hiftorian, in ufing the Car- 
dinal Number, as fuch, and not for the Ordinal ; tacks the times of Ser- 
vitude all along, unto thoie of Liberty. And fo the 480 years aforefaid, 
areeafdy computed thus, viz. From the marching of the Ifraelites out of 
Egypt ^ to their fir II Rell by Jojhua, were 46 years, Num. 1. 1. and n,.^^,l 
and JoP). 14. 7. 10. From thence, to the Death of Jojhua., zo; to that 
oi Eleazer., 5 ; to that of Othniel,^o ; to that of £/W, and of Shamgar 
after him, 80 -, to that of Delorah, 40 ; to that of G/deon, 40; to that of 
Ahimelech., 3; to that of Tola, 135 to that of Jair,zz; to that of Jeph- 
tha, 6 ; to that dilhzan, 7 ; to that of Elon.^ 10 ; to that of Aldon, 8 ; 
to that of £//, 40 ; to Samuel's Vidory over the Philiftins^ 20 ; to Saul's 
Anointing, 6 -■> to the Death ot Saul, zo; to that of David, 40; to the 
building of the Temple, 4 ; In all, 480. 

44. Tis faid, i Sam. 7. 1 3. That the Hand of the Lord, from thence for^ 
ward, wan againfl the Philiftincs, all the Days of Samuel. Yet the Ifrae- 
lites were by them forely opprefled in the Reign oiSaul, Samuel yet living ; 
Which Spimfa will have to be a Contradidtion. But without any ground. 
For whereas it is faid, All the Days 0/ Samuel : it is not to be underdood, 
of Samuel's Life, but of his Government ; that is, until Saul was made 
King. The fame Phrafe, as that ufed, judg. i^. xq. where Sampfon is faid. 
To judge Ifrael in the days of the Philiftins. 

45. The fame S^inoja, will have tlie Account of David's Reception in- 
to SauTs Court, to be given in the Firfl Book of Samuel, by two Hifto- 
rians, wiio contradid: one another. One of them fuppofing him to be 
called thither, upon the Advice of i'Ws Servants, C/^. 16,18. The other, 
upon occafion of his being fent by his Father, to his Brethren in Saul's 
Camp,C/:7. 17. 17. Which is all mere Blunder; from his not obferving in 
Ferf.i'^. That David wenx. and returned from Saul, after the^rft time he 
came to Court, to feed his Father's Sheep at Bethlehem. Whereby it is 
evident, he was twice called to Court, upon the two Occafions fet down, 
by one and the fame Hiftorian. 

46. The fame Spinofa tells us, That when David brought up the Ark 
from Kirjatb-Jearim, zSam. 6. z. the Name of that Place is omitted in the 
Text : Nemo, fays he, hie nonvidere potefi, locum quo iverant, nempe Kirjat- 
Jearim, unde Arcam auferrent, effe omiffum. Whereas he palpably mifquotes 
the Text, in leaving out Baale, another Name of the faid Town ; as is e- 
videntfrom i Qhron. \\.6. 

47. The fame i'/'/wo/dr, quotes jf(?/e/'/;«j to tell us, that the Prophet Eze- 
kiel foretold, ThatZedekiah fliould not fee Babylon. Which, faith Spinofa, 
we find not in the Book of EzekiePs Prophecy, which we have ; but the 
contrary, that he was carried Captive thither. But all this came, for 
■want of reading his Bible. By which, he might have known, without go- 
ing to Jofephus, that tho' he v\as indeed carried to Babylon, as Ezekiel fore- 
told, Ch. 17. yethefawit not: becaufehis Eyes were put out before he 
came thither, Jer. 9. 7. According to the wonderful Predidion of the fame 
Prophet Ezekiel, Chap. xz. \\. That the faid King ihould not fee Babylon, 
tho' he iliould die there. 


;8o As they tifpear Book IV. 

48. This fame Spimfa, will have the Prophets to contradid one ano- 
ther, in their Dod:rine,as well as Predidions. Bccaufe Jeremy tells us, Chap. 
•^1. bS. That God vijiteth the Iniquity of the Fathers upon the (^hildren. But 
Ezek.Chap. 18. 20. That the Sonjha/lnot hear the Iniquity of the Father^ 
hut the Soul that finneth^ jh all die. But this Man, ccnfidered not, That 
y^r^'w/ fpeakcth, of what God himfeir doth fometimcs in his Providence; 
and for which, \\'e have God's own Words in the Second Command. 
Whereas ^zfyJvf/ fpeaketh, of what God had commanded the Jews to do in 
the Courfe of Juflice, by an exprefs Law, Deut. 24. 16. So little Reafon 
have we to regard the Criticifms offo vain a Writer. On the contrary, we 
have a great deal of reafon to contemplate the Wifdom of God, in condu- 
dting the Sacred Writers, even in thofe Particulars, wherein they ieem to 
interfere one with another. For had every thing been clear and evident, 
at the firfl: fight ; we muft immediately have aflented to them, whether 
we would or no. But bythefe, he gives occafion to Reafon, Induftry, 
Humility, to exert themlelves. Dealing with Man as an Under- 
flanding and Improveable Creature; He propofeth Truth, as in the 
End attainable ; but not without fome DiiSculties , in our Way 
to it. 

49. But if in the darkeft Parts of the Scriptures, Truth appears : 
how like the Sun at Noon-day, does it every where elfe fliine forth ? 
While the Sacred Writers, whether of the Hiflory, or the Doctrine 
therein contained, do all along give their confirming Evidence one 
to another. Which conllrained Spinoja himfelf, to conclude abfo- 
lutely, Totam Legem Divinam, quam Scriptura docet^ incorruptam ad no- 
flras manus perveniffe. And to add, Et prater hcec^ aliajunt^ de qui- 
hus non pojfumus duhitare • quin hona fide nobis jint trajita ; nempe fum- 
ma Hiftoriarum Script urtv, quia notifiima omnihus fuerunt. Which I men- 
tion, not for that we need his Teftimony, or think it of any Value : 
but to (hew, that Truth will dazle the boldefl Enemy, when it looks him 
in the Face. 

50. There is that dependance of one thing on another through- 
out the Old Teflament ; and thofe frequent References to precedent 
Times ; by thofe which both Immediately and Remotely follow : 
that it is impoffible, any thing fliould be delivered down, through 
all Ages with greater Certainty. In Deuteronomy^ Mofes epitomizes 
the books of Exodus^ Leviticus, and Numbers ; and appeals to the 
Elders and People, for the Truth of all the Great Things therein 
contained, as tranfaded before their Eyes, in the Forty Years paft. 
The 24//.? Chapter of Jop^ua., is a brief Rehearfal of the Mofaick 
Hiftory. And the References therein made , to the Authority of 
Mofes^ are fo frequent ; that the whole Book is but the fulfilling, of 
what that Great Prophet had commanded, fhould be done. In the 
Book of Judges^ Chapter 2. 7. 12. Chapt. 6. 8. and Chapt. 10. 11, 

11. The People are put in remembrance of the Great Works, God 
had done for them ; as yet freOi, and not to be denied. And Chapt. 

12. ^ephtha gives an Hillorical Account of Things, for the fpace of 
Three Hundred Years back, viz. From the Marching of the Ifraelites 
out of Egypt., to his own time : and appeals to the King of the Am- 
monites for the Truth of all. The \ Chapter of the Hrfl Book of 
Samuel., mentions fome Paflages of the Mofaick Hiftory, and a good 
part of the Book of Judges. The xSam. 7. 10, 11. anc* j ^.hron. 17. 9, 


Chap. ill. from the WRITE KS~ hereof iST 


make that Reference to the AfSided State of the Jews, in the time 
of the Judges, as is fuitable to the Story and Series of that Book. 
Solomons Excellent Prayer , at the Dedication of the Temple, has 
relation, not only to the Hiflory of his Father, but to much of 
the Pentateuch. And the Levites ^ in another excellent Prayer of 
theirs, tJehem. 9. give the Summ of the Hiftory of the Pentateuch , 
of the Bock of Jojhua^ and of the Judges. In no left than Three 
or Four and twenty Pfalms, are fhort References made to ibme 
part or other of the Sacred Story. Befides which, tlie loi^th, is an 
Abllradt of the Whole, from Ahraham, to the coming of the If- 
raelites into Canaan. The 106th, another, from their coming out of 
E^jpt, throughout the Time of the Judges. And the j%th , ano- 
ther, from the fame Epocha, to the Reign of David. In mod of 
\\hich, mention is made of the wonderful Works of God. But of 
none, more often, than that Golden Chain of Miracles, upon the 
Deliverance of the Ifraelites out of Egypt. Mentioned over and over, 
in all the Hiftorical Books, by David in his Pfalms, and by mofl: of the 

51. There is alfo an excellent Agreement in tliofe Narratives, which 
are given us, by diftindt Authors at large. In i Sam. 31. and i Chron. 10. 
the Authors give an account of the fame Tranfadtion ; differing in 
fome Words, efpecially in the latter part : but agreeing in Senfe, 
Without the leaft Contradidtion. The only particular, wherein they 
feem to interfere; is, in what is faid of SauU when he was flain. 
In Samuel, as above, Ferf. 10. 'tis faid, That the Philiflins put his 
Armour in the Houfe of Aihteroth, and faftened his Body to the Wall 
of Berhflian. In the Chronicles, That they put his Armour , in the 
Houfe of their Gods, and faftened his Head in the Temple of Dagon. 
And both very truly. The former, not gainfaying, but only omit- 
ting, the Difpofal of his Head ; the latter, of his Body. And the Dip 
pofal of his Body, by the Men of Jaheth afterwards, is mentioned 
by both of them. Nathans MefTage from God to David, and David's 
Prayer of Thankfgiving thereupon, % Sam. 7. are both recorded in 
I Chron. 1]. So in x Sam. 8. and i Chron. 18. In 2. Sam. 10. and 
I Chron. 19. In z Sam. x^. 15". and i Chron. 21. 14. In i /T/w. 8. and 
% Chron. ^.6. we have fo ,many feveral Hiftories, given us twice over 
by two Hands. In xKin. 18. 19. In x Chron. i^x. and Ifaiah -^6. ■jy. 
we have the fame Hiflory, given thrice by three Hands. And fo in 
X Kin. Z4. Jeremy 39. and Jeremy ^x. All oF them agreeing, without 
the leafl Contradidion in Senfe. And yet, which is efpecially to be 
noted, with fbme difference in the Words. Whereby it is evident, 
that the Authors, neither copied one from another, nor from one Ori- 
ginal. For then, as was alu ays done in Tranfcrit>ing ; they would have 
kept ftridfiy, to the fame VVords and Letters to a Tittle. But that 
the Jews had fevetal Records of the fame Tranfadtions ; Two 
whereof, were the Originals, from whence thefe Books were ex- 

51. Neither is the Agreement between the ProfJiets, lefs evident. 
We may not overlook the Similitude oif their Exprellions. The Pro- 
phet Jeremy, in a Vifion of the woful Defolation coming upon the Jeivs^ 
Chapter 4. X 3. begins with thefe • VVords : 1 beheld the Earthy and lo, 

A a a it 

i>^2 -'^^ they appear Book tV 

it was without Forniy and void : The very fame, wherev\itb Mojes de- 
fcribeth the Chaos. In curfing the Day of his Birth, Chapt. zo. 14. 
he rpeaks very like Ifaiah^ or what Prophet foever was the Author 
of the Book of Joh, Chapter v "PO" ^^^^ fame Occafion. In defcrl- 
bing the Bleflednefs of the Man, that trulleth in the Lord , he 
fpeaks very like to David, in the Firil PI aim : and fb in fundry o- 
ther Places. The Lord^ faith 'joely Chapter 1. ij. is gracious and 
merciful, Jlow to Anger, and of great Kindnefs, and repenteth him of 
the Evil. And fo doth "jonah, in the very fame Words. In Pfalm 
46. 10. all Nations are required to pay an awful Reverence to the 
Divine Majefty, in thofe Words, Be flill, and how that I am God. 
So Hahakkuk, Chapter x. zo. But the Lord is in his Holy lemple, let 
all the Earth keep filence he fore him. And Zechary, Chapter z. i^. 
Bejilent^ all Fle/h, before the Lord ; for he is raifed up out of his f/oly 
Habitation. The famenefs of which, and many other Expreliions, argues 
That they were all moved to fpeak, by one Religious Principle, and Di- 
vine Authority. 

53. But much more, the Conformity of their Doctrine, every where, 
unto the Law of MoJes, and whatfoever is by him faid, of the Nature 
of God, and of our Duty to him. This Law, David admired above ail 
things : and hath written feveral E ncomiums upon it. To the Law, 
and to the Teftimony, faith Ifaiah, to the Jews who fought to Falfe 
Prophets, Chapter 8. zo. Remember the Law of Mofes my Servant^ 
with the Statutes and Judgments. Mai. 4. 4. are almoft the concluding 
Words of that Prophet, and of the Old Teflament. It was this Law 
which they all read and ftudied, as David did. Day and Night: 
which they all preached and expounded to the People : by which 
they convinced them of their Crimes, with the Juflice of their Pu- 
niiliments ; and aflured them of Mercy upon their Reformation. 
In all which, it was impoILble for them , not "to rend towards it, 
as their Common Centre. Herein differing infinitely from all the 
Heathen Philofophers, who either through Ignorance, could not a- 
gree; or through Emulation, rather fludied to contradi<5t one ano- 

54. And as the Hiftorians and Prophets, all agree , in Truth, as 
their Rule : fo in the Honour of God, as their great End '• That is, 
in magnifying of God in his Word and Works, and nullifying of 
Man. Of the former, I have given divers Inflances. And they are 

, as fmgular, above all other Writers, in the latter j neither concealing 
nor extenuating the Faults of any. Not thofe of the People. Under- 
fiand, fays Mofes, that the Lord thy Cod gtveth thee not this good 
Land to poffefs, for thy Righteoufnefs ; for thou art a ft iff- necked People^ 
Deut. 9. 6. A great and everlafting Dilhonour recorded of his own Nation. 
Not thofe of the Priefts, not of Aaron himfelf, the firtl, and one of 
the bell. Not of their bed Kings ; David^ Hezekiah, Jofiah. The 
'firfl: of whom, was conflrained by a Divine Jmpulfe, without which, he 
would never have done it, to compofe a Penitential Pfalm, to be kept 
among the reft, as a publick and perpetual Record of his Crimes. 
Nor is the Fault of Mofes himfelf, for which he was denied Entrance 
into Canaan^ left unrecorded. 

K: 55- It 

C H A P. III. from the FRUITERS hereof. 


5-5. It is then very clear, from all that hath been faid, That the Sa- 
tred Scribes, were far from intending to give us a Specimen of their 
Wit, in fetting forth, either their own Fame, or that of their own Na- 
tion. But on the contrary, were fo extreamly fatisfied of the Weight and 
Excellency of the things they reported , as to conclude the Addition of 
Humane Ornaments, was but to paint the Sun-beams. And all of them 
agreeing herein from firft to lafl : 'tis a ftrong Argument, that they were 
not guided by any falfe and mutable Principles of Corrupt Nature ; but 
by one eternal Spirit of Truth. 

56, We may add, that befides the Witnefs which the Writings of the 
Old Teftament, bear one to another : They are undeniably authorized 
in thofe of the New. Both by the Apofllcs, in their Epiflles, Ads and 
Gofpels ; in all which, they are frequently recited : and likewife by out 
Blefled Saviour himfelf; by whom, they are both alledged, and imitated. 
He cites much of the Hiftory ; as of the Flood, the Deftru6Hon of So>' 
dom^ Lots Wife, ^c. And many of the Laws ; as of Rebellious Chil- 
dren, the Leper's Offering, and fundry others. Moft of his preceptive 
Bleflings, in Matth. 5. are taken from thence. To this Man will / look^ 
fays God by Ifaiah, 66. z. that is poor and of a contrite Spirit. And 
cur Saviour, B/eJfed are the poor in fpirit ; for theirs is the Kingdom of 
Heaven. The Meek (hall inherit the Earthy fays David, Pfal, 36. 11. And 
our Saviour, Blejfed are the Meek, for they (hall inherit the Earth. Who 
fhall afcend into the Hill of the Lord ? and who fhall Jland in his holy Place > 
He that hath clean Hands and a pure Heart, {■ay S^ David, Pfal. 24.34. 
And our Saviour, Blejfed are the Pure in Heart, for they Jhall fee God. 
And the Precept wherewith this Fifth Chapter concludes, Be ye there^ 
fore perfect, as your Heavenly Father is perjeil ; anfwers to that of Mofes^ 
Deut. 18. 13. Thou fhalt he perfect with the Lord thy God. Of Prophecies 
he recites fundry of Himfelf, of his Gofpel, his Apoftles, the Jews, and 
the Temple. Comprehends all the Sacred Writers, under the Title of 
Mofes and the Prophets. And by expounding Elijah, promifed in the laft 
Chapter of Malachi^ as maant of John the Baptift : lets us know, that 
where the Law and the Old Teftament ended, there the Gofpel began. 
No Man therefore, can call in queftion, the Authority of the Old Te- 
ftament, who owns the New; or the V Vifdom and Sandity of our Blelr- 
fed Saviour J which the greateft Enemies of the Chriftian Religion, Pa^ 
gans, Mahometans, and Jews therafelves, have acknowledged : as Ihall 
hereafter be proved. 


— ^ — ^ — ..- ■ .. — I . I. — >^ 

ig^ As they af fear Book IV. 


Of the Contents of the HEBREW CODE, 

And firfiy of the Hiftory. 

i.TN fpeaking of the Contents of the OldTeftament, I Ihall confider, 
X Firft, fo'Tie Particulars, as Hiftorical ; then the Miracles, the 
Prophecies and the Laws. To the lad of which, all flie three former 
have an efpecial Regard. 

X. There is nothing recorded in the Sacred Story, but what is worthy, 
and on fome account or other, necelTary, to be known. And many things 
withal, fuch as are told us nowhere elfe. Or if any of them are, they have 
been borrowed from hence. 

3. We have no where an Inftance of the Perfedion of Humane Na- 
ture, as it came out of God's Hands, or fo much as a Guefs at it, but 
here only, viz. '\n Ge».^x. 19.20. where A^ant isfaid, to give Names to 
all Creatures. Their being brought to him, was a Ceremony, fufficient 
to folemnize the Donation of Dominion over them. But he could not 
have given them fit and proper Names ; and fuch, as had withal the Di- 
vine Approbation, Ferf.xo. without having a certain and diilind Know- 
ledge of their Natures. And it is reafonable to believe, that he had 
this Knowledge, without Experience or fludying for it. That being 
created, not an Infant, but a Man : he had the Faculties of his Mind, 
given him in fome Equality of Perfection, with the Parts of his Body. 
And therefore, that he then knew many things,- by fome fort of 
Intelledual Inflind: ; as Birds, and other Animds do now, by that which 
is Phantaflick. And which, of the two, would have been lefs credible; 
had we not the Demonftration of it in their Works. 

4. 'Tis here only, that we underfland, how Man came to lofe this Per- 
fedtion : Upon what fcore, or by M'hqt means, God being perfectly 
Good • Death and all other Evilis came into the World ? A Queftion, 
wherewith the beflof the Gentile Philofopher^ have been puzled ; bat 
could never anfwer. But here we are plainly told, that the Caufe hereof, 
was the Tranfgreflionof a Pofitive Law. Which God, torefeeing, did al»- 
fo fore-ordain, That, together with Mankind, every thing elfe in this 
LowerVVorldjfhould recede from that Perfedion wherein it was crea- 
ted. And was therefore alfopleafed to create the World, in the Seventh 
Month, /Ethanim^ anciently called the Firfl ; that is, in Autumn. Both 
that Man, and all the Chief Fruits of the Earth, might meet together 
in their befl: Eflate : and that foon after he fell, he might fee Winter 
coming on, and all Nature in a fort of dying Condition, like himfelf, 
or puttmg on Mourning for his Fall. 

5. Sanchurttathon and Herodotus, do both harp at the holy Line be- 
fore the Flood ; efpecially the latter, as in the Second Chapter hath been 
ftewed. But we have it compleat, both before and after the Flood, 
no where, but here. Given for a Vifible Security, to the Church; That 
the Perfedion of Humane Nature, lofl in the firfl Link of this Chain j 
in the Fulnefs of Time, fliould be exhibited to the World, in the Lafl;. 

6. The 


CHhP.lV, the HISTOKT 1^5 

6. The Longevity of the Firfl: Ages, chiefly before the Flood ; 
tlio' witnefed by the mofl Ancient Records of Egypt, China, and other 
Nations, as hath been flievved : yet is no where, fo fully and particular- 
ly mentioned, as in the Scripture, Nor is there any thing in Nature 
more credible. Tho' 70 or 80 Years, are now the ufual Old Age: yet 
fome have lately doubled that Number. And it were as poilible, M'ith 
refpedt to Flefli and Blood, to be redoubled twice or thrice over : if wc 
connder Man before the Flood, as conning out of God's Hands, without 
the Seeds or Relicks of any fort of Difeafe. And then alfb living under 
a Temperate Climate, in a Serene Air, on a Simple Diet, and among 
thofe of the Holy Line, who probably liv'd longer than other Men, 
joyn'd with Temperance, Sobriety, Chaftity, Equanimity, Induftry, and 
ali other Virtues, conducing to the Prolonging of Life. But when, with 
the Flood, fome great Alteration befel the Earth : and probably, the Sun 
and Moon hkewife, the Grand Regulators of Life and Death : When the 
Salubrity of the Earth, and the Air, was impared ; and herewithal, the 
Excellency of the Vegetable Diet ; and feeding upon all Torts of Flefli, 
being now allowed ; Men indulged themfelves m all the kinds of Excefs : 

there were but too many Caufes, fufficient to reduce the Life of Man to a ' 

fliorter Meafure. 

7. Many very ancient Writers, agree with the Scriptures, in report- 
ing the Univerfality o[ Noah's Flood. But we are no where, but here, in- 
formed of the Time, Juilice, and Means hereof. Neither of the moral 
Caufe, a Deluge of VVickednefs, equally Univerfal ; nor of the Natu- 
ral. Said, befides the Forty Days Rain, to be the Breaking up of the 
Fountains of the Great Deep. Upon which few Words, the befl Con- 
jedures are, or may be grounded concerning the fame. 

8 Sundry hkewife of the Gr^fy^j, and other Hiftorians, make menti- 
on <^f Noah's Ark. But no Man hath given us a Defcription of it, but 
only Mofes. And if we confider the Capacity and FaQiion hereof ; we 
can have no colour of Reafon, to doubt of its Fitnefs, for the Ufe he tells 
us was made of it. For if we compute the Number, and Bulk, of all the 
Creatures faid to have been preferved therein ; with the Space neceflary 
for their tree Station, and Food : Four hundred and fifty thoufand Cu- 
bick Halt-Yards, the Content of the Ark, was room enough for all, and 
to fpare. And t"or floating, without failing, for w hich it was intended ; 
there could not have beendevifed a more convenient Figure. And be- 
ing, no doubt, the firft Ship that was ever made; and the firft Occafion 
Noah had for Mathematicks, in the making of it : it is reafonable to 
believe, that as Mofes truly reports , he was inftrudled herein by the 
fame Wifdom uhich made all other ThingSjjjn Number, Weight and Mea- 

9. Neither is there any one, who hath given us (b full and certain an 
Account of the Original of Nations, as Mofes hath done. Nor of their 
Derivation from one Man. Much more credibly, • than from the feign- 
ed ^horigines of every Countrey. Which way loever Iflands came to 
be mado ; it is not necellary to fuppofe they were all made at once. 
A?: England 2itii\ the Ifle of Wight were formerly Continent : fo in all like- 
lihood, were £«g/j«^/ and France; and many other Countries, now become And why not Africa znd America > There are but z4 Degrees 
between the moft Wefterly Part of Africa, and the mofl: Eafl:erly of 5ra- 

Bbb file: 


iY^ As they a-p pear from Book IV, 

file : and they abutt upon one another. It is therefore very Hkely, 
they were once joined with a Necic of Land. Which a Violent 
Earthquake, or ftrong Current, or both thefe, and perhaps fome 
other Caufcs together, might eafdy break, and carry under Water, as 
itnowUes. Or at firft, perhaps, only a fmaller Part of it, next to the 
African Shore ; -and fo the Remainder might be that very Piece of 
. Land, called by the Ancients, The Atlantkk Ifland. Which Ifland, not 
being Mountainous, but a vaft Pl»in, as Tlato^ who defcribes it in hiS 
Critidi, affirms it was : and which we may as well fuppofe, to be feven- 
ty times the Lengtii of Salishury-Plain ; as that is of any ordinary 
Meadow : it might very eafily at any time, by the Caufes aforefaid, 
be laid under Water, where the Atlantkk Ocean now runs. Or this 
Neck of Land, might be part of the Univerfal Shell. Which Handing 
for Ibme time after the General Flood , before it fell ; was Bridge e- 
nough for the Afrkans to pafs* over 'into Anterka. And why might 
not the Fall hereof, occafion that lefler Ogygian^\ooA> Or what, if after 
all, Japan is no Ifland ? but as fome good Voyagers of late , flrongly 
fufped-, is Continent with Amerka } And there may be, or have been, 
other Ways thither, which we neither do, nor can know, without a per- 
fed; Geography, which we never yet had. So that, for any Man to 
fay, there neither is, nor ever was, any Way, becaufe we cannot fliew 
it : is like a Negative Evidence ; which Lawyers have fo much 
4Vit, aS not to allow for any. ♦ And I know not why others Ihould 
have left. 

lo. Nor can we doubt of Blacks being bred, as well as Whites^ of 
the Children of one Man. 'Tis true, that living, and breeding with- 
in the Torrid Zone, or without it; is not enough alone to produce this 
difference. For the Ethiopians and Malalars, tho' in part, equally di- 
ftant from the Line : yet thofe are but duskilh ; thefe are black. And 
'tis faid, that all over America, there are no Blacks, but only at S^ave- 
ca. Yet this hinders not, but that the Climate may co-operate with the 
Native Caufes. Which feem to be chiefly thefe Three, vtz. The Dijiri- 
hution of the Capillary Arteries, more numeroujly into the outer part of 
the Skin ; A lefs proportion of Capillary Veins, to return the Blood thence ; 
and, The extream Thinnefs of the Cuticle. By which means, fome 
fmaller part of the Blood, becoming ftagnant herein, like any other 
Blood, when it's dry, or upon a Bruife, it turneth Black. And there- 
fore, among the Ethiopians, there is a fort of Breed, which are neither 
Black, nor Tawny, nor properly White ; but, as is likely, from the make 
of their Skin, are rather Pale, like dead Men. And in Blacks themfelves, 
the Palms of their tiands, and the Soles of their Feet, where the C«- 
ticle is much thicker; and into which, the Capillary Arteries flioot 
more fparingly ; are of a whitifli Red. Where thefe then, and perhaps 
fome other Native Caufes, meetwithafuitable Chmate, we may fuppofe 
they never fail to produce a Black Breed. So, in part of the Provmce 
of ^antung in China, the People who are near the Torrid Zone, are 
Black : but in that of Peking, the mod Northerly, they are White 
And fome Climates may be fitter to breed Blacks, than others ; M'hich, 
tho' of the fame Latitude, yet may not be fo hot : or the Efeavens, or tlic 
Earth, may be different in other refpeds. Every Florifi can tell, how 
great an Alteration, the tranfplanting of fome Flowers, only from the 

, Field, 




Chap. IV. the HIS 1 KY, ,87 

Field into a Garden, will make in their Colours. And every good Her- 
balid, the great difference in Plants of the fame kind, only by growing 
at feveral Latitudes, or in feveral Parts of the World, tho' in the fame 
Latitude. Nor is the Shortnefs, and woolly Curl of a Black's Hair, any 
flranger ; than for a Naked Dc^, when brought from a Hot to a'Cold 
Climate, to become Hairy. If we mud have one Adam for Whites^ 
and another for Blacks ; muft we not have a Third for Tawnies? and a' 
Fourth for Pales ? If one for white, and another fo/ black Skins ; why 
not one for White, and another for Black Hair ? and another for Red? 
Properties, which in a Breed of Parents always in the fame Climate, and 
both of the fame Colour ; would be as conftant in the Hair, as in the 
Skin. And were it not as neceffary, to have Original Standards of Di- 
menfions, as well as of Colours? One for the Gigantick Breed of Afia^ 
and another for the Dwarfs of Lapland > 

ir. It was likewife becoming the Divine Majefty, not vainly tore- 
peat the Creation of Man. Not to make one Man, merely for the fake 
of a white Colour, and another for a Black. But having made him fit t© 
tranfplant himfelf all over the World ; to projed: at once the Caufes, of 
all the Variations, which in time ihould happen to his Seed. And it 
was becoming, with refped to his intended Dealing with Man, not to re- 
peat the fame Tranfadtion over and over ; but that one fliould ferve for 
all. Nor was it lefs fuitable unto Humane Nature, or to the Nature of 
Right, in the Pofiefllon of the Teveral Parts of the World ; that all 
People herein, fliould at firft be under the Government and Difpofal of 
one Man. O • * 

I z. The Tranfadions likewife recorded in the Scriptures, are very 
fingular. When Adam had eaten of the Forbidden Fruit ; the Method, 
and the Solemnity ufed in Arraigning affd Condemning the Three 
Criminals, Gen. 3. may be a Pattern unto all Courts of Jultice, for their 

I -J, The bold Exploit of Simem and Levi, tho' no where commend- 
ded, but accurft ; yet ferved to efied: the'contrary to u hat JacoI> expedted 
would have followed. Which was, upon his Pallage to Bethel, to llrike a 
Terror into all the Cities round about, thqit they ihould not purfue after 
him, Gen. ■>,$.$. i 

14. No Hiftory, Romance, o^ Dramrtia, evergav^us a Compofure, 
fuller of moving Scenes, than the Story of Jofeph. Wherein the 
Reader of a few Leaves, lives as many Years as jifeph did, between 
Hope and Fear. Nor can he avoid joining with him at lafl; , in a 
Confort of Weeping Joys. An admirable Sample of Providence 
drawn on purpofe, as a Scheme of the Author's Skill ; in the many 
fecret and fure Steps he then took, and takes every where to attain Ins 

1$. How wonderfully was the Prefervation and Preferment of Mo- 
'es contrived, Exod. z. by that Wifdom, which bad ahb Forecafl, what 
do with him ? Which, tho' it be imitated by the Tale of Romulus 
and Remus ; yet any one that compares them together, will acknow- 
ledge, how far in Finenefs and Credibility, the Fable comes fliorc of the 
True Story. ^^^^ ^i't 

16. When 

■88 As they afjear from Book IV. 

1 6. When Pharaoh was relolvcd, with Pride, Injuftice and Cruelty , 
to opprefs thofe, whofc Anccftor had made him Great : With what ex- 
cellent Majefty, is Mofes fent to him ? Thus Jaith the Lord God oj If- 
rael, Let my People go, that they may hold a Feaft unto me hi the Wilder- 
fiefs. And every time he refufes, /J/o/fj makes his Demands ftillh'gher: 
Our little ones an^ our Cattle Jhall go with us ; there /ha/l not a Hoof he 
left behind, Ex. 10.9. i6. and the Tyrant is puniflied with flill greater 
Plagues. Till he that fcorn'd to obey, begs a.Blefling; and thofe 
he had bcgger'd, are fent away laden with the Choiceft Trea- 

17. The Feat of Jael, the Stratagem of Gideon, the Courage of 
Sampfon at his Death, were all of them extraordinary, if only confi- 
dered in themfclves : much more, in the great Ufe which was' made of 

18. Such too, was the Sequel of Ahfalom's foolifii Ambition, David's 
fending of Hufljai back to him, the Sham-Advice which Hufhai gave 
him thereupon, the molt fecret Intelligence hereof fent to David ^ 
and David's paffing over Jordan, that his Small Army might en- 
gage Ahfalom's in a Wood j flrangely concurring to his Over- 

19. The Faithful Love between Damon and Pythias, was rare, 
and highly commendable. Yet inferiour to that between Jonathan 
and Davidl. Thofe Mere Private Men*, and had nothing perhaps to 
lofe, but a Contemptible Life. But Jonathan lays his Life, and the 
Kingdom to which he waJWieir, both at ftake, for the Prefervation of 
his Friend. 

20. y^neas living above zfo Years, before the Building of Carthage; 
it was impofllble, that He and Dido, fliouid ever have feen one another. 
But fuppofe the Poet's Tale, of his Reception by that Queen, and her 
dying for love of him, to make him look great, were true. Yet 
I think, any one will fay, that in a few Lines of Solomon and the 
Queen of Sheha, we have a Tranfadtion of a far higher Pitch. It be- 
ing much more for the Honour of a King, to be vifited, and nobly pre- 
fented, by a Queen ; than only to be courteoufly received : a piece of 
Hofpitality, due to every Stranger. And much lefs, to be admired, as 
/Eneas, by a weak Woman : than as Solornon, by one that was fo much 
wifer, as to have regard, in all refpedts, unto her own Honour, as well 
as that King's. Shewing her Ability, to make a judicious Remark, of 
whatloever Ihe had heard or feen. 

XI . Nor was Solomon more to be admired for his Wifdom, Magnificence, 
or any thing elfe contributing to the Heighth of his Glory ; than it is 
aftonifliing to fee his Fall. An Example fingled out, to demonflrate the 
Infufficiency of any Humane Wifdom, to maintain its own Poll, when- 
ever left unto it felf. 

%z. Neither is the Beauty of the Scripture-Hiftory, juftly chargeable 
with any Blemilh. With nothing Immoral. -Pharaoh, by Jofeph's 
means, became Proprietor of all the Land of Egypt. And not unjuftly, 
as the Cafe was. 1 he Corn, for which he bought it, was the King's. And 
the People, inltead of accufing Jofeph, frankly own, that he had faved 
their Lives. 

2.3. It 

Chap, i V. the HISTO KT, 189 

2^. It may be thought, that Ehu(/ was culpable, in making fliew of 
Submiflion and Kindnefs, when he intended none. And why (o ? Eg- 
ion was confcious to hirofelf, That without Cauie, he had oppreHcd 
ijrael 20 Years, and pollefled 'Jericho, one of their Principal Cities; 
and was refolved to keep, what he had robbed them of. So that he 
had no ground at all to trufl: Ehud, or to expert any Kindnefs from , 

him. Neither doth the Hiflorian relate what £/Wdid, as an Exam- 
ple to be followed. Becaufe he had a Special CommilTion for what lie 
did, not only from the Princes of Ifrael,]nd^.T,. 15. but alfo, which no 
Man now can pretend, from God himfelf, Verf. 15. 20. the only Infallible 
Judge in a Cafe of this Nature, of all the Circumftances ingredient to the 
Definition of Good or Evil. 

24. Some may think of jael, that by inviting Sifera into her Tent, 
ihe was no better than a Trapanning Hufly. But nothing fo. What 
fhe did, was very prudently, to fave her own Life. For. fhc might well 
exped:, That Stfera routed and purfued, had (lie refuTed him, or been 
fliye, either in a Rage, or to prevent her telling of Tales, would have 
killed her upon the Ipot. And had ihe not then gone through, Barak 
and his Men, who were alfo coming, in the heat of their Purluit, would 
have done as much, for her giving Refuge to their Chief Enemy. 
And what fhe did , was juftly too j upon a Rank Idolater and 
cruel OppreHbr; not iubmitting, but flying, and refolved to con- 
tinue what he was ; and therefore to be fpared, upon no Pretence what^ 

25. I think it is not clear, whether Jephtha offered his Daughter in 
Sacrifice, or only devoted her to perpetual Virginity. Suppofe the 
former. Yet the Hiftorian, neither juflifies, nor condemns him ; but 
very wifely, delivers bare Matter of Fad. Which, as he was no where 
commanded ; fo neither was he forbid, as Abraham was in liis Attempt. 
But permitted, to teach them more Prudence, in the Matter of their 
Vows, while they were yet free : and more. Religion in obfcrving them, 
when they were once obliged. For God taketh no delight in Fools, 
Ecclef. 5. 4. 

26. Tho' David had fpared both Joah and Shimei ; yet his Charge to 
Solomon concerning them, was Prudent and Juft. The one, as a Murde- 
rer, the other, as a Traytor, had defcrved Death. And Solomon too, is 
required to ad: wifely : that is, not to take them off upon the old fcore, 
but to lay hold upon a new, and juft Occafion for it : which he alfo did. 
Joah, Tiding againft him, with Jdonijah ; and SMmei departing from 'Je- 
rufalem contrary to his Oath, and the Condition he had accepted for his 
Life. For which, and his being of the Houfe of Saul, he was no longer 

27. Naaman, by the Prophet, asks pardon of God, If, when his Ma- 
fler went to worlliip in tlic Houfe of tlimmon, and leaned on his Hand j 
he then bowed himfdf. To whom the Prophet anfwers. Go in Peace, 
2 Kin. 5. 18. Suppofed by fome, to be a Difpeniation for his worlhipping 
of Rimmon. But is nothing Icls. He defires Leave, neither to worlhip 
him, nor to feign his doing it : but only, not to be rude to, the King, 
For whom, it was impoffible to lean upon Naaman, and to bow down to 
the Ground, which was the worlhipping Pofture, except Naaman did bow 
down with him. Who, at the fame time, as he did his Duty to his Ma- 

Ccc fter. 

I C-C 

At th^y appear from Book i V 

(ler, fufficiently teftified his Contempt of his Mafter's Idol, by facri- 
ficing neither to that, nor to any Gods, but only to the Lord, 
X Km. 5. 17. 

x8. It may feem, that Mordcca't was a proud Captive , in refunng to 
bow to Haman, the greateft Prince of the Realm ; and when he knew 
too, that it was expededof him. But it fcems, he did not think it de- 
corous, nor perhaps lawful, to give Worlhip to a Man, delcended of A- 
gag King of the Amalekjies ; a People, wiiom he knew to be devoted, by 
God himfelf, unto utter DeftrucJion. 

%g. Neither in the Scripture-Hiftory, is there any thing Romantick 
or Abfurd. But if any Particulars feem to be fuch ; it is, becaufe we 
are ignorant of the true Senfe of many Hebrew Words ; as the befl 
Learned in this Language, mufl: acknowledge thcmfelves to be. No 
Stranger, tho' he has learn'd to fpeak E»gli/h, yet without being taught, 
can tell what weEnglifli Men mean, by a Petty-weight. For tho' a Peny 
weighs but eight Grains; yet by z Peny-weight, wc mean 14 Grains. So 
'tisiaid, zSam. 14. z6. That Abfalom'j Hair weighed zoo Shekels after 
the Kings. Weight. By which Form of Speech, the y^"'^ rnight defcend 
as much below the reputed Weight of a Shekel ; as we, when we fay a 
Peny -weighty afcend above the Weight of a Peny. For zoo of thefe She- 
kels, as commonly reckoned, was 50 Ounces. Whereas, there are leldom 
above 30 Ounces, allowing 3 or 4 more for Waftc, in the mofl: monftrous 
Peruke. The Excefs therefore, being fo very great, and fo far from a- 
ny part of that Beauty, for which Abfalom was admired : it may feem 
to be a|pove Sufpicion, that fo grave an Hiftorian, fliould expedt to be 
believed, in faying what he is commonly fuppofed to do. And therefore, 
that we are either yet ignorant of what is here meant by a Shekel^ or 
of the Phrafe, after the Kings weight. 

30. And why not of the Weight of a Shekel, as well as of a Talent .■» 
Of the feveral kinds whereof, both among the y^wj, and in other Nati- 
ons, we are Hill in the dark. This I prove, by what is faid of the Ora- 
cle or mod Holy Place. Which being an exad Cube, of Ten Yards in 
Length, Breadth and Heighth, i Kin. 6. 10. it was comprehended with- 
in 777600 fquare Inches. And both the Ceiling and Floor, as well as 
the Sides, were all over-laid with Gold, i Kin. 6. zo. -jo. z Chron. 3. 5. 
Amounting to 600 Talents, z Chron. 3.8. Should we then allow, what 
we need not to do, that the Gold, wherewith it was over-laid, was of 
that Thickneft, for every Square Inch to .contain a whole Drachm, that 
is, one Eighth of an Ounce; yet it would have come in all, butto97zoo 
Ounces. Whereas, in 600 Talents, according to the received Account 
of a Talent, there are 900000 Ounces. That is, above Nine times the 
former Number; and would have made the Gold a quarter of an Inch 
thick to no purpofe. 

31. A^zm-f Eupolemus^ cutd by Eufehius, Pr. Ev.g. ^. faith, That in 
reckoning the Charge for the Temple^ a Talent fignified hut a Shekel. 
Which Shekel, if it weighed, as is fuppofed, half an Ounce: then there 
went to over-lay the Oracle, but Three hundred Ounces. Now an 
Ounce of Cold, anfwering in Quantity, to about zoco Leaves, three In- 
ches, and > fquare, each Leaf containing a little more than 10 and a 
half Square Inches ; fuch Leaf Gold, as Gilders now ufe : 'tis plain. That 


Chap. IV. the H 1ST ORT, 


21000 Square Inches of Leaf-Gold are equal to an Ounce of Gold: and 
^00 Ounces, to 6300000 of Sqnare Inches, In which Number, the 
Meafure of the Oracle, viz. 777600 Square Inches, is contained 8 times, 
with a Fradion of- near one Tenth. Should we then allow, th?t Eupole- 
wus was not m'i{[a.ken in the Tak»t, nor we in the Shekel ; what is called 
Overlaying, mud have been Gilding, viz. with a fort of Leaf-Gold, hav- 
ing fomething more, than Eight times the Subftance of Leaf-Gold now 
inufe. Which yet is inconfiftent with what isfaid, x Kin. i8. 16. That 
Hezekiah did cut off the Gold from the Doors of the Tern pie, and from the 
Pillars, ivhich He?ekiah A'ing of Judah, had over-laid. Where, by o- 
ver-Iaying, Gilding cannot be underftood. 

31. Yet, from what Eupolemus faitli, thus much may be gathered, That 
the Jews, befides the larger Talent, had one that was much lefs Which 
being fo, what is faid, xChron.ii.x^. ought no longer to feem incredi- 
ble : That David, even in the rime of his Trouble, provided an Hundred 
Thoufand Talents of Gold, and a Thoufand Thoufand Talents of Silver. 
Where, by Talent, if we underftand the Greater ; there was Gold and 
Silver enough, not only for over-laying the Temple, and all the Vellels 
belonging to it, but well-nigh to fill it. But if the Lefs ; it was no more, 
than what was pollible, and neceflary for him to do. 

3 3„ 1 here are many other VVords,which tho' Hehrew as well as Englifh j 
yet cannot be fuppoled to flgnilie the fame thing in that Language as in 
our own. We are not very certain, what any of the Four Odorife- 
rous Ingredients were, prelcribed, Ex. 30.23. for the i\nointing Oil. 
The Myrrh, which is alfo Hehrew, by the Arahick Tranflator, is rendred 
Musk. But if it were a Gumm, as is mofh likely ; yet it feems not to 
be that, to which we have given the fame Name. Which, though a 
good Drug, and yields a vvholfome Scent ; yet none of the mod fra- 
grant, which that Oil was intended for, and not for Phyfick. The 
Calamus, in the Hebrew, is Caneh, that is. Cane ; the Stalk of a Plant, 
and not the Root, as is the Calamus of the Shops. The Cinamon in 
the Hebrew, Chenemon, I take to be the very fame with that defcribed 
by Diof cor ides. Lib. i.e. 13. But not the Bark, we now caJl Cinamon. 
This Bark not growing in Arabia ; from whence, 'tis hke, the Jews had 
all their Spices. And tho' it agrees in Tafte with Diofcorides's Cina- 
mon, fo far as to de biting, ^pijuv -^ Svxtikov ' yet of the Dulcitude, e- 
minently mixt with the Acritude, and remaining in an Infufion hereof 
in Water, when the Acritude is loll ; he fays not one Tittle. And for 
the Cajfta, the Fourth Ingredient for the faid Holy Oil ; it can neither 
be the Cajia Fiflularu, a Purge, and without any Scent : nor the Bark 
commonly called Cajfia Lignea : the faid Bark, being moil certainly a 
Species of the Modern Cinamon. 

34. /J/(?/ej is commanded, £a:. 30. 24. To mix with Frankincenfe thefe 
Sweet, that is, Fragrant Spices ; ^hjdfj.ccvji, viz. Staiie, Onycha, and Gal" 
hanum. And Gtf/^i?««w is mentioned, Ecclef.z^.i^, as yielding a plea* 
fant Odor. Not when mixed with other Ingredients, butofitfelf. Nof 
as grateful to fome difeafed Women ; but generally to all People. Can 
we think then, that the filthy ftirtkingGumm, by us called G^/^^/;«w, tho' 
Hehrew as well as En<ili[h, was put by God himfelf, among Fragrant Spi- 
ces > and for the making fo choice a Perfume ? 

; )i 

35. Tis 

tc2 As they apf ear from Book Wi 

35. 'Tis faid of Salomon, i Kin. 4. -53. That he fpake of Plants, from 
* the Cedar in Lekinon, to the Hyfop, alfo Hebrew^ which fpringeth 
'out of the Wall. As much as, to lay. From the Greateji^ to the Ltaft. 
Of which Leaft, are the Kuta Murarla^ Paronychia , and (ome others, 
M'hich grow upon the Walls, But what we now call f/j fop, as it is far 
from being one of the Leaft, fo is it no Wall-Plant. 

36. Our Tranflators however, have done well, where being at a loft 
for the True Englijh^ they have kept to the Text. But in fome Places, 
where the Text is plain, they have ventur'd, tho' very Learned Men, to 
guefs themfelves into no Senfe. In i Cant. 14. The Spoule compares her 
Beloved, as in our Englidi Bibles, to a duller of Camphire. Yet the 
Hehrevo is, aCluJier, or Bunch of Gopher. Wherewith the Syrzac a- 
grees, as to the Radical Letters. And alfo the Septuagint, ^6r^vi -§> 
fooirpn. Cyprus autem, fays Plin. 1 1. x^. efi Arhufcula in Syria frequentijjt- 
ma, Coma odoratiffimh., ex qua fit Unguentum Cyrinum. And Tirinus, Hu- 
jusflojculi^ inJiarUvarum^ in Botros coeunt. And what difference can be 
greater, than between a Bunch of Copher or Cyprus, that is of Fragrant 
Flowers, and Camphire, a meer Juice, and of a fcurvy Scent ? 

37. The Prophet y^rewj*, Chap. 4. 30. foretelling 7«<^^/?7 of her Reme- 
dilefs Condition ; among other Expreffions, according to our Englifli Bi- 
bles, hath this : Though thou rentejl thy Face with Paint, in vain Jhalt thou 
make thy felf fair. In the Hebrew, it is not thy Face, but thine Eyes. 
And Jezebel is faid, z Kin. g. 30. To paint her Eyes. Tis probable, by 
drawing certain Lines between them, or upon the Eye-Lids, as that wliich 
was efteemcd Ornamental. And w hat is more material, it feems, that 
hyfcinc/ere, is meant no more than Partes di(iinguere. Had our Tranfla- 
tors then ventur'd here to make a Guefs, they would not have been 
without good Company : the Arabick, the Syriack, the Chaldee Para- 
phrafe, and the Septuagint, all faying, not though thou rentefl, but thoug}} 
thou paintefl thine Eyes. And it muft be a (Irange Paint or Ointment, that 
fliould make a Rent, which ufes to heal : and a ftrange Rent, that Ihould 
make a Face fair. Which Infliances may fuffice to fl:iew, that the feem- 
ing Faults of this nature, are not to be imputed to the Sacred Writers, 
but to our own Ignorance and Error. 

38. Neither is there any thing in the Scripture-Storv^, to be accounted 
Trivial. The Paflage inferted of Samuel's Mother, ft: Sam. 2. 19. That 
fhe made him a little Coat, and brought it to him from Tear to Tear ; may 
feem to be of this nature. Yet ferves to fhew the Truth, not only 
of the Author's Narrative ; but alfo of Hannah's Religion ; tacitly pro- 
pofed as a great Example. For having devoted her Son, to the Ser- 
vice of God, for his whole Life, iSam. i. 11. fhe refolved, not to take 
him home at any time, tho' fo very dear to her ; but ftridly to obferve 
her Vow. 

39. The noting of 7^c<?^'s homely Speech before Pharaoh, his being 
foeafily cheated with- L^a/^inftead of Rachel, and fome other Particulars; 
not only make good the Charadler, of his being a Plain Man, 25 Gen. 
2,7. but ferve the better, to fliew the Effeds of his Father's Bleding at 
other times. As in that piece of Philofophy, his laying the peel'd Rods 
before the bell of the Leaping Cattel. And afterwards, in the Meeting 
he gave his Brother, Ge». 3 z. and 33. managed with all the Prudence, 
wliich a Bufmefs of that nature was capable oK 

40. The 


Chap. IV. from the HISTORT. 199 

40, The particular Account we have of his Wives and Children ,• 
was necefiary ro fliew the preferring, by God's efpecial Diredion, the 
Younger before the Elder. And is that alfo, which runs through the 
Scripture-Story. Alel^ Seth, Shem, Graham, Ifaac^ and Jacoh^ were all 
younger Sons. Judah^ one of Lealis younger Sons, was Head of the 
7eu>i//6 Nation, Jofeph, a Son of the younger S\^tT Rachel y ox Ephraim, 
the younger Son of Jojeph, was Head of the Ten Tribes. Mofes was 
^^ro«'s younger Brother. And the Charge he gave the G^ryZiowrf^ j, was 
only to take care of tiie Hangings of the Tent : Whereas the Koha- 
thites, the younger Family of Levi, had the more honourable Office, of 
looking to the Ark, ^c. In like manner, thole Judges, who were alfo 
their Deliverers, were ftill the mofl; unlikely : Jo/hua, a Servant; Othniel, 
of Caleb's younger Family ; £/W, Left-handed ; Deborah, a V^Voman ; 
Gideon, of a poor Family, and himfelf the Leaft in his Father's Houfe ; 
Jephtha, a BaflarJ^ and excommunicated by his Brethren; Sampfon, an 
Effeminate Man ; Saul, of the fmalleft Family of a.fmall Tribe: David, 
the youngell of ail his Brethren ; and Solomon, the like. All, whom 
God was pleafed to choofe, and to notifie to us, partly to diftinguifli our 
Saviours Line ; partly, to Ihew the fulfilling of fundry Prophecies, fpoken 
of thofe, whom he preferred, qr otherwifedifpofed of. As alfo to repre- 
fent the particular Care he took of that People, as their King. And his 
Right of Abfolute Dominion over them, and all Mankind. 

41. The Memoirs we have, of mod of the Kings after Solomon, maybe 
thought by fome, to be a dry Story. But very vainly. For the Author hav- 
ing the Command of the Publick Journals, could not want Materials for a 
large Volume. His Defign therefore, was not to give a particular Ac- 
count of the Counfels and Tranfadions of their Reigns : but with exad- 
efl Truth, «-o demonftrate thofe things, which are much more regardable, 
viz. The Certainty of the Predidions of Mofes and other Prophets, 
concerning that Nation : the Patience of God, in bearing with their Infi- 
nite Wickednefs, for the fpace of 900 Years : and his indifpenfable Ju- 
flice, in removing them, at the laft, out of his fight. Withal, to re- 
prelent the Pravity of Humane Nature, in their unexampled Contuma- 
cy, of breaking through all the Guards, of Laws and Miracles, Promifes 
and Threats, J uiUce and Mercy. And to admonilh all others, That Sin, 
as Solomon faith, is a Reproach to any People ; and fails not, fooner or I'ater, 
to be their Ruin. And there is no other Book extant, fo fully anfwers 
thefe Ends of its being writ. 

D d d CHAP. 

iQA As they affear Book IV. 



I." I HE Account we have in the" Scriptures of fundry Miracles, is an 
J_ Excellent Part of the Hiftory. The Credibility and Truth 
whereof, I have before fhewed, from the Veracity of thofe w ho give it. 
I fhail now undertake to prove the fame , from tlie Nature of 
the Account it felf, and fuch other Evidence, as hath relation 
to it. 

^. In orderto which, itis requiHte, Firft, to diftinguifh the Original 
Works of God in the Creation ; from thofe, commonly called Miracles. 
The former, are faid by Mofes^ to be finifhed in fix Days. Which, by 
moft, are Literally underftood, to be fo many Natural Days of 24 Hours. 
But fome perhaps may think, that hereby ate meant, as many Years or A- 
ges. It being unknown to us, whether, and how far, the Deity made 
u(e of Second Caufes, fo as to keep to their Pafe, in the Creation it 
felf. Nottogive Exiflence, unto the meaneft; Beings, but only in the 
Difpofai of them, according to his own Diredtion; unto the Ends for 
which he did intend them. Others, it may be, may think on the con- 
trary, that the Mention of Days and Nights, was to help us more diftincft- 
ly to contemplate the Divine Operations : but that the Work was begun 
and compleated all at once. 

■5. Now let Men fuppofe, which foever of thefe three Ways they will ; 
-they are all of them pofi.ble. The two former Ways, are poffible, be- 
caufe the latter. For how could God want fufficient Power and Skill, to 
give an entire Exillence all at once, to that, which he had before Entirely, 
tho'Tranfcendently, in Himfelf? By the Firfl Chapter of this Work, ic 
is plain, 1 hat it vi as as eafie for God, to make at once, the Univerfal Mat- 
ter, as one Single Atome. We cannot fuppofe, that he gave Being to 
one Parcel of Matter, after another, as if he was fain to take Breath. 
And it was as eafie for him, to give Exigence at once, to the u hole Stock 
of Vital, as well as Corporeal Beings. And fo likewife, at once, to give 
them all, their Eflence ; that is, their particular Mode of Exiftence. And 
therefore, to give Being at once, unto Univerfal Nature, ' But if he could 
have made the Univerfe, in one Moment : it was then, as eafie for 
him, to make it in fix Ages, Years, or Days, as himfelf plealed. 

4. This Work of Creation, tho' it hath not the Name of a Miracle j 
yet of all Miracles, w as the greateft. After which, no other, with re- 
fpedttothe Power of God, can be looked upon as Incredible. Yet be- 
caufe that for the working of Miracles, fome may afcribe more to God, 
than he thinks fit to do ; and others, more to the Devil, than 
he is able: I lliall next define , what a Miracle is, properly fo 

5. And firfl, that I may not repeat, I defire the Reader to review, 
■what in the Chapter, Of the Nature of Go(ts Government, 1 have faid, and 
proved, viz. 'That God having made, and put into Perfed: Order, a 
World of Inflruments or Second Caufes : it feems not becoming his Di- 


Chap, IV. from the MIRACLES, l^ 

vine Wifdom and Majelly ; to do any thing without; the Mediation and 
Ufe of thefe Caufes. 

6. And it is that, which the Scriptures alfo teach. So Pfal. 78. 4:5. 
God is faid to work his Signs and Wonders in Egypt. Yet, VerC 49. 

ito do this, by fending of evil Angels among them. ScMnachariFs Hofl: 
was deftroyed by an Angel ; Daniel's Prophefie explained by an An- 
gel ; and the Law given ly the Difpofition of Angels. And many o- 
ther the fame Ad:s and Operations, are afcrib'd to God in one Scripture, 
and unto fome Second Caufe, in another. And it is exprelly faid, Gen. x. 
That when God hadfmijhed the Six Days CreaJion, he thenceforward refted, 
from Creating of anj^ thing elfe : that is, from doing any thing, without 
the Co-operation or Second Caufes. 
7. Which Caufes are all reducible unto thefe Two, rif^a/ and Corporeal ;^ 
both defcrib'd in the two precedent Books ; and concurring to the entire 
Frame of theUniverle. And the Univerfe in Mot-ion and Operation, is 
that, which we are properly to underftand, by Nature. And fo, every 
Second Caufe, whether belonging to the Corporeal or the Vital World; 
is properly called a Natural Caufe. 

8. It is alfo neceifary, the Reader ihould review, what in the Chapter, 
Of Celejiial Mind, I have faid and proved, viz. ' That God hath fome 
* way or other, eflabliflied a Pov\ er in the Vital, over the Corporeal 
World. He hath made the Minds of Men and of other Animals, able to 
command their own Bodies. And would it not be very llrange, if the 
Power v\ hich every Man hath, yea, °v ^ " Child, or Beaft, fliould be de- 
nied to a Superiour Mind, thnt is, an Angel ? 

9. But albeit every Miracle is efleded in the Ufe of fome Second or 
Natural Caufe : Yet to make it a Miracle, it is requifite, that this 
Caufe bfe unknown to us ; either in it ftlf, or as to the manner of its 
Operation. So an Eclipfe of the Sun, as it is an Eifed: of the Regular 
Motion of tlie Moon, according to the Laws of Nature eflabliflied 
from the Beginning, is as wondenul;, as any Miracle wharlbever. Yet is 
it not accounted or called a Miracle ; in regard the Caufe hereof, is not 
unknown to us. 

10. Again, there is nothing in the World, but what is indeed doubly 
miraculous, viz. in its own Nature, and in the Cait or Projed: of its Re- 
lation to the Univerfe : Neitjier of which, can we ever fearch out unto 
Perfedlion. But iiowfoever the Caufe be unknown to us ,• Yet if the Ef- 
fed be ordinary ; that is to fay, very frequently feen and taken notice 
of; it is not look'd on, as a Miracle. So is not, for Indance, the Splen- 
dor of the Sun: tho' no Miracle can bs more admirable. A Difeafe, in 
as much as it depends upon Natural Caufes, is a Natural Thing, as well 
as good Health. Yet is it faid to be Preternatural ; that is, fomething 

' _> belide the ordinary State of Nature. And fo too, when we fpeak of Su- 
Ift pernatural Caufes and EtTeds ; we are to underftand them of fuch as are 
IB extraordinary, that is, befsde the ordinary Courfe of Nature. 

11. In the being Extraordinary, there is required, a Limitation of 
Time, Place, and all other Circumilatrces. Laid by the Deity in the 
Projed of Univerfal Nature. Otherwife, it could not be faid to be a 
Miracle, but only a flrange Accident. And altho' every thing, which 
comes to pafs in the World, be indeed limited, ali origine , to its own 
Time and Place : Yet the Seafonablenefs hereof, is mote apparent m thofe 
Effeds, which we efteem Miraculous. iz, And 

^ ■ ■ 

?q6 ^s they affear Book IV. 

iz. And laftly, That what comes to pais , be alfo adapted unto 
forae good and necelTary End. Without which, it were not a Mira- 
cle, but a Trick. 

13. A Miracle then, is the extraordinary EfTecft, of fome unknown 
Power in Nature, limited by Divine Ordination and Authority, to its 
Circumflances, for a fuitablc End. 

14. Now, if we compare this Definition, with the Miracles report- 
ed to us in the Scriptures ; it will appear to be very applicable to them. 
To none better, than the Ten Plagues upon Egypt : with that Pnelu- 
(imm^ the feeming Change of the Rods, into Serpents. I fay, the feem- 
ing Change : for as much as what is here faid, is not to be underflood, 
ot a Real Serpent, but only the Appearance of it. According to the 
Scripture Stile, which commonly givcth the Name of a Thing to that, 
by which it is reprefented ; and fo Men do in all Languages. So ExoJ. 
32, I. the People bid Aaron, to make them Gods: that is, the Images 
oi {ovciQ Egypt I aft ox othtr Qo6s. And Verf.-\'y. they are faid to be 
plagued, not for the Image of a Calf, but for the Calf which Aaron 
made. And to Iniknce, in the very Word before us ; when Num.zi. 
the People wereftung with fiery Serpents ; God bids Mofes not to make 
the Image of one of thofe Serpents, but to make him a Fiery Serpent , 
and fet it upon a Pole. In like manner, the Rods of Aaron, and of 
the Magicians of E<iypt, which are faid to hecome Serpents ; were only 
invelled with the Phantaftick Image of a Serpent. Nor would it have 
confilled with the Divine Wifdom, then to lia^ve made a Real Serpent. 
For in fo doing, he mufl have given it a Mind, with all the External and 
Internal Organs, neceflary unto Motion, Nutrition, Generation, and Senfe. 
The doing of which, had been altogether in vain : as ferving to no Ufe, 
for a Creature, which was immediately to be turned again into a Rod. 
'Tisalfo faid, that the Magicians did, in like manner as Aaron did, Ex.y. 
II, I i. But no Man will allow the Devil a Pow er, to make a Real Ser- 
pent. And the making of an imaginary Serpent, being imitable by the 
Devil, w as more to the prefent purpofe, than a Real one would have been. 
For in (hewing of this Sign, his Pou er was limited by fome other above 
him ; unto this Circumltance, That Aaron s Rod, Teemed to fwallow 
up the other Rods : which the Magicians could neither prevent, nor 
imitate. Whereby God's Ends were fully -anTwered : as in permitting 
them to go half way, to harden Pharaoh's proud Heart: So, in not per- 
mitting them to go through, to bar him from any jufl: Pretence 
unto further Oppolition. Withal, to confirm Mofes's Faith and Courage, 
in going on with his Commiliion, and expedling the Final Ifliie. So 
then, the Image of a Serpent, which was here made, was an extra- 
ordinary Effedt, performed and limited, we know not how, by 
fome Created Power, with God's Authority, and for his own weighty 

15. Nor is there any Incredible Power, afcribed to the Devil, in his 
Imitation of the two following Signs, viz. The turning of the Rivers in- 
to Bloody and Bringing the Frogs from thence into the Houfes of the Egyp- 
.tians. By what means this great Alteration, and Corruption in the 
Waters, were affedted ; is wholly unknown to us : the Scripture giving 
no Hint of any Caufe, as it doth of the following Signs. 'Tis very 
probable, that the Peftilential Plague, which in the Procefs of this Tranf- 



Chap. V. from ths Ml KAC L t S. iqy 

Padion, was inflicfted, both upon the Beafts oF the Field , and on the 
f Body of Man ; began here, in the Waters. That is to fay, that all 
the FiOi, fmall and great, ^'Itlixht Hippopotamus^ Crocodile^ and other 
.'Amphibious Creatures, were feiz'd with a Dyfenterick Murrain. By 
which they were conflrained to void, together with their Excrements, 
fo great a Quantity of purulent and flinking Blood; as was fuiiicient 
to difcolour and corrupt the VVater, in mod of the Rivers. And it was 

I not impoiTible for the Devil, being permitted, to inflid: the like Plague, 
upon tlie Fi(h of thofe Rivers and Pits, which Aaron had left untouched. 
Nor was it lefs eafie for him, to direct the Motion of the Frogs in any 
Number, to the Houfes of the Egyptians^ as Aaron had done. Yet his 
Power was herein limited, that wiien he had brought them thither; 
he could not return them back : this being referved to be done by 
! ■ Mofes. 

• 1 6. The next Plague, was the turning of the Dufl: of Egypt into 
Lice. FIovV this was done, is alfo unknown to us. Peradventure the 
Eggs of fome fort of fmall Infedl, here called Lice ; being mixed every 
wh'^re with the Duft, more numeroudy than in former Years, and fud- 
denly hatched ; fwarmed upon the Bodies of Men and Beads, as the 
Frogs had done upon the Land. Howfoever they came, their Coming 
was limited to. that very Sealbn, when Aaron had ilruck the Duft with 
h'.s Rod. Which the Magicians could neither hinder nor bring to pafs in 
like manner : but confefs'd to Pharaoh that it was the Finger of God. 
The like may be laid, of the following Swarms of Flies. Brought, it 
may be, by a Southern Wind, from fome Part of Africa, But a llill 
one, (uilicicnt for fo fmall an Infedt, and therefore not mentioned. 

17. 'Tis alfo Ukely, that the fame ^/r/c^« Wind, which brought thele 
Flies ; being (lill and hot, brought alio the Infedlion, which bred the fol- 
lowing Murrain. And whereas, precedent to the next fucceeding Plague, 
liz. the Boils upon Man and Bcalt-; 'tis faid, that the Allies which Mofes 
fprinkled towards Heaven, ihould become imall Dull in all the Land of 
EgYpf ; it may feem that hereupon there fell a Shower of Dull ; fuch as 
fometimes happens in hot Countries. And that it was accompanied with 
that Infedion in the Air, which fuddenly bred the Boils. Nor could the 
Devil want Power, tho'he did Authority, for the Performing of both 
thefe Signs : To have'd a great Murrain in the Beails, as well as to 
make a Damoniac; and the Boils upon the Egyptians, as well as on the 
Body of Joh. But he was fo far over-ruled, that he could neither hurt nor 
help them, as Mofes did. 

18. Nor is it denied but that there were fundry Natural Caufes, made 
ufe of for the following Plagues. The Elail, which even in fome Cold 
Countries, is now and then big enough to kill the Poultrey : was then, 
it feems, fo great, as to kill all that were in the Field, both Man and 
Beall, The Locufts, according to what I have fuppofed of the Flies, 
are faid to be brought by a Wind, which fwept them together from other 
Countries, where they were bred. And a llrong Weft Wind alfo took 
them all away into the Red Sea. Hence Plin. 11.19. Gregatim fuhla- 
ta,fcil. Locujia;^ vento^ in Maria aut Stagna decidunt. "I he Darknefs, 
might be a prodigious Fog ; becaufe it is faid to be thick and to be 
felt. And the fame Eafterly Wind, which brought the Locufts ; might 
bring with it from the Coafls of Barhary^ the Nelt of Pcdilentiai 

E e e Plagues ; 

ic8 /h they af fear Boo 


Plagues ; that Infcdion, w hich foon after the Darknefs was over, pro- 
duced the difmal concluding Stroke, the Death of all the Firft- 

19. But in the Ufe of all thefe Natural Caufes, there was a Threefold 
Limitation, viz. To the Perfons, the Time, and the- Place. TothePer- 
fons, ading. For in the three firfl; Signs, tho' the Magicians went half 
way ; yet they could not go through, as Mofes and Aaron did. And in all 
the reft, they were bound Hand and Foot, not being able to do, or undo, 
any thing belonguig to them. And to the Pcrlbns, fuffering ; as in 
the Plague of Peftilence. The Infedion fpreading into every Houfe and 
Field ; yet in an extraordinary manner, feizing only upon the Firft-born. 
To the time, both of their Concurrence, and of the Predidrions made 
of them. Had the Concurrence of fo many rare Thtznomena^ been with- 
in the compafs of One Year ; yet had it been a Year fo flrange ,• as no 
other, there or eirev\ here, ever matcht. But, what is yet firanger, they 
all met together in the Compafs of fix Weeks, if not in one Month, or 
thereabout. For they began at a warm time of the Year, fit for the 
Breeding and Multiplication of Murrains, Frogs and Infeds, as in the 
three firfl: Plagues. The Hail, the Seventh Plague, fell about the fame 
time, viz. when the Flax was holled^ and the Barley eared ; yet before the 
Wheat and Rye were grown up. And they were allfiniflied, the Night fol- 
lowing the 14/^ of the Month ^^/^, the Julian ^th of May. And withre- 
fped to the Predidions Mofes made, both of their Coming and Going ; 
they werefixt to a Day. And they were like wife limited to their Place. 
Sent into all the Land of Egypt ; yet excluding Gojhan in the midft of E- 
gypt. Neither the Hail from Heaven, nor the Lice in the Earth, nor the 
Frogs from the Water, nor the Locufl:s in the Air, tho' this bloweth • 
where it lifleth J nor any other Plague, touched upon this Place. Where- 
by it is evident, that albeit fbme of the aforelaid Caufes, are fet down 
by Mofes himfelf, and fome others we may guefs at : yet how far the O- 
perations of the Corporeal World went alone, or were mi.x'd with thofe 
of the Intelledual j is utterly unknown to us. And the confining and 
matching of them all to this Tranfadion ; was a Work, well worthy the 
Skill of the Author of both Worlds to forecaft. 

xo. Nor were they lefs fuitable unto the Ends he propofed to himfelf, 
in this Tranfadion. To fhew us, how admirably he hath put together 
all the Parts of the Creation, or the Univerfal Machine ; fo as, when 
and how hepleafes, to make them ferve his turn. To call thofe, who 
without Caufe, and for a long time, had oppreft the Ifraelites^ to a fevere 
Reckoning. And Egypt ^ being the firft and grand Nurfery of Idolatry ; 
to bring the utmoft Contempt upon all their Gods ; in maflering Pha- 
raoh^ and Them, with fome of his moft defpicable Creatures, Flies and , 
Lice. To difplay his Mercy to his afflided People ; in their Delive- 
rance then, wheninthegreateft Defperation. To exhibit the Truth and 
Certainty of his Promife, to their Fore-fathers, upon the appointed time, 
the End of 4^0 Years, to a Day. To confirm alfo their Faith, in 
what he had promised themfelves ; That notwithflanding the feeming 
Impofiibilities they fhould meet with in the Wildernefs ; if they did not 
hinder it, he would bring them into Canaan. And to prepare them with 
humble Minds, to embrace thofe Laws, by which he intended to rule 
them, when they were there. The Wildom and Goodnefs whereof, 




Chap. IV. from the MIRACLE J. ^^ 

they could not pretend to difpute ; when given by the fame Hand, by 
which they had been dehvered. The Miracles theretbre, annexed to the 
Tranfadtion between Mofes 3.nd Pharaoh; having all the forementioned 
Marks of Credibility belonging to them : we have no Caufe to doubt, 
but that they were performed, as Mofes hath faid. 

XI. But I further add, the Notoreity, and Effeds, of all that was done. 
As in Egypt, the Theatre, fo among all the People round about, the 
Spectators of the fearful Scene. Among whom, Jeth'ro, the Prieft and 
Prince of Midian, within a few Days after all was over, came to congra- 
tulate yJ/o/e-j, his Son-in-law, in the Wildernefs. The Hivites of Gibeon^ 
upon the Fame hereof, were frighted into their Wits, to make their 
Peace, and fave themfelves from utter Delirudion. And the Philifline 
Priefts, \ Sam. 6.6. had kept the Memory hereof frefti unto the Days 
of Samuel., 400 Years. But Sethofis, Succeflbr to Amafis., or Armais, 
drowned in the Red-Sea ; was, it (eems, fo aftonilhed hereat ; that altho' 
his Exploits in the Eafl, are fet down by Manetho, as performed in the 
firft Nine Years of the Jews being in the Wildernefs ; yet he dar'd not 
to touch them in all that time ; tho'an unarm'd People ; and were, either 
in Revenge, to have been deilroy'd ; or were as well worth the Re- 
gaining, as his Predeceflor thought them worth the Keeping. 

XX. Moreover, as for other Reafons, fo to cut off all pretenfes unto 
Disbelief, in Ai'ter-Ages ; the Divine Wifdom thought fit to make mention 
of this Miraculous Deliverance, the Preface to the Ten great Commands. 
The Profeflion too, enjoin'd to be made by every Houlholder, every Y'ear 
for ever, upon liis Offering of the Firft-Fruits, Deut. x6. was a (hort Com- 
memoration of this Great Work, and of all that was antecedent and 
confequent to it. The Redemption, and Sacrifice of the Firil-born of 
Man and Bead; was a lively Symbol of their being fav'd, when tfie £- 
gyptiaHS were deftroy'd. But efpecially the Pajfover, which by its very 
Name, (liew'dlVom the. Beginning, of what it was a Sign. And by the 
Circumftances and Ceremonies belonging to it; as making the ^th Month, 
wherein it was firft kept, from thenceforward, to be the Firft ; killing the 
Pafchal Lamb, on the fame Night wherein the Firft-born were (lain j 
fprinklirig the Blood upon their own Houfes, which were pafled by ; eat- 
ing it with Unleaven'd Bread, their Loins girded, their Shoes on their 
Feet, and their Staff in their Hands, all in hafte ; and the Catechizing of 
their Children, for their underftanding the Reafon of all this : became a 
vifible, conftant, and everlafting Monument of the whole Matter of Fact. 

x^. In the working of moft of the other Miracles recorded in the 
Scriptures ; fundry Natural Caufes were made ufe of, which are either 
mentioned, or may be gueffed at. Not to explain the Miracles; for fo 
far as the Caufe is known, theEffed: is no Miracle. But further to Ihew, 
the Subferviency of all Caufes, known or unknown to us, to the Divine 
Providence. And by way of Concedion to thofe, v ho may polfibly be 
fo weak, as to argue from the being of Natural Caufes, to the Non-being 
of Miracles. 

X4. The Paflage of the Ifraelites through the Red-Sea ; is compared 
by Jofephus, with that oi Alexanders Army, thro\^gh. the Pamphil/au^ as 
if it gave way to them : but without any Ground. For by Straio, Lih. 
14. we are better informed. That the Hi 11 Climax, lying upon the Para- 
philian Sea^ leavetb a narrow Pajfage upon the Shore, which at a loxo Ebh^ 


200 ^i they appear Book iV. 

is fo clry^ that it may he forded on font. But that Alexander coming thi' 
tber^ before the Waters were gon off^ was fain with his Soldiers^ to wade all 
day long up to the middle. Neither, as Sir Walter Raleigh well obferves, 
could this Way over* the PvCd-Sea, be fnade by a lo v Ebb, after a great 
Spring-Tide, caiifed by the Wind. • Becaufe that this blew full Weft : 
Whereas the Sea ftands, in a manner, North and South. And had 
Mofes taken the Advantage of any fuppofed Ebb ; can we imagine 
Pharaoh and all hisHoft, to be ignorant hereof ? Yea, of that, which 
every Waterman's Boy, could not but know > 

25. It is then plain, by the Hiftory, Ex. 14. xi, ix. compared with 
the following Song of Mofes, Ch. 15. 8, 10. That it was a ftrong Eaft 
Wind, which blowing atlnvart tlie Sea, both divided the Waters, and 
at the fame time, froze them with (b thick an Ice, as to bound them 
like a Stone Wall, on both fides the Way it had made. And it was 
this too, which made T'/'d/'W; and his Army fo bold, as to follow; 
when they faw the Way on both Sides, and at the Bottom , all of 
firm Ice. And when Mo(es firetchcd out his Hand over the Sea, to bring 
the Waters upon the Egyptians ; it is as plain, that it was a Wefterly 
or other warm Wind, which thawing the Ice, let the Sea in upon 
them. Yet the Winds wiiich thus blew, were truly miraculous. 
Both in being limited exadly to their fpeciai Seafon ; when the Ifrael- 
ites were to be preferved, and the Egyptians deftroye,d : and in being fo 
extraordinary, as never to blow with the like EfTeds, upon that, or any 
other Sea, before or fince, * 

x6. The Ifraelites were led over the Red-Sea, and through the 
Wildernefs by a Pillar of a Cloud by Day, and a Pillar of Fire by 
Night. Probably, it was a kind of Meteor, ihining only in the Dark 
But that it was made on purpofe, and the Motion hereof governed, and. 
not at all fortuitous, is clear : In that, as they pafted through the Sea, 
it was made to fland behind them, and fo between them and the E- 
. gyptians : YVhereas in the Wildernefs, it was all the Way before 
them. Nor did it reft upon any Tent, but only on the Tabernacle 
Neither did it appear only at fome Seafons, and uncertainly, as Meteors 
ufe to do ; but continu'd throughout all their Journeys, a Vifible Mira- 
cle for 40 Years," Ex. 40. -^o. 

zy. Natural Caufes were made ufe of, for fupplykigthe Ifraelites with 
Manna. It was both preceded and accompanied with a Dew,whichfellin the 
Night,Ex. 16. 14. Num. 1 1. 9. And thereare Honey-dews, many times, 
found upon the Leaves of fome Trees. And it hath been a Queftion, a- 
mong Botanicks to this Day, Whether the Honey which Bees fuck , he the 
Sweat oj Plants, or a Meteor defcendingfrom the Air. I take it to be a 
Mixture of both. For as Honey differs in Nature, with the Flowers from 
whence it is fucked : So thofe Flowers yield moft, which are beft fitted 
to receive and lodge the Nodurnal Dews. 

x8. But whatever Ordinary Caufes were made ufe of; they were af- 
fifted by Extraordinary, and unknown to us. It fell upon every Night, 
faving that before the Sabbath ; and then, never. For which Caufe alfo, 
on the foregoing Night, they were fupplied with a double Quantity. 
And if they kept it until any other next Day, faving the Sabbath, it ftank, 
and bred Worms ; but then never. Neither did it fall upon any Trees, or 
Flowers ; but upon Grafs, or a bare SandyGrond,fuch as belongeth to a Wil- 

HAP. V. from the Ml KAClE S, 201 

dernefs. And this Ordinary Courfe, was conftantly obferved for 40 
Years. And then the Manna, of a fudden, as wonderfully ceas'd to falJ, 
the very day, after the People had the Corn of Caman to eat. Of the 
Truth of all which, as Six hundred thouland Ifraelites were Eye-witnef- 
fes, for the faid 40 Years : So an Omer of it was laid up before the Te- 
flimony, as a (landing Evidence of the lame. And the Wildernefs it 
felf, was, and is no lefs. Wherein it had been impoHible, for fo great a 
Multitude, to have fubfifted an hundredth part of that time; but by this, 
or fome other miraculous Way. And why not that, which is fo plainly 
and circumftantially fet down ? 

19. And the Reafons, why God was pleas'd to feed them this way, 
were many and great. In Jullice to punifli tliem for their Impatience and 
Defperation for want of Meat j after they had been Miraculoufly fupply'd, 
when in the greateft Strait for want of Drink, Ex. 15. In Kindnefs, for 
their Health : by cleanfing them with that foft Aerial Diet , from the E- 
gyptian Mange, wherewith many of them , could not, in the time of 
their Bondage, but be more or lefs infeded. And which a luxurious 
Diet, might have made fo contagious, as to have fpread all over the 
Camp. To bring them, by a fpare, and funple fort of Diet, to comply 
the better with that Temperate One, he intended ere long to prefcnbe 
them. To tame their wanton Appetites , which had taught them to 
hanker after Egypt , and to depretiate that ineftimable favour, which 
brought them up from thence. To humble thofc, who would elfe have 
conceited, he was fo fond of them ; that he could not chufe but 
pamper them, albeit they thought or fpake of him, as they lifted. To 
prove their Faith, in that All-fufficiency, to which Eden, or a Wildernefs, 
wasal one. And his Ability, not only therein to fpread their Table ; but 
to blefs any thing to them, he had a Mind to make their Food. 

■JO. When the Feopleand their Cattle, were a- thirll, Ex.ij. upon Mo- 
fes's ftriking the Rock, there prefently came a great deal of Water out of 
it. That this was a Spring, is allow'd ; and that then it firll brake forth. 
We will fuppofe to, that this Spring arofe from the ufual Caufes. Yet 
who, but the Author and Difpofer of all Caufes, could fo exadtly have 
fore-ordain'd thofe of this Spring ; and limited every Circumftance there- 
unto precedent, as the Thirll and Importunity of the People, Mofes's Ad- 
drefs thereupon, the Orders he then received what to do, and his Ob- 
ferving of them ; fo as the laft, his fmiting of the Rock, fliould meet 
to an Inftant, with the gulhing out of tlie Water ? And that all this was 
thus done, the Names of MaJJa and Meriiah, given to the Place, were a 
doyble Witnefs, not to be gain-faid. 

31. 'Tis faid, Numh. 11. 31. That the Wind brought the ^ails from the 
Sea, and let them fall roundabout the Camp. Probably, a South Wind, 
Pf. 78. %6. which blew them aflant over the Red-Sea. VVhencefoever 
it came, it was certainly governed by an Extraordinary Caufc ; in fweep- 
ing together, fo prodigious a Number of Quails, as fhould make, as it 
were, an Encampment a Yard high, and at lead 24 Miles in compais. 
And in bringing the Quails, and letting them fall, not into the Middle 
of the Camp, upon the Peoples F^eads ; but only round about it. And of 
their Gluttony, and the Plague that followed thereupon ; the Name of 
Kibroth-Hattaavahjgiven to, the Place, was a Memorial never to be tprgot. 

F f f 31. Upon 

202 A f they appear Book IV'., 

■^z. Upon the Rebellion of Korah, 'tis faid, Mum.- i6. %r. Thaf thS' 
Earth opened her Mouthy and fwallow'd up the AJen^ and the Houjes, and- 
Goods appertaining to them. 'Tis likely that this uas an Earthquake, 
But the limiting hereof, and of all the antecedent Circum dances,- fo a«> 
it Ihould come to pafs, in one only fit Place, the middle of the Gamp, 
where Korah had his Station ; and in that only fit Moment, which /yu/ef 
had predided ; was the Contrivance of the Difpofer of Univerfat 

33. Prefcntly after this, there alfo came out Fire from the L«rd],' mi 
conjumed the x(;o Men, that had offered Incenfe. Which, it may be, Was 
fome Extraordinary Lightning : to which, the Sulphureous Steams a- 
fcending from the Earth where it opened, did in fome part contribute: 
Yet the Divine Direction, and Authority, were appartently feew, in its 
deflroying every Man of the faid 250, and no one befides, in fb grejlt a 

34. I allow too ; that the Blofloraing of Aaron's Rod ; whofe Pr'efer- 
ment, as being of the younger Houfe, was envy'd by thefe Rebel^^ ; and 
its bringing forth of Almonds in one Night : doth ntot infer, That the 
Blofibmsand Almonds were created ; thatis, that God did then u(e, his 
own Infinite PoWer, to producethem. For I have fliewed in the Anatomy 
of Plants., that the Leaves, Flowers, and Fruits, of all Trees, arfe in being 
or adually form'd, in the unexpanded Bud. But there was a miraculous 
Acceleration in the Motions of Nature ; without v\ hich, fo fudden ait 
Expanfion and Growth of thefe Parts, could not have been effeded. And 
the Covering of the Altar, made with the 25-0 Cenfors; and this Rod," 
laid up before the Teftipiony ; were flanding Witnelles of aU that was 

35. When the People were ftung with Serpents, and thereupon died, 
Mum. XI. 9. if they look'd upon the Serpent, which Mo/es, by Gods Di- 
redion, had fet upon a Pole ; they then liv'd. Now, altho' the Strength 
of Phancy, hath been known to cure an .4gue ; it may be one, in athou- 
fand: yet who ever knew it to prevent, the fatal Effed; of a Viper's 
Bite i' And of the mod venemous fort, as thefe, it feems, were, called 
Fiery Serpents. And the Cure received hereby, was in all refpeds, fo 
wonderful; that the Serpent which Mofes made, was not only preferv'd, 
in Memory hereof, but worfliipp'd with Incenfe by the People, z Kin. 18. 
4. for above 700 Years after : till Hezekiah^ to fupprefs that Idolatry, was 
forced to deflroy it. 

36. Tho' there is no mention of any Wind, ufed for cutting off the 
Waters o^ Jordan, Jo/h. 4. yet from Veife 23. it may feem, there was. 
If fo, it was a kind of Tornado, blowing not athwart, as at the Red- Sea, 
but up the River, and lefs Horizontally. Whatever was the proximate 
Caufe, the Regulation of it was fuch, as made the Efled to be very 
wonderful, For the Waters are laid to be raifed above their Level, arid 
to Hand upon a Heap. And this was done at the time of Harvefl: ; when 
the River was at thehighelf, and overflowed its Banks. And at th€ very 
inftant, in which the Priefls that bare the Ark, touched the Brim of the 
Waters with their Feet. And as foon as ever, the People arid Priells 
were pafled over; the Waters returned, and overflowed the Banks, as 

37- 'Tis 

Cb A P. IV. from the MI K ACL ES. oc:^ 

37. 'Tis likely, that the Fall of theWalls of Jericho, was cfftdled by ano- 
ther Earthquake. But the Earthquake, and the End of the preparatory 7 
Days, were miracuibufiy adjufted unto one Moment. And the Ceremony 
was anfwerafcle, to fo confpicuous a Miracle. The Men of War, were tc 
compafs the City 7 Days,. 7'PrielIs were to bear before the Ark 7 Trum- 
pets, and on the 7th Day, they were to compafs the City 7 times. All 
which, may feem to have been fitter for Magicians, than for Soldiers. 
But they were to do this upon great Reafon. For firil of all, in regard 
they had no fort of miUtary Engines, wherewithal to befiege the City : 
how was it poifible for them, as Soldiers, to go to work .•> Yet God faw 
it fit they ilioald do fomething ; and all they could then do. To let them 
know, that tho' they could not fee a Reafon for what they were com- 
manded : yet tiaey were never to didruil his Ability, or difpute his Will. 
That they wei-e not at any time to expedt iiis Alliiiance, in fitting iliil ; 
but upon their Perfeverance, in the regular Ufeof fuch Means, as were 
m their Power. To forctcl them withal, that in all their future Wars, 
they were to exped the Vid:ory, more from the Means of his providing, 
than their own. And fcnfibly to admonifli 1 hem, aad all Men ,- that 
what is done by us, in order to any End, is nothing to what Himfelf 
doth, whe'^her we fee it or no : VVhat we do, being but the Ceremony ; 
but what He doth, the Suhftantial Caufeof all. 

3-8. Tis faid, That at the Comina?id of Joiliua, Chap. ic. iz. the Sun and 
MoonfioodflHL Upon which Paflagc, Jojhua^^vfsSplnofa, diuturnioris il- 
Itus Lucis, can/am veram ignoravit : at putavit illo die, Solem aliqiiandiu 
(ietijfe. N^ec ad id attendelat, (jMod ex nimia glacie, qua turn temporis in 
Regione Air is erat, RefraEiio folito major, oriri potuerit. But fir it, fee 
how he falfifies the Text^ in faying, aliquandiu ? whereas the Sun is faid 
toftandftill, for about a whole E)ay. And for his Glacial Air, where is 
the Shepherd fo Ample, but could have told him, That Snowy^ or what- 
ever ell'e he means by Glacial Air, or Clouds, may ferve to, darken the 
Day, but not at all to prolong it. 

39. That the Sun might properly be faid, then, and not before, to 
ftandftill; I have fhewed in the Third Chapter. VVhat made it fo to 
do, whether the Approach of fome Dark and Unknown Celeftiai Body, 
or other Caufe , w ho can fay or gain-fay ? And tho' the 'Phcenomenon 
might be vifible to all People, at lead, between the Two Tropicks : Yet 
is it not neceflary, we fliould have it mentioned in any prophane Wri- 
ters : of whom Sanchumiathon, the moft Ancient, lived near 300 Years, 
after the thing was done. But Jojlua prayed, and gave the Word of 
Command, in the Sight of all Ijrael. And the Miracle is dill the mo e 
credible, becaufe it was Regular ; the Moon Handing ftill as well as the 
Sun. That is, the Sun ftanding ftill itfelf, caufed the Earth to do like- 
wife ; as this, did the Moon. And tho' now, there was no need of 
Moon-Light ; yet was it hereby order'd, X'lat there fliould be no Ana- 
chronijm in the Account of Time, among the y^wy, not fo much, as in a 
fmgle Day, nor any Diforder in their Sett-Feafls. 

40. We are told, %Kin. to. 11. That upon the Prayer 0/ Ifaiah, the 
Sun went back ten Degrees. Upon which Words, Ifaiah,{z.ys Spinoja, de 
Parelii^, forte nunquam, nee per f omnium cogitavit. But with what benfe ? 
as if afalfe Sun, had there been any, were not much more to have been 
taken notice of, and mentioned, than a falfe Shadow, by him fuppofed to 


204 ' ^^ ^^^y ^tP^^^ Book IV. 

/ — — ■ - - ■ I ■ 

be made by it ? The PhammenoH doubtlefs was miraculous. Fortho' the 
Retrogreft, was but Ten Degrees, that is, two Thirds of an Hour : Yet 
was it fo far taken notice of abroad, that the King of Babylon fent his Em- 
bailadors to Hezekiah^ both to congratulate his Recovery, and to iiKjuire 
of the Wonder that was done in the Land^ z Kin. xo . 1 1. 

4 1. The confuming of the Sacrifice by Fire from Heaven, was a frequent 
Miracle : As of that which Aaron ofTer'd for himfelf and the People, Lev. 
9. 24. the Burnt-Offering at the Dedication of the Temple, 2 Chron.j. i. 
Done, as at other times, fo then, in the Sight of all the People. At no 
time more remarkably, than upon £///a^'sTranfad:ion with Abah, and the 
murderous Prophets of Baal^ upon Mount Carmel. And through the 
fingular Wifdom and Magnanimity, wherewith Elijah was then inlpir'd ; 
nothing could have been better attefted. £///^^ commands Ahah, to ga- 
ther all Ifrael, that is, the Chief of all the Ten Tribes, and the Prophets 
of Baal before him. Ahah^ who had fought Elijah through all King- 
doms, with a Purpofe to flay him : is now afraid to touch him, or fo 
much as to difpute his Command. Baal's Prophets mull be prefent, that 
they might both b» openly condemned; and ready to fuffer the Punifh- 
ment, by the Law of Mofes due to tliem. All Ijratl^ that they might 
both be VVitneffes and Executioners of all that God, by Elijah^ intended 
to fay and do. And what was faid and done, from firfl: to laft, was fo full 
of Divine Majefty, that the Memory hereof, continued near 1000 years 
after, unto Tacitus's time. Who, tho' an Enemy to the Jews^ yet in 
his Hiftory, Lib. 2. he takes notice, and fays as much of it, as in his chopt 
Latin he could well do : EJl Judaam inter Syriamq; Carmelus : ita vacant 
Montem Deumq;. Nee Simulachrum Deo, aut Templum, fie tradidere Majo- 
res ; Aram tantum & Reverentiam. Undoubtedly, the Altar of the Lord, 
then repaired by Elijah^ or another like it, in the fame Place, and (land- 
ing, it feems, in the Time of Tacitus^ as a Monument of that famous 





To Prophefy , in the largefl: Scripiure Senfe, is, to decare 
the Revealed Will of God. But the Prediction ot" things 
Jto come, is that in particular, of the Nature, Truth and Excellency 
Evhereof, I am next to fpeak. 

X. And Firft, The Being of Prophecies, fuppofeth, the Non-being of 
Contingents. That is to fay, that albeit there are many things, which 
(eem unto us to be Contingents, yet were they fo indeed, there could 
have been no Prophecy; but only Predidions, which were contingent- 
ly true or falfc. So that with refpcd: to the Deity, there can be no fuch 
thing : As in the Chapter, Of the Nature of Providence^ I have faid and 
proved. Or, which is all one, that there can be no Contingent, (eem- 
ingly. To loofc and independent, but it is a Link of fome Chain. And 
consequently, the foreknowledge which God hath of it, is as certain 
as that he hath of arfy other Event. 

3. A Prophecy then, or Prophetick Predidion, is a Declaration of 
the Divine Prefcience, looking at any diftance through a Train of In- 
finite Caufes, knosvn and unknown to us, upon a fure and certain Ef- 
fed. So that the Prophecies contained in the Scriptures, fiippofing 
them to come within this Definition, are as wonderful as any Miracles 
therein recorded. All the Qiieftion then, which can be put, is only 
in Point of Fad. Whether the Prophecies contained in the Scriptures 
were really fuch, in the Senfe aforefaid ? or were only the Dreams of 
Phanciful, or the Conjedures of Crafty Men, who had the luck, or 
the forefight to hit upon fome Events? But that they are really fuch, as 
aforefaid, will be acknowledged, if we confider, either the Manner 
of their being given, or the Matter of them, or the£vidence where- 
with they have been fulfilled. 

4. As God thought fit to make ufe of Means, in the working of 
Miracles ; fo likewife in the revealing of Prophecies, and of his Mind 
in other refpeds unto Men. To Mofes^ by real Words ,• to whom he 
is often faid to fpeak, while he was well awake ,• And by real Sights or 
Vifions ; as of all the Patterns which he faw while he abode in the 
Mount. The Sight might be real, though only of Similitudes. To 
the High Prieffs by Urim and Thummim. To other Prophets by fuch 
Words agd Vifions as were impreffed, not upon their Senfcs, but their 
Phancies, eitlier in a Dream, as for the mofl part; or fometimes, 
awake, as i Kings 3. 1 5. where the Eflicacy of the Mufick which Eli" 
fba called for, was fuccedaneous to the force of Sleep. And it is pro- 
bable, that MuHck wasufed as a help, in compofingall the Prophetick 
Pfalms. Which way foever the Phancy was wrought upon , the Im- 
prefi on was many times fo very flrong, as to make them fick, or faint, 
or otherwife to operate upon the Body, as all flrong Phancies are ufed 
to do. 

Hhh f,Yet 

2IO As they Afl)ear from Book iV. 

f. Yet we arc not to fuppofe , that God mi^de an Immediate 
nk of thefe Means ,- but that the Holy'Angels wcrf. empJo}''d to efTccft 
and manage them all. That they have a Pouer to operate upon the 
Minds, as well as the Bodies of Men , 1 have before proved, in the 
Chapter, 0/ Qcckftial Mind. And the fame is agreeable unto u hat tiie 
Scriptures teach. For Evil Angels themlelvcs have been permitted to 
do it : As when in i Kings %i.. 1.1. they went forth^ and became a Ly- 
ing Spirit in the Mouth of Ahai/s Prophets. And we have no ground 
to think that God's Menial Servants fb.culd have any left Authority 
or Skill.' And whereas, in giving the Law, God is o'.ten laid, To 
fpeak unto Mofes in the Tabernacle : In the yth of Numhrs^ 8,9. 'tis 
alfo (aid, T/Mt when Mofes went into the Talernacle^ he heard the Voice 
of One f peaking to him, that is, of one who was God's Vicegerent herein. 

6. But although good and bad Angels have a power to offer the 
Images of things, both to the Senfes, and the Phancics of Men ; yet 
having brought them thither, how far they operate afterwards upon 
the Intelled:, is more than they can have any certain knowlcge of. 
In regard the Phancy hath an Arbitrary Power of forming many other 
Images, wherein they havcno hand. So that the utmoll; we may allow 
them to know, doth not £it all detrad: from the Title of yacfkoyvJc-ri; 
as proper to God only. Who hath referved to himfelf, the Power of 
entrance within this Sandum San^orum , the Intelled:ual Part of the 

-I'-fj. Neither doth it follow, that the Revelation made by Angels as 
God's Agents, was a meer Phantafm : But was of that nature, as though 
it began in the Phancy,yet it always terminated in the Underftanding. 
The Images whereby it was reprefented, being chofen and appointed 
by God himfelf J to whom the way and meafure of Communication, 
between the Phancy and the Underftanding, are perfed:ly known. The 
Prophets then, though they did not always know the meaning of the 
Revelation j yet was it pollible for them always to have aflurance of 
the Reality, that is to fay, the Divinity hereof. 

8. And that they always had , is very clear, from various Exam- 
ples. The Prophet, who in iKing-i^. againfl: the Command God 
had given him, hearkened to one who lied to him j was fbcn after flain 
by a Lyon, for fo doing: The juftice of which Punifliment, ftrongly 
implieth, the certainty which the Prophet had of God's Command to 
the contrary. When Abraham was commanded to facrince Ifaac, his 
dutiful, and his only Son ; the Son of his bed beloved Wife, of his Old 
Age, and of the Promife ,• and in contradiction to a Law, folemnly 
given to the World, againlt the Ihedding of Innocent Blood ; yet re- 
folved to obey. Which fo pious and wife a Man would never have 
done, had he not been fure, as he could be of any thing elfe, that this 
Command was not a Phantafm , but Divinely given. Neither, with- 
out thinking unworthily of God , can we fuppofe, that he rewarded 
Abraham v^nxhlht greateft Blefling he ever beftowed on any Man, and 
with the greateft Solemnity of an Oath, only for his being obedient 
to a Whimfey. Elijah then ofTer'd a moft publick Sacrifice upon Mount 
Carmel, when High Places Vv-ere forbidden. But who can think, that 
one of his Eminent Sandity, would have done this, upon a bare Ima- 
gination, without being very certain, as he was, i J/«g. 18. 36. of 
Authority from God, for what he did ? I will add one more Inftance. 


Chap. VI. t he P KOFHEC^iES. 2_m 

Benhadan, not honefily keeping the Articles of Peace, made with Ahah^ 
.Ahah, from the juHice of his Caufe, and his Succefs in beating that 
King twice before, was encouraged by 400 of his Prophets, to fight 
him again. Yet one fingle Micaiah^ i Kings Z2, with admirable Re- 
folution oppofirg them all, ibretels Ahab ot certain Death, if he did ; 
and bids all the People, to bear witnefs of what he faid. Which no 
Sober Man, without the grearefi: alTurance of a Divme Commiflioo, 
would have done. And for his Sobriety, let his Anfwers to Ahah 
fpeak for him. 

9. The Matter likewife of Prophecies, iliews the certainty which 
the Prophets had of the Revelation made of them. If of things of 
their own Age and Country ,• they could not but expe<5t, to be (loned, 
or confounded, in cafe of Falihood. If of things at a great diftance of 
Time, to fome Hundreds of Years; or of Place, unto which they 
were altogether Strangers; what ground could they have for Con- 
jectures? or what, for any to fuppofe their Predictions were no more; 
when as they were fpoken of thofe things, wherein fb many of t^iem, 
and fo often, agreed ? 

10. The Weight of the Matter, alfb (liews the Majefty of the Author. 
As being, not only concerning the Condition of the Jeivifh State, 
through all Changes, until its final Diflblution : but likewife, of their 
Neighbours round about, and of all the Chief Kingdoms in the World. 
Whole Crimes and Punifhments, God was pleafed, by Jenah^ Jeremiah^ 
Ezekiel, and other Prophets, folemnly to reprove, and foretel. That 
albeit the Jews were his cholen People ; yet his Juflice every where, 
and the Univerfality of his Government, might be attefted and own'd. 

11. Again, there are fome Prophecies of that nature, that they can- 
not be faid to be fulfill'd , fo long as the World continues ; but are 
always fulfilling. So Mofes , fpcaking of the Locufts, which God 
brought upon ^g^/"/ ; tells us, not only, that they were fuch, as never 
were before, but plainly and peremptorily, fuch as Ihould never he 
again : which no Man, if but of ordinary Senfe, would have adven- 
tured to fay, without a Divine Authority. How great too, is that 
Speech of God, in promifing, Gen. 9. 11, that there fhould never 
more , be an Univerfal Deluge ? That neither the fame , nor any 
equivalent Caufes, lliould ever meet again, to produce another. And 
in promifing, Gen. 8. ai. That While the Earth remained^ Seed-time 
and Harveji^ Summer and Winter^ and Day and Nighty fljould not ceaje. 
Neither Mofes^ nor any Man, could have told, but that fome time or 
other, the Earth might be forced, by fome unknown Caufe, to quit 
the Ecliptick Line. Who then but God, that made the World could 
predict, it never (hould > Or whom befides, could it have become to 
utter that Prediction. 

IX. But the Prophecies which are compleatly fulfilled, are much 
more numerous. Of which there are thofe Inftances, as well in re- 
lation to the Gentile World, as to the Jews ; wherein the Predictions, 
are fo fully anfwered by the Sequel of things ; as to prove them 
grounded on an Infallible, that is, a Divine Revelation. 

13. Nineveh^ and the ^i/)'"^"^ Monarch, repenting uponthe Mira- 
culous prefervation and preaching of Jonah; were fpared at that time. 
But growing hereupon more wicked, and dealing cruelly with the 
People of the Great God^ who by Jonah had made himfelf known to 

them : 

3 13 As they Appear from Book IV. 

them : their utter Deftrudion was refolved on, and prcdidled by Three 
Prophets. By Ifa/ah, Chap. lo. about i8o Years before it came to. 
paft. By Na hunt, about 120. And by Zephany, about 20, And ac- 
cordingly, by Nabopollafar, General of the King's Army, and AflyageSy 
Vice-Roy of Media, was then taken, with the King: and To far depo- 
pulated , and ruined, and the Monarchy with it; that no Prince, 
ever after, attempted to re-edify it. And is, at this time, a fmall 
Town, which no Traveller, were it not for its antient Glory, would 
efteem worth the feeing. 

14. The falle and treacherous ufage, which the Captive Jeivs met 
withal, from the TyWd'wi ; was forelhewed to Joel, Chap. 3.; and to 
Amos, Chap, i ; about 30 Years before the partial Captivity of the 
Ten Tribes, by Tiglath-Pilefer-, and 70 Years, before the Univcrla/ 
by Shalmanefer. And their Punifhment for the fame, aliout xoo Years 
he^ova Tyrui \wzs (nhdutdhy Nehuchadnezzar. Then the greatefl: Mart 
in the World: and of that ftrcngth, as to hold out a Siege of Thirteen 
Ye^, The Calamities they fliould hereby fuftain : and their follow - 
ingTiaptivity for 70 Years ; were both predided by Ifaiah, Chap. 2 \ 
about 1 50 Years beforehand. And laft of all, Ezekiel , foretels the 
concluding Fate of this City. Whofe Prophecy, Chap. 17, though 
pronounced a little before the Siege laid againft it by the Babylonians : 
yet chiefly relates, to that made by Alexander, about xto Years after- 
ward. When, not being Surrender'd, as it was to tJebucbadnezzar 
upon Terms ,• but taken by Storm : the Inhabitants were all put to the 
Sword, or taken Captives ; and the City all burnt to the ground, aad 
lieth in its Ruins unto this Day. According to the peremptory Pre- 
didion of that Prophet, Verfe 3 5 of the fame Cliapter : The Merchants 
among the People fhall hifs at thee ; thou /halt he a Terror, and never ■ 
Jhalt he any more. 

If. The Egyptian Monarchy, was once very great. As appears by - 
the Exploits of one of their Kings; mtniiontdhy Manetho, Herodotus, 
Diodorus, and Tacitus, under the feveral Names, of Sethofis, Sefojlris^ 
Sefoofis, and Ramjes ; all the fame Man , as the Primate l/Jher well 
conjedures. And after all that he had won in AjJa, was loft again ; 
it is yet certain, that a great part of Africa, continued in Subjedlion 
under his Succedbrs for a long time. In fo much, thzt Apries, whom 
the Prophet Jeremy calls Pharaoh Hophra, when tlie Ajfyrian Monar- 
chy was grou n great, was then able to take Sidon and other Cities 
iVom the Phanicians ; and getting a great Vidory over them and the 
Cyprians in a Sea-Fight, returned with much Spoil. From whence- 
forward, he looked on himfclf, to be Invincible. And is therefore 
perfnnated by Ezekiel, Chap. 29. 3, asfpcaking., like Nebuchadnezzar 
of Babylon, thofe haughty words. My River is mine own, and I have 
made it for my f elf. And by the fame Prophet, is compared, as 
well as Nebuchadnezzar , unto a great Eagle. And knew his own 
flrength fo well, as to undertake the defence of Jerufalem againfl him : 
though afterwards, not out of fear, but treachery, he left the City 
in the Lurch. For which caufe, when he was now invefled with 
great Power and Glory, and in a fair way, to fecoqd the Atchievements 
of his Anceftofs: the Prophet Jeremy predids his Fall, Chap. 44. 30. 
And both he, and Ezekiel, the overthrosv of his Kingdom, and tffe 
Captivity and Difperfion of his People, Jer. 43.46. Ezek. 29. 30, 31. 

* Both 

Chap.VL the PROPHECIES. 213 

I Both of them alfo predid the return of their Captivity, Jer. 46. x6. 
' Ezck. 19. 14. And the latter, after the fet time of 40 Years. Notwith- 
(landing which, Ezekiel ^Adts, Ih.z.tE^pt fliould never after this reco- 
ver her former ftrength, fo'as to rule over other Nations as Ihe had done; 
hut he the hafefl of Kingdoms ; which alfo came ta pafs. For foon after 
their Revolt from under Cyrus ^ they were again fubdued by Camhyfes; 
and were for the molt part a Tributary Kingdom , both under the Per- 
Jians and the Macedonians : 'Till the Romans, firfl: difpofing hereof, at 
their pleafure; in the end, made it a Province. As at this day it is no 
better than a Bafliawlliip, under the Grand S'tgnior. 

16. Bahylon, once the Glory of the Eaji, for the intolerable Pride 
and Luxury of the King and People, Ifa. 47. 7, 8, 10. The Cruelty 
wherewith the Prophet iorefaw they would ufe the ^^wj, ver. 6. Their 

' Infatiable Thirfl of Dominion, Habak. 2. 6 lo. And the Prophane 

and Villanous Riot they committed in the Temple, Jer. 5-1. 11. was 
threatned by thefe three Prophets with utter Ruin. Bylfaiah, to Ihew 
the certainty of it, in fix fevcral Chapters, viz. 13, 14, xi, 43, 46, 47. 
about z lo Years before it came to pafs ; by Halakkuk, about 1 70. And 
by Jeremy, Chap. x^. iz. Seventy Years. The end of which Years he 
fixes for the fet time. 

17. Their Prcdidion of fundry Particulars relating to it, is alfb 
wonderful : The Truth whereof is evidenced, partly by fome Hiftori- 
cal Remarks in the Prophecy of Ddfwif/, and partly by the Relations of 
Herodotus and Xenophon. Ifaiah fmgles out a Perfian, and gives him 
withal the Sirname of Cyrus, for the Captain of the Army againfl Ba- 
bylon, Chap. 44. x8. And Jeremy afligns him itiQ Medes , for his chief 
Conlcderates, Chap. 51. x8. as we know they were. Jeremy faith, 
That the Bahyloniam fliould hear a Rumor of their Enemies, the Year 
before they came near the City, ver. 46. For Cyrus, when he came to - 
the River Gyngis, for want of Tranfport Veflels, could go no further, 
till by cutting a great many Chanals from the Ri,ver, he brought it to 
fo low an Ebb, as to be fordable ; and Co marched thence the year fol- 
lowing. In which Performance, what Ifaiah had foretold. Chap. 44. 
Z7. began likewife to be fulfilled : That faith to the Deep, Be dry, and I 
will dry up thy Rivers. Jeremy further tells us. That though the bed 
part of the Chaldean Army, the Chivalry, fliould come forth to fight 
with Cyrus, ver. 17. yet like Women they fliould fbon make a Cowardly 
Retreat into the City, verfe 30,- which they alfo did. With Ifaiah, 
Jeremy further forefliews, Chap. 50.38. That upon the coming of 
Cyrus, a Drought fhould befall the Waters of Babylon. For Cyrus draw- 
ing off the Waters of Euphrates, by feveral broad and deep Canals ; 
he thereupon made an eafie entrance into the City. This being done, 
Jeremy alfo faith. Chap. ^i. 31, That one Poft fhould run to meet 
another, to fhew the King of Babylon that his City is taken at one end. 
Not only in regard of its great extent, zo Miles over : but becaufe the 
King and his Lords, who fliould have been prefent, where there was 
the greatelt danger; were fo fecure, as then to be Feafting in his 
Palace. The fame Prophet defcribes beforehand, the Revels of this 
Feaft, Chap. 51. 38, 39: They fhall roar together like Lyons, they fhall 
yell as Lyons Whelps : in their Heat, I will make their Feafis, and will 
make them drunken, &c. So Daniel, Chap. 5. i, 4, tells us, that the 
King made a great Feajl^ to a Tfjoufand of his Lards, and drank Wine 

I i i before 

2 14 As they Af fear from Book iV. 

lefore theThoufand : And that in their Drink^ they praijed^ or zsjerem, 
roared out in praijjng, the Gods of Gold, Silver, Brafs, Iron, Wood, and 
Stone. And ro Ihew, not only the Year, but the particular time of ir, 
wherein the City fliou Id be Taken ; the fame Prophet, Chap. 51.41, 
doth not fay, How iSBaiylon, hut how is Shejhak Taken} The Revels 
which were now made, being upon the Feflival, which was Inflitutcd 
in honour of Sefach, the Goddefs ot Babylon, and called by the Greeks, 
"S-aKyoLia, & ^Zanioui tijj^fxti. And as Jeremy forefliews the Defblation , 
which immediately followed : So both Ifaiah and himfelf, the final 
Ruin of that C'ity. It /hall never be inhabited, fays Ifaiah, Chap. 1 3 . 
to, x\, from Generation to Generation ; but wildBeafts of the Defart fhall 
lie there, and their Houfes fhall be fall of doleful Creatures. Tloe Wild 
Beafls of the Defart^ fays Jeremy, Chap. 50. 39, fhall dwell there-, it . 
fhall be no more inhabited for ever. Which was, indeed Gradually, but 
Literally fulfill'd. Firil Cyrus made the City a Widow ; not being 
lliled the King of Babylon, but of Perfia. Then Hiflafpis, rebelling againll 
Darius, broke down the Walls. Next, Seleucus Nicanor, (poyled it of 
the Chief Citizens, with tlieir Wealth ,• both which he carried to Se- 
leucia, now Bagdet, about 50 miles diftant. After which, the Parthi- 
ans took away the Remnant, to Ctefiphon. And in the time of Adrian, 
nothing was left, but the bare broken Walls. Within which, for fome 
time, were kept all forts of Wild Bcafts for Chafe. But at this time, 
fays Benjamin Bar Jona, in his Itinerary, tho the Ruins of Nebuchad. 
ttezzars Palace are flill to be feen j yet no Body dares to venture in, for. 
fear of Serpents and Scorpions which poffefs the Place. 

18. The Prophecies of Daniel, are alfo great and Noble. Nebuchad- 
nezzar s Image, Chap. %. is (b far interpreted by the Prophet himfelf, 
verfe 38, to 43. as eafily to be underflood of the Four Pagan Monar- 
chies. The Head of the Image, the Babylonian, being of all the Rich- 
eft, is (aid to be of Goldi The Silver Breaft and Arms, were the Se- 
cond, "yfr/e 39. Largfr, but lefs wealthy : arifing from the Coalition 
of Three great Kingdoms ,♦ the Breaft, the Babylonian ; the Two Arms, 
the Median, and the Perjian. The Brazen Belly and Thighs, which 
fhould rule over all the Earth, verfe 39, were the Grecian. Still lefs 
Opulent, tho of greater Extent : And the Thighs , the Two chief 
Kingdoms of the Four into which it was divided, in the North and 
South. The Iron Legs, were the Roman, verfi 40. fignifying the In- 
vincible Courage of that People, without any Wealth. Which they 
neither had, nor minded, till upon the Conqueft of Afia. The Feet 
and Toes, which were of Iron mixed with Clay : forefliewed, that the 
Roman Empire, in the latter end of it, Ihould be divided, verfe 41. 
For irom the time oi Antoninus Pius, who adopted Marcus Aurelius, and 
Miius Ferus ; it was govern'd, for the ftioft part, by Conforts, who 
had their diftind: Provinces. And after Conflantine, was divided into 
Eafl and Weft. And the Iron being mixed with Clay, alio forefliewed. 
That the Romans fliould mingle themjelves with the Seed of Men, ver. 43. 
And accordingly, the Emperors, after the firft Twelve Romans, were 
chofen out of all other Nations. In the Hundred Years, next before 
Conflantine, of no lefs than Seven Nations , befides Italians. Laltly,. 
By the Stone cut out without Hands ; is meant, the Kingdom of Chrirt, 
fee up without the help of any Human Wiftiom, or Military Power. 
Tills Stone, brake the Feet of the Image. For when the Roman Empe- 


Chap. VI. the PROP HEC lES. 21 

rors became Chriftian j as the Apotheofn, was then laid afide ; fo the 
Imperial Power and Laws, were in many points alter'd, and flood en- 
tirely upon a New Foundation. And together with the Iron and Clay ; 
the Brafi, Silver^ and Gold^ were alfo broken : while the Stone grew 
into a Mountain which filled the Earth. For theChriflian Religion, be- 
ing by the Apoftles carried into all Nations ; and with the Emperors, 
the whole Empire, at length, becoming obedient to the Faith : the 
Roman ^ Grecian^ Perftan^ and Babylonian Idolatries, were deftroyed 
throughout the World. • 

19. Some of the following Prophecys, in this Book, are very myfte- 
rious : But I will inftance in one more, Chap. 8. which is fo far alfo in- 
terpreted, as to be fpoken of the GrecianVowtr, Verfe 2,1. and beyond 
all contradidfion, is fulfilled in every Parr. The Prophet Verfe 3. faw 
a Ram with two Horns. Interpreted, Ferfe 20. to be the two Kings of 
Media ^nd Perjia. Odheih two Horns ^ the higher ^ is faid, to come up 
la(i, Verfe 3 . For though Darius the Mede^ upon Bel/h^zars being 
flain, took the Kingdom, Chap. ^. 31. yet he received it oi^ Cyrus the 
Perfian, a younger Man, and Prince of a later date ; b;it in this Expe- 
dition the Captain, and the Conqueror. And is therefore faid, Ver.^. 
To fpread his Dominion, and become great. After this, ver. 5. he faw 
anHegoat, which came from the Weft. That is, from Greece^ ver. xi. 
which lies Wellward of Perfia. And is faid. To come on the face of the 
whole Earthy ver. 5". That is, to march through the whole Perfian Em- 
pire : And to come fo, as not to touch the ground^ ver. 5. That is, with 
that wonderful Expedition, that he feemed not to march, but to fly : 
Which alfo had a notable Horn between his EyeSy ver. 5. viz. Alexander ; 
properly called, the fir ft King^ ver. xi. though not of Macedonia, yet 
of the Grecian Empire, Then ver. 7. he faw him come clofe unto the Ram. 
'i or Alexander carried the War out of his own Kingdom, into the heart 
of the Perfian. And there was none that could deliver the Ram out of his 
hand, ver. 7. For though Darius had in his Army 400000 Men , yet 
who knows not of his woful Overthrow ? But when the He-Goat was 
grown ftrong^ ver. 8. the great Horn was broken : That is, when Alexan- 
der had ereded the Grecian, on the Ruins of the Ptr^^iw Monarchy, he 
prefently died of a Feaver. After whom, came up Four notable Horns, 
towards the four Winds of Heaven, verfe 8. For upon Alexanders Death, 
tho a great number of Captains, at the firft, divided among themfelves, 
the Provinces of the Empire : yet to make good this Prophecy, they 
were quickly reduced unto Four Kingdoms, let up by Four of the 
Chief J viz. the Egyptian, by Ptolemy ; the Syrian, by Seleucus ; the 
Grecian, by Philip ; and that of the • Leflcr Afia, by Antigonus. And 
verfe xz, it is alfo faid, That thefe Yoviv fball ftand up out of the Nati- 
on : forefliewing, that they ihould be all Greeks ; as they were. And 
in the latter time of their Kingdom, verfe 13 ; that is, a little before the 
Romatfs fwallowed them all up. When the Tranfgreftors were come to the 
full, verfe 23 : that is, when the jfeivi-, and their Enemies, were both 
grown to the height of Wickednefs. Out of one of the Four, verfe 9. 
came forth a little Horn, which waxed very great , towards the South ^ 
the Eaft , and the Pleafant Land. That is , Anti'ochus Epiphanes ; 
whofe Arms, from a mean beginning, prevailed in Egypt, Syria, 
Babylonia, Armenia, Perfia, and Judea. Who is faid too, To be a King 
offeree countenance, and underftanding darkfentenceSj ver. xj. Very aptly, 


2i6 ^^ '^9 ^tt^^^ f^^^ Book lY. 

for he was cruel and crafty, and undcrftanding this Prophecy to be 
fnoken of himlelf , made bim refolve to- fulfil it. He is therefore al(b 
faid, ver. lo. To caji doiv'nfome of the Hojl of Heaven^ and of the Stars to 
the ground: For he conflrained (bme of the Jews, both People and Pricfls, 
to abjure the Law of Mofes, and receive iiis own. AnA^verfe I^. .'tis 
{aid, That becaufe ofTranfgreJJion, an Hoft was given him againjt the daily 
Sacrifice. And ver. 24. That his power fhoufd he mighty, hut not hy his 
own power. For God being provoked by the vvickcdnefs of the Jews, ftir- 
rcdup two Kiqgs, Eurnenes, znd Atta/us, to aflift and flrengtherr him 
againft that People. And one of the two High-Priefts, Jafon and Oni~ 
as, to fupplant the other, perfidioufly opened to him the Gates of the 
City. And ver. 1 4. 'tis (aid. That he Jhould thus prevail, unto two thou- 
fand three hundred Days^ viz. Natural Days, as appears ver. x^. That is, 
about fix Years. And from the time that Antiochiu being in Egypt, re- 
fblved upon his Expedition againft Jerufalem ; to the cleanfing and re- 
lloring the Service of the Temple, were fix Years , and (bmething 
over. But 1^x5- 'tis faid, Th^it he Jhould he hroket) without hand .- That 
is, not by any Human Means, but the flroke of Divine Vengeance : 
And (uch accordingly was his fearful End. Thus far of Prophecies re- 
lating to the Gf«/i/f World. 

zo. Of thofe concerning the jffw^, and their Anceftors, there are 
many which relate unto particular Perfons. So peculiar was the regard 
the Divine Providence had towards them. When Abraham had refufed 
the King of Sodom's Rewards, and might well have expeded, the tour 
Kings he had lately overcome by furprize. Gen. 14. would have con- 
fpir'd to deftroy him , God takes the occafion to aHure him, Chap, i ^. 
i,!^. 'B.e would he his fhield, and his exceeding great reward; and that 
he Jhould go to his Fathers in peace. Jofeph dreams, Gen. 37. 9. That the 
Sun, Moon, and Eleven Stars made obeifance to him .- Upon which his Fa- 
ther asks, ver. 10, Shall I, and thy Mother, and thy Brethren come to how^ 
down our felves to thee to the ground > Which, as it came to pafs in (iib- 
flance, upon Jo/f/^'s Preferment, and his Father's dependance on him 
\n Egypt; fowhen his Brethren, Chap. 50. 18. Went and fell down be- 
fore his face, faying^ We be thy Servants ; it was literally and circumftan- 
tially fulfilled. Upon Jeroboam's ered:ing and offering his Prophane 
Altar and Sacrifice, i Kings 13. i. a Prophet was (ent to tell him, ver. 2. 
That a Kipg of the Pojlerity of David, Jofiah by Name, Jhould offer the 
Priejls of the High Places, upon that very Altar: which came to pafs 
about 350 years after, 2 Kings 23. 16. God tells Jeremy^ Chap. i^. zo, 
ITe would make him as a fenced Brazen-wall, aqjiinft whom the Jews fhould 
fight, hut not prevail ; for he would he with him, to deliver him. Which 
he alfb did, in a wonderful manner. The people cried out, He u wor- 
thy to die : The Princes confpired againft him ,• and Jehoiakim the King 
would have burnt him alive. He was caft into the Dungeon, where 
he Tank ,• and for fome time remained in the JVlire, and without food : 
Yet Ebedmelick, a Stranger, and a Courtier, and fome or other of the 
Princes at other times, concealing him, or interceeding for him, faved 
his Life. That extraordinary Prophecy concerning Zedekiah, 
X.V- That he fhould not fee Babylon, though he Jhould die there; I have al- 
ready mention'd upon another Argument, in the 3d Chapter. And 
thePaffage wherewith this Prophecy is introduced, ver. 12. is alfo re- 
markable. He^ viz. Nebuchadnezzar, Jhall cover his face^ viz, Zedeki- 



Chap VI. the PKO PHECl ES' 3^ 

ah'Sj that he fee not the ground with his Eyes: That is, in difgrace, be- 
fore his further Punifliment ; as Ahajuerus did Human s, Efth. 7. 8. For 
God would the Prophecy fliould be enigmatically declar'd ; that neither 
the Bahylonians, nor the Jews^ for fundry reafons, fliould underftand it, 
till after it was fulfilled. Principally for the hardening of ZeJek/ah's 
Heart; who, fuppofing £2?^/^/ to fpeak Contradidions, refolved not , 
to regard what he faid. Befides thele, there are many more Predidi- 
ons relating to fingle perfbns ; of the fulfilling whereof, the Sacred 
Writers make no Remark , but leave it to be done by the obferving 

XI. The Prophecies of 3f<ico^ and />f(7/^j, Gf». 49. andDe«^. 33. con- 
cerning the feveral Tribes ; as they agree together, fo were very evi- 
dently fulfilled. Firft, As Reuben was the firft Born, Jacob calls him, 
The excellency of dignity and ftrength , ver. 3. That is, by Right of Pri- 
mogeniture, both the Royal, and tiie Sacerdotal Dignities, with a dou- 
ble Ihare of his Patrimony, belonged to him. But in regard he had 
been guilty of Inceft j he tells him plainly, That he fhould not excel .- 
That is, that he had forfeited his Right, to be diflributed among the 
other Tribes ,• as it alio was. And Dathan and Abiranty who being 
Princes of thisTribe, Deut. 11. 6. took upon them to affift Corah, in in- 
vading the Priefthood ; with a purpofe to poflefs themfelves of the So- 
vereignty, were miraculoufly deftroyed. And Deborah, Judg.^. 1^,1 6. 
emphatically puts a Mark of Difgrace upon Reuben, for their flieepifli- 
nefs above the other Tribes. But becaufe this Tribe, though fitted 
with a Commodious Country , on the Eaji of Jordan ; yet ge- 
neroufly engaged to join in all the War with the other Tribes: Mofes Co 
far turned the Curfe into a BlefTing, as to fay, De«^ 33. 6. Let Reuben 
live, apdnot die, and let not his men be few., That is, as a reward for 
his Service, let not this Tirbe be extindt, or contemptible. 

2x. The Rights which Reuben loll, were bellowed fcverally upoft 
Three other Tribes. The Regency, upon that oijudah. Gen. 49. 8, 10. 
Therefore, befides the Kings oijudah, whereof three were Monarchs j 
bthniel, the firft of the Judges, and Zerubbabel the firll of the Princes 
after the Captivity, with his Succeflbrs, for near 3 go Years, were of 
this Tribe. Which alfo continued more diftind: and vifible than the 
reft, till the coming of Shiloh ; that is, our Saviour : And gave the 
Name of Jews to the whole Nation,- and of Judea, to their Country. 
By virtue of the fame Blefling, this Tribe received, with the Regency, 
whatever clfe was thereunto fuitable, viz. Courage, Prudence, Plenty, 
Strength, and Vidlorious Succefs , ver. 8, to ix. and Deut.^^.j. 
Therefore in all their Journeys through the Wiidernefs , this march- 
ed firll : This firft of all fought and beat the Canaanites ,• and of all the 
Tribes, was by far, the moft numerous, both in the Wiidernefs, and af- 
terwards in the Land of Canaan: According to the additional Blefling 
of Mofes,, Let JudaUs hands be fufficient for him. And laftly, the True 
Religion, which remained in this Tribe, when in the reft it was 

2.3. The Priefthood was beftowed on the Tribe of Levi. True it is, 
that this Patriarch,having a hand in the flaughter of the Shechemites, his 
Pofterity was accutfed hy Jacob, Gen.^^.j. Saying, I will divide them 
in Jacob, and feat ter them in Ifrael : That is, they Ihall live difperfed 
among the other Tribes, without any entire fliare, or Lot of Houfes or 

K k k Lands j 

2i8 As they A f pear from Book IV. 

Lanes; which they alfo did. But Firft Aa r oh ^ having loldJy afiiRtcf 
Mofes ^ in confounding the Idolatrous Pricds of il^)/'/', the Priefthood 
was given to him, and his Sons for tvtr^ Exod.%^.^. And herewixh 
the Office of teaching the Law, Deut. 33. 10. And the whole liibe of 
Lt'vi afterwards, iiaving, at JVIofess Command, performed a mofl fa- 
mous Ad of Ju-flice, upon the Worlhippers or the Golden CaJr, Exorl.-^x. 
a<5to r9. was chofen in lieu of the firft Born, to Miniftcr in the Ser- 
vice of the Tabernacle, and the Temple, Najw. 3.6, 7. For which, be- 
fidcs 48 principal Cities, out of the other Tribes, they had alio given 
them, a great and the bell part of the Offerings, and the Tithes, God 
himfelf becoming their Inheritance, £><?«/. r8.i. and thereby turning the 
Curie into a Blefiing. And as the Multiplication of the Tribe oijudah^ 
fo thi; Diminution of this , is obfervable ; all the other Tribes being 
more than double; and thofe of Judah and Dan^ treble unto this. 
Whereby the convenient fliare, which was allotted to them , was not 
overflock'd. And as all the Male Levites, from a Month old, and up- 
ward, wereziooo, iSfunt. 3.39. So the hrlt Born Males of all the other 
Tribes, from a Month old, and upward, inilead of which the Z-fi/ir^x 
were taken, ^'e/'.■t^. were 21x75. -ytrr. 43 ; very near the fame Number. 
So admirably did the Providence of God order this Equation, that the 
Curfe and theBleffing might decently meet together, and both of them, 
without interfering, be fulfilled. To thisBleding, Mofes adds his 
Prayer, Deuf. ■^' Smite through the loins of them ^ that rife againjl h'ir/i. 
Anfwer'd, not €>n!y in the rare and fucccfsful Valour of the MaccaleeSy 
but herein alfo , In that there never was any H. Priell, qo not in, nor 
after Herod's time, when by Money, or other Intereft they were fo 
often remov'd, excepting of the Tribe of Levi. 

14. The double Portion was given to Jofeph, an eminent Prophet 
and Confeflor in tlie Land of Egypt, and divided between his two Sons, 
Ephraim, and Manajfeh, Gen.^^.z^, z6. and iChron. 5. i. And here- 
withal, a Regency pointed at, in that part of Jacobs Bleffing, From 
thence is the fhepherd the fione oflfrael, ver. 24. Whereby it was prcdi<5l- 
ed, that as three of the principal Rulers and Deliverers of the whole 
Jewifli Nation, T/iz, Jojhua, Deborah, and Gideon; (b when it was divi- 
ded into two Kingdoms, Jeroboam, the firft King of the Ten Tribes, 
Ihould be of this Houfe. Which was alfo forelhewed by Mofes ; faying, 
Deut. 33. 17. That Jofeph with his horns , that is, Ephraim and Manajf- 
feh, fhould pujh the people together to the ends of the Earth. And what 
Jacob had predicted, G^w. 48. 19, 77:;^? the Tribe of Ephraim fhould be 
greater than that of Manajfeh ; was made good. As in the fituation of 
the fliare which fell to this Tribe : So m the multiplication hereof, 
above that of Manaffeh ; efpecially in the number of Warlike Men. 
Whereof Mofes foreftews, in confirming the fam.e Blefling, Deut. 33. 
.17. That there fhould be Ten in this Tribe, for One in the other. 

25. The Predidtions likewife of the other Tribes , were plainly ful- 
filled. 'Tisfaid of Benjamin^ Gen. 49. 27. That he fhould raven like a 
Wolf; in the morning devour the prey, and at night divide the fpoil. Fore- 
/hewing, that this Tribe fliould be added to that o[' Judah, for a fiipply 
of Auxiliary Troops upon occafion. And Ehud, Saul and Mordecai^ 
who were of this Tribe, made a prey of their Enemies. To Jacob's 
Blefling, Mofes adds, Deut. 33. 12. That as the beloved of the Lord, he 
fhould dwell in fafety bj him. Therefore as this Tribe w-as under the 



Chap, VI. the PROPHECIES, 2ip, 

proretftion of ^udah ; ib it dwelt, in part, in and nesiV Jerufaletn, and 
had the Temple witliin it felt'. And that he jhould dwell between hisjhoul' 
ders. Foretelling, that the Lot of this Tribe, Should come forth be- 
tween thofe ofjuduh and Epbraim ; Which it alio did, Jojh. i8. li. 

i6. The Tribe of Simeon was joined with that of Levi, in their Fa- 
ther's Curfe, Gen. 49. 7. / will divide them in Jacob, and Jcatter them in 
Ifrael : And therefore had no part of Caanan allotted to it, but what 
was given it out of that belonging to the Tribe oijudah. From whence, 
after they became numerous, fome of them alfo made an Inroad upon 
Gador, and Mount Seir, and there took polTelTion. 'Tisfaidof theTribc 
of Zebulon, Gen. 49, 1 5. That they Jhould dwell at the Haven of the Sea: 
That is, by the Mediterranean ; unto which one end of their Lot was 
extended. And£>^«f.3 3.1 8. That they (hould rejoice in their going out : Th?t 
isjin theirVoyages, And v. n). Should fuck of the abundance of the Seas, viz. 
by theirTraffick with their Neig!ibours,the Merchants of Tyre and 'Zidon. 
OUjfachar, Gen. 49. 1 5, That leeing Reft was good: that is, ftaymg at 
home: And the Land P leafant : fo as to enjoy him(e!f in his Tents, 
Deut. 33. 18 : Y{q bowed his Shoulders to bear: that is, fell to Husl>andry. 
Whereby, Deut. 33. 19, he fucked the Treafures hid in the Sand: as 
Zebulon did thole which came by Sea; and fo enjoyed great Plenty. 
Out of which, he was well contented to pay Tribute, Qen. 49. 1 5-. 
Of Dan, Gen. 49, 16, That he fliould judge his People., as one of the 
Tribes. So did Samfon z Danite. And, verfe 17, be a Serpent by the 
way, that biteth the Horfe'beels , fo that his Rider (hould fall backward. 
Elegantly expreffirtg, how Samfon dealt with the Philiftines, chiefly at 
his Death. And verfe 18, that he fhould wait for the Salvation of the 
Lord: That is, for the Affiftance, which the Houfe of jF(>/^/* gave this 
Tribe, againft the Amorites , f''^g- 5-}4- And D^«/. 35.22. That 
as a Lyon's Whelp, he fhould leap from Bafhan : as they did, vehen thev took 
Lefttem, Jofh. 19. 47. Of Gad, That a Troop Jhould overcome him^ 
hut he Jhould overcome at the lafl. Gen. 49. 19. As they alfo did, with 
Saul's artilfance, when Nahap the King of the Ammonites, came up and 
encamped againft Jabejh Gilead, i Sam. 11. To which Mofes adds, 
Deut. 3 3 , 20, That he dwelt as a Lyon, and feared the Arm, with the 
Crown of the Head. fore(he\ved 01 Jephtha the Gileadite, who over- 
threw with a great Slaughter, both the faid Kings, arid the Tribe of 
Ephraim, Judg. 11. 12. Oi Naphthali, Gen. 49. 21, That he wzsa 
Hind let loofe. Very aptly applied , as having excellent Pafture , 
wherein to range , as ijfachar had Tillage. And therefore faid by 
Mofes, Deut. 33. i 3, To be/«// with the Bleffings of the Lord. Aflign- 
ing him his Poflelfions, in the Weft and South : where accordingly, 
this Tribe obtained their Lot, Jefb. 19.34. And laftly^ of AJher, 
Gen. 49. 20, That his Bread Jhould he fat. And Dent. 33. 24, That ht 
.fhould dip his foot in Oyl. Hereby fignifying, his Lot fhould abound, 
not only with Corn, as Ijfachar s, but alfo with Wine and Oyl. 

27. The Predidions Hkewife of the Nation of the Jews, and the ful- 
filling of them, wiiether with refpect to thek Adverle, or Profperous 
Edits, arc no lefs Remarkable. The falfe w^ cowardly report of all 
the Spies, fent to fcarch the Land, excQ^t Caleb zvidjofhua, 2^«>w. 13. ' 
f : occafioncd the Peoples disbelief of God's Power and Promifc to 
bring them thither, Nm?w. i 4. For which caufe, he palled that juft 
Sentence, That all who were in the Mufter-Roll, except the two afore. 

faid .' 

-iao As they Appear from Book IV. 

• ■ — — 

{aid, fliould die in the Wildernefs, verfe 19. 30. And u hen they were 
numbred again, about x8 Years after, of more than 600000 Men, 
who were of the firft Mufter, not one fave Calei> and Jo/hua, was tiien 
left alive, verfe 64, 6j. 

28. If what the Jews faw done by God, againfl their Enemies, and 
for themfelves; the Terror wherewith his Laws were firil delivered ; 
the Comminations, Promifes, and vehement Suafions, wherewith they 
were reinforced ,• and the Three Solemn Covenants, wherewith they 
had bound themftlves ; be well confidered : it may Teem Impoifible for 
them ever to have forgotten ail. Yet they are foretold. Dent. 31.16, 
and Chap. 32, that they would as certainly do it, fo as to commit the 
moft abominable Idolatries, as if it were already done. And fb, no 
Iponer was fojhua dead, and the Elders his Contemporaries, but all 
came to pafs, Judg. x . 1 1 . 

29. And the Predidion of their Puniihment for the fame, is as clear 
and exprefs. fo(hua tells them, Chap. z3. 1 2, 1 3, That if they joyned 
affinity, with the remnant of the Nations, they had fiibdued ; they 
Ihould continue as Snares and Traps to them^ and as Scourges in their 
Sides^ and Thorns in their Eyes. And it appears, Judg. i , That not 
any one Tribe, was able totally to rid the Country ot them, where 
they had 'their Lot. And as Mofes had before told them, in that 
famous Prophecy, Deut. i8, that if they were guilty as aforefaid, they 
fhould by one Enemy or another, be continually opprefTed, verfe 3 3. 
So it appears by the Book of Judges ^ that in the {pace of about 400 
Years, viz. from their firft fettlement in Canaan^ to the Reign of David; 
they were by Six feveral Tyrants, one after another, very gnevoufly Op- 
prefledj taking all together, for above 100 Years ; a 4th part of the 
whole Time. After the Reign of 5o/owo«, were continual Wars be- 
tween Rehohoam and Jeroioam : and between their Succeflbrs, ^fa and 
Baa/ha. And efpecially between that wicked ^/;<7z and Pekah; who 
Slew in Judah^ izoooo in one Day. Befides the vexations they gave 
to one another; Their Temple, and the King's Treafiiries, wererobb'd 
and rifled by Shifhack King of Egypt ; Samaria, and other principal 
Cities of the Ten Tribes, taken by the King of Syria ; firft in the 
Reign oi Baajha, then oi Ahah, and of his Son Jehoram, when the 
Siege was accompanied with a difinal Famine. 

30. But the Prophets chiefiy infift upon the Captivity. Predided 
by God himfelf, Deut. 3Z. Z4, 25, x6. By Mofes, Deut. 28. 41, 63. 
By Jofhua, 23. i^, 16. By Solomon, i Kings 8. 46. By thefe, of the 
whole Nation. Of the Ten Tribes, by Hofea, 9. 17. 11. 5. and 13. 
,16. ^y Amos, 5'. 5. and 6. 7. And by Micah, Chap. i. Oijudah, 
hy Habakkuk, 1.9. By Zephany, 1.4. By If a i ah, 1,^.6, j. By Je- 
remiah, 15.3. By Ezekiel, 12. 11. And by thefe two, at fundry 
other times. 

31. Accordingly, firHTiglath-PileferKingo^ Affyria, carried away 
Captive, part of the Ten Tribes, x Kings i^.i^. Then Shalmanefer, 
befieging Samaria Tlvce^lQzxs, 2 Kings 17. 5, took away all the reft, 
and fo put an end to tl^^iCingdom. About the fame time, Sennache- 
rib took the fenced Cities ot Judah, 2 Kings 16. 13 ,• and carried a 
multitude of the People to Damafcus. After whom, the King of -Sj^- 
lon Befieged and Took Jerufalem twice, % Kings, 24, and 2,5, and fo 
compleated the Captivity of the whole Land. Mofes foretels them, 
■•i/?? that 


Chap.VL the PROPHECIES. 221 

that their Kings fliould not be flam, but carried Ca^ftives with the Peo- 
ple, Deut. 28.36; as were Manajfeh , Jehoiachim ^ and Zedekiah. 
That the Nation, which would take them Captives, fliould not be any 
of their Neighbours; but one, which neither they nor their Fathers 
had known, Deut.-L^.T^G. Ezekiel^ that this Nation, fliould be the 
Chaldeans. Jeremy, that Nebuchadnezzar fliould be the Man. And that 
the length of their Captivity, fliould be precifely 70 Years, x'y.ii. 
Attcflcd by Daniel^ 9. ^. Again, God, in Deut, 32. 23; Mofes, in 
Deut. z8. 21, 22, 23 ; and Ezekiel, 5. 12; forefliew the Miferies and 
Defolations, which fliould precede the Captivity, by horrible Famine, 
Plague, and Sword. And the Qook of LamentationSy pathetically de- 
cribes, how all came to pafs. Mofes, Deut. 4. 25. &• 28. 25-. and Eze- 
kiel, J. 12, both predict, that they fliould not be taken Captives into 
fome one Country ; but (cattcred among all the Kingdoms of the Earth. 
So in 2 Kings 17. 6, tis faid, that Shaltnanefer, carried the Ten Tribes 
into Halath, and Haher^ and the Cities of the Medes. And by Amos i. 
9, and Jeremy 40. 12. and 43. 5, it appears, tliat Judah was alfb dri- 
ven to duell, befides Damafcus, among the Tyrians , Moabites , Am- 
monites.^ EdomiteSy and many other Nations. And laftly, their Con- 
dition, when thus fcattered abroad, is as plainly foretold, Jerem. 44. 
12. and Ezek. 29, &c. That the Remnant of them, fhould be further con- 
fumed : as they were by Nebuchadnezzar's Army in Egypt. And that 
they fliould be in fear day and nifjjt, and have no ajfurance of their Life : 
as it befell them, through Hamans means, all over the Empire. 

32. After their Return, they had their Country Taken and Retaken, 
by feveral Kings ; who fought not againfl; them, but to win them: 
yet to their great Vexation. And they fuffered a world of Injuries 
from their Enemies. Chiefly from Antiochus Epiphanes, Prophefied of 
by Daniel, as is before fliewed. For after Jafon and Menelausy had by 
Villanous Pradtices, made themfelves Higli-Priefts, Robb'd the Tem- 
ple , and done other Enormous Deeds : God was pleafcd in his 
Righteous Judgment, to put them into that Tyrant's Hands. Who, 
being conquered by the Romans, obtained Judea, among other Coun- 
tries, for himfelf. And being, after fome Years, rid of him : they 
were tried, what ufe they would make hereof. But the High-Priefts, 
and generality of the People growing worfe and worfe ; they were 
permitted to contrive themfelves at laft, under the Roman Scourge. 
For Fompey, upon Hircanus the %d his Addrefs to him for Succour; 
Oppofed and Subdued Arijiobulus, the Ufurping Brother. But here- 
withal, abrogating the Royalty ; i/irc<j»ttx was only made High-Prieflj 
zr\d Antipater, Herod's¥ather,Procmztoroi Judea. And albeit //fr<;^/, 
by Craft and Flatteries, got himfelf declared King of Judea by the Se- 
nate : yet upon his decea(e, the People, having enough of one Idu- 
mean King, voluntarily Subjedted themfelves unto the Empire ; which 
fbon after, dealt with them, as they deferved. And as Mofes alfo plain- 
ly foretold, they would, Deut. 28.49, &c. That a Nation fhould come 
againfi them, from the end of the Earth, asfwift as the Eagle flyeth, whofe 
Tongue they fhould not under/land ; who would eat them up, and reduce 
them to thofeflreigbts, as to eat one another. Meant of the Romans, the 
mofl: remote, of all the Enemies they ever had, fingular for their Mi- 
litary Expedition, had the Eagle for their Enfign, and whofe Language 
was. unintelligible to them. And having devoured their Subftance by 

L 1 1 Ravenous 


— ^ JHI 

As they Affear from Book IV. ■ 

Ravenous Procurators j brought upon them at length, that Famine; 
wherein, by feeding, like Canibals^ upon one another, the Predidiion, 
to a Tittle, was fulfilled. 

33. The, Jews, notwithflanding all their Sufferings, enjo}-cd fundry 
great Blellings. Chiefly Three; a Numerous Offspring, the Land of 
Canaan^ and the Divine Prefence. Of the former, Abraham had the 
Pfomife, Four feveral times. Gen. 13, i^, 17, and 22. which was again 
confirmed to Ifaac,-Gen. x6; and to Jacol, Gen. 28; for their greater 
afTurance, itlliould be made good : as it alfo was, in an eminent man- 
ner. Firfl:, in Egypt: where the Children oi Ifraely tlio greatly op- 
prefTed, and many of their Males dcftroy'd : yet are laid, Exod. i. 7, 
9, 10, IX, XX, To increafe and multiply ahundantly^ fb as to/// the Landy 
and to make Pharaoh ']tzlous of them. 

34. Andnolefs, afterwards in C(i«<7df»,' as appears by feveral ways 
of account.' Partly, by the Number of their Towns. For whereas 
in England and Wales^ are contained about 39000 Square Miles : In 
Judea^ about xoo Miles long, and 70 over; there are but j 4000 : not 
much more, than a Third part of the former Number. Yet upon this 
Spot of Ground, flood about as many Towns, as are in England and 
Wales; reckon'd about 8800. For there belonged to the Tribe's of Ju^ 
dab and Simeon^ at lead 1 1 5- Cities, or Walled Towns, Jofh. i ^. To 
each of which, if we allow Ten Villages, there were 1265 Towns, 
belonging to thofe Two Tribes. 'tH faid likewife, Deut. 3. 5, and 
Jofh. 13. 30, That in the Kingdom of Og alone, were 60 Cities, with 
high Walls ; befidcs a great many Unwalled Towns, all given to the 
Half Tribe of Manajfeh. If then we allow to each Pair, one Pair with 
another, the like Number, as to the Tribes of Judah and Simeon -, they 
make together, 75^90 ; not much fhort of the Number of Towns in 
England and Wales ; a Territory, almoft Thrice as big. Xiphilinus al- 
fo reports, from Dio CaJJius, That when Adrian fent his Army, under 
Julius Severus^ into Judea: no fewer than 985 very noted Towns, 
>t^|M<z/ m/uut?iTa.'ztxj, were by them deftroyed. To each of which, if 
we allow but 8 Villages, they make 8865, fbmewhat exceeding the 
Number of Towns in England and Wales. 

3 5. The fame may be gather'd from the number of the Militia, com- 
pared with that of the other Males, and the proportion between the 
whole number of Males and Females. The Militia confifled of all 
thofe who were able to go forth to War , from xo Years old, and up- 
ward : That is, as is probable, from xot0 5o, not beyond. The Fa- 
tigue of War, being harder than any Service belonging to the Taberna- 
cle, or the Temple : for which that Age was not exceeded. And it 
was the Age wherein the Roman Soldiers, probably in imitation of the 
Jews^ became Emeriti. Or if we allow, that fbme hardy Men above 
that Age, were muflered ; we may yet fuppofc, that in fo healthful a 
Country, as many lived beyond 70, as were fit to go to War, beyond 
50. The number then of Males, not muflered for the War, may be 
reckon'd 5th part more, than of thofe vvhich were. Now Jehojhaphat's 
Militia, is reckon'd, xClron.iy. 1 160000; befides Ganfbns, in all 
the fenced Cities of Judah. But becaufe this Mufler includes only the 
Tribes of jf«^/<j/j, Benjamin^and Simeon; we will take that, which was 
madehy Joah^ at the appointment of P-jw^^, including all the Milita- 
ry Tribes, hut that oi^ Benjamin^ and confifled of 1300000. To which 


Chap. VI. the PKOPHEC lES, 229 

if we add only looooo for the Tribe of Benjamin^ and 5:0000 for that 
oi Levi, not number'd ; they make 145:0000, the number oftheMi^ 
litia Males. Wliereunto, if wc add again, 5th. part, wz. 36^5oo,• it 
makes 181x5:00, the number of Males exempted from the MiUtia : 
Which being alfo added to 1450000, the number of the Militia, makes 
316x500, Males. Next, the proportion of Males unto Females, as 
Sir William Petty obferves from the Bills of Mortality, is as 13 toix. 
If then, from 3x6x500, the number of Males x5oooo; that is, about 
i|th part, be deducted ,• there remains for the number of Females, 
30XX500 ,• which being added to the number of Males, makes in all, 
6x75000. And according to Sir William Tettys Computation , the 
number of Souls in England and Wales, is about 6440000; tho' Tome 
think, he has overreckon'd. And the Account I have now given, is 
yet the more credible, if we confider what Jofephus reports ; That at 
the Return of the Captivity, there went out of BahyloHy of the Tribes 
ofjudah, and Benjamin, more than 4500000, that were above ix years 
old. As aKo wh3.t Calv if us obferves from the fame Hiftorian, that 
fome time before our Saviour's Birth, the Pafchal Lambs being num- 
bered, were found X56500. . To each of which, if only ix perfons be 
allowed, they make 3000000 of thofe only, who were able, and per- 
mitted to be at the Paflbver. Wherewith we may alfo compare the 
Sacrifice , which Solomon offer'd at the Dedication of the Temple, of 
xxooo Oxen, and ixoooo Sheep. 

3 6. Another great Blefiing, which the Jews enjoyed, was the Land 
oi Canaan, promifed to Ahraham, for his Pollerity, as an everlafting In- 
heritance , Gf;?. 13.15. and 17. 8. To Jfaac, Gf«. x6. 3. To Jacohy 
Gen. 36. IX. And Jacob and Jofeph, both prophely, of their Return from 
Egypt thither. Gen. 48. xi. and 50. X4. Which Predidtions were made 
good in a wonderful manner. By their Prefervation in Egppt, and in 
the Wildernefs ; their Conquefl: of the Country afterwards ; and their 
pofleflion of it for the fpace of 1 600 Years. Tho often engaged in 
Civil Wars j furrounded withl^eighbours, to whom their Religion and 
themfelves were odious, and their Land tempting, in the highefl de- 
gree; and at the Paflbver, and other times every Year, left naked and 
deftitute of all defence. According to that Eminent Promile, £x-o^. 34. 
X4. Neither fhall any man defire thy Land, when thou Jhalt go up to appear 
before the Lord thy God, thrice in the year* And that in Deut. x8. 10. 
And all people of the earth , fhall fee , that thou art called by the name 
of the Lord; and they fhall he afraid of thee. 

37. Nothing could be more wonderful than the Return o§ this Peo- 
ples Captivity ; both in it (elf, and as it fully anfwer'd thePredidtions 
concerning the fame. Delivered by moft of the Prophets, not only 
of Judah, but alfo of the Ten Tribes. By Hofea 14. 5, &c. by 
Amos 9. 4. by Micah 7. 8, &c. by Zephany 3. xo. by Jeremy 30. 3. and 
31. 4, 5,6. and 50. 4,5, i9,xo. and 51. 5. and by Ezekiel%6. xx, 14. 
Mofl: particularly by Jfaiah, in that admirable Prophecy, Chap. 44, 
and 45. about xoo Years before it came to pafs. He (ingles out the ve- 
ry perfon for this Service, and gives him the Name o{ Cyrus. Which 
{b far prevailed, both among the Jews, in his own Country, and all 
the Greeks and Latins, who make mention of him : That if he had 
any other, as Grotius, from Herodotus, fays he had, it was foon utter- 
ly loft, and unknown. As Perjian^ it is fijppofed by Ctefias, and with 


2.:5 4 Js they Appear from Book IV. 

him by Plutarch, to ftgnify the Sun. As Hehraick, and written with a 
Caph, may not improperly be derived of Cheruh and : As much as 
to {ay, a Prince of a Riglit Noble, and Angelical Mind, without great 
Riches.Which is very agreeable to his Charadtcr.GiVen him not only by 
thofe Prophan3 Authors ,who befl: knew his Story ; as in thejd Chapter 
of the 3dBookhath been fliewed ; but by the Prophet himfelt'. By whom 
God is pleas'd to call him, His Shepherd, Chap./\^. 17. That is, not a 
Tyrant, but a Gentle and Benevolent Prince, who would take care of 
the Empire, and of the ^'^fivj therein difperfed, as of his Flock. And 
Chap. 45. IV further to fay, That he had raifed him up in nghteoufnefs^ 
and would diretl all his ways. And for the like reafon, he was likewife 
pleas'd to give the Name o^ Cheruh, to the King oiTjrus, Ezek. i8. 14. 
'VIZ. Hiram ; whom the Prophei, looking backward, chiefly means. 
This Prince, having eminently afTifted in the building of the firfl: Tem- 
ple ; as Cyrw did of the latter. And that Cyrus, according to his 
Name, was a Prince of, at that time, a poor Kingdom, is alfb well 
known. And is therefore told by the Prophet, C/?^/'. 45-. 3. T'/^^/yj^/.y^a 
reward, he fhould receive the Treajures of the Bahylonian. 

38. Nor doth Cyrus more fully anfwer the Prophecy, in his Perfon, 
than in what he performed. As appears by his Proclamation, in Ez- 
ra, Chap. T. Wherein Ifaiah's Prophecy is fuccindly repeated. In the 
Prophet, Chap. 44. z/\. God is lliled. The Lord, that ftretcheth out the 
Heavens. And Cyrz^, ver. 2.. {files him. The Lord God of Heaven. In 
the Prophet, Chap. 45-. 3. he is alfo fliled, The iSod of Ifracl. And in 
the Proclamation, ver. 3. the Temple is called, The Houfe, not of the 
God of the Jfirj, hmofthe LordGodoflfrael. The Prophet proclaims. 
Chap. 45'. I, X, 3. Thus faith the Lord to Cyrus, ivhofe right hand I have 
holden, to fuhdue Nations before him, &c. And Cyrus proclaims, ver. t. 

. The Lord God of heaven, hath given me all the Kingdoms of the earth. The 
Prophet, Chap. 44. i8. perfonatcs Cyrus, faying to \ferufalem, Thou fhalt 
he huilt J. and to the Temple, Thy foundation fhall he laid. And Cyrus 
proclaims, ver. 3. That Godhad charged him to huild him an houfe at 7^- 
rufalem. The Prophet by the fame Words, forediews, tiiat Cyrus fhould 
not barely permit the Jews to build the Temple ; but give them a Pub- 
lick and Solemn Invitation to it. So Cyrus, in the fame 3d Ferfe, Who 
is there among you, of all his people, let him go up to Jerufalem, and huild 
the Houfe of the Lord G(fd of Ijraeh The Prophet too forefhews , 
Chap. 45:. 13. That whereas there is no relea{e of Captives, without 
Redemption, the ^fwj fhould be remitted into their own Country, 
without §rice or Reward. And Cyrus proclaims, That the People in all 
parts of the Empire, inflead of requiring of the "Jews Redemption-Mo- 
ney, fhould {iipply them with Silver and Gold, and with Goods , and 
Beafls for their Journey. They were often delivered by their own 
Judges, and their own Kings. But to make good this Prophecy, were 
favoured by a Prince, who was a Stranger to them ,• and a/Tifled by 
{trange and barbarous people, of all forts ,• among whom they were 
fcatter'd throughout the Empire. 

39. After they were returned into their own Country, fome of their 
Enemies threatned ,• and others ufed their utmofl endeavours to de- 
flroy them ,• but all in vain : Thar the Prophecy oi'facoh might be ful- 
filled J That the Scepter fhould not depart from Judah, nor a Lawgiver from 
between his feet, until Shiloh came. That is, that no Power on Earth 


Chap VI the PRO PHECIES' ^ 

(lioulcl be able to deftroy the Jewijh Commonwealth, before the Com- 
ing of Chrift ; and all things were don« in order to the fetting up of 
Chrifl's Kingdom in the World. 

■ 40. The prefcrvation of this Commonwealth, fuppofeth another, 
fand the greatell Blefiing, the Jews did or could enjoy ; which was, 
the Efpecial Prefencc ot God, as their King. In token whereof they 
received his Laws, and Counfels from time to time : Miracles were 
wrought, and Predidions made, and fulfilled, on their behalf; and 
themfelves honour'd and preferr'd, before all other People. This hap- 
py Relation to him, though forfeited a hundred times over ,• was yet 
continued , and teftified, every way ; till upon their Captivity they 
were rejeded. And though he left them deftitute of Miracles, Pro- 
phecies, and the ufe of the Urim andThummim, ever after,- yet was 
pleafed , to renew the fubflance of his Covenant with them ,• and to 
foretell them, that he would. For in that mofl Divine Song, Deut. 3 z, 
having forelliewed the Idolatry of the Jews, and their Punilhment lor 
it ; and that of their Enemies, who overaded herein ; he tells them^ 
I/e would repent hiwfelffjr his Servants, and would he merciful to his Land, 
and to his People^vcr. 36, 43. By Jeremy, Chap. 31.33. and by Ezekiel^ 
Chap. he promifes, That he would be their Gody and they fhould 
he his people. That he would give them, 'viz. the whole Nation of the 
Jeivs, one heart, and one way^ Jer. 31.39. That he would cleanfe them 
from all their Idols, Ezek. 36. 25. And that Ephraim, viz.' the Ten 
Tribes, fl^ould fay. What have I to do any more with Idols} HoC 14. 8. 
Which Promifes, were very remarkably made good. For whereas the 
Jews in general, from their firfl: coming into Canaan, to the time of Sa- 
muel, often fell to Idolatry ; and from the time of David, fundry Kings 
of "Judah did the like; and the Ten Tribes had been at no time free 
from it: after the Captivity, they never returned to it again. They 
who before , had courted all forts of Falle Religion and Falfe Gods : 
From thence forward, could neither b^ tempted, nor compelled by aqy 
kind of Force, to relinquifli the True. 

41. The firft apprehenfion they had of danger, wzsirom Alexander. 
Who having taken and ruin'd Tyre, threatned Jerujalem in the next 
place. But being met by Jaddits the H. Prieft, in his Pontifical Robes, 
and by him fliewed the Prophecy of Daniel concerning himlelf, and 
his Conqueft of Per/ia; it (b far prevailed with him ; that he, whofe 
Ambition, was not only to fubdue all Nations; but to plant the Grecian 
People, Language, and Laws among them; left the Jews in full and fafe 
pofleffion of their Own, Albeit, both Curtius and Arrian,\vho purpofely 
wrote his Story, either c\it of envy, orxninding only to letdown the 
Feats of his Arms, omit thi.Tranfadion, wherein be had no occafion to 
make ufe of therti. And the confideration of this diftinguifhing Ad of 
Alexander , was that, no doubt, which chiefly moved Demetrius, Tta^ 
lemys Library-Keeper, to look upon the JTehrew Code, as a great Trea- 
fure, and worth his Mafter's Purchafe, though with the Redemption of * 
1 00000 Jews. Was that v/hich made Antiechus Soter, to give the Jews 
in Ionia, the Right of Citizens, together with the ufe of their own 
Religion. Ptolemy Evergetes, to offer at Jerufalem, upon his Conqueft 
of 5yri^, many Euchariltick Sacrifices, and worthy Gifts to the Tem- 
ple. And Antiochiu the Great, to do the like. 

M m m 41* After 

2 26 ^f they J f pear from Book IV. 

4x. After this Antiochus Epiphanes, by his Edid:, commanded his 
Siibjedts every where, To conform to the ReHgion of the Greeks, up- 
on pain of Death. Unto which, while all other Nations became obe- 
dient ; a great number, both of the Pricfts, and People of the Jews^ 
contemned the fame. For refleding upon what their Apollacy had al- 
ready cofl: them; and the High Honours, which fundry of the Petfian 
and Grecw« Kings had done unto their Temple , and Laws,- and that 
God himfelf, fpeaking as aforefaid by the Prophets, had now underta- 
ken for their Loyalty : It (b far reinforced their Native Courage; that 
they refolved, rather to endure all manner of Torments, than to com- 
ply with any part of the Gentile Idolatry; or ib much as to tafte any 
Unclean Meats. 

43. Having triumphed ovtr Antiochtus utmoft Cruelty, in giving 
their Teflimony to the Divine Law : they alio gave very fingular In- 
itances of Military Courage on the fame account. Chiefly under the 
Condud: of Judas Maccahaus. Who, in the Six Years , wherein he 
was their General ; with a fmall number, and without any Chivalry, 
became vid:orious in near twenty pitch'd Battels. In one of which, 
the Enemy had 40000 Foot, and 700Q Horfe. But Judas taking his 
opportunity, when Gorgias and Nkanory the two Generals of the Ene- 
my, had divided their Army between them, and were feparated one 
from the other, with only 6000, put to flight the one half, and fo the 
other ran away. After this, and feveral other Vid:ories; Lyjtas, Vice- 
Roy to Antiochus Eupator, came upon him with 80000 Foot, with all 
theHorle he could raife, and 80 Elephants. But was overthrown, with 
the lofs of 1 1 000. Whereupon, acknowledging the Divine Prefence in 
favour of the Jeivs; he fought Peace of them, upon any reafbnable 
Terms. Which being demanded, the King readily granted all. Nor 
were the Jews beaten in any Battel, in which this Noble Hero was 
their Leader ; till, forgetting where their true ftrength lay, they had 
applied themfelves for protedion to the Romans. Nor did the unfortu- 
nate Death of Judas abate the Refolution of his Succeflbrs. Evidently 
fulfilling, as all the Prophecies aforefaid, fo lhzx.o[ Ezek. Chap.T,S, Con- 
cerning Gog, that is, Lydia and the neighbouring parts of ^7/^, before 
Ezekiets time, poflefled by Giges : and Magog, that is, Syria, where- 
in the City Hierapolis, by the Syrians was called Magog. By which, as 
Junius, Folanus, and Grotius well obferve, we are to underftand, the 
Kings of the Lefler Afia and Syria, their joining together to invade and 
root out th^Jews i and their fhameful Overthrow. 

44. But the 'Jews, feeing their Enemies to be refllefs, were tempted 
to make their Addrefs to the Romans, as aforefaid. Who frankly gave 
afliirance of Friendfliip unto thofe ; who now by their Arms, as well as 
many other ways, were become famous. Infomuch, that among fun- 
dry Ads in their favour ; they fent their Letters unto five Kings, and 
nineteen Cities, Countreys, and Iflands, to forbid- them all Hoftility 

* ^gainft this People ; whom they filled, their Friends, Allies, and Bre- 
thren. Whereupon, not only the Lacedemonians, but Demetrius Soter 
firfl, and then Nicator, with other AJian Kings, fought their Friend- 
(hip, and carefled them with Gifts, and Titles of Honour. So emi- 
nently did the Providence of God operate on their behalf, in making 
the Proudefl and moll Malicious of their Enemies, to be at peace with 
them. Nor would he ever have forgot the Covenant, renewed be- 


Chap. VI L the L A W_ S^ 227 

tvveen himfelf and them , had they not cancelled it again, with their 
own Hands. Towards the doing whereof, the Addrefs which Judai 
Maccabaus made to the Romans, when he had fb often vanquifhed his 
Enemies, without any Foreign help, was the firfl Fatal Da(h. For 
upon his next Encounter, in the fame Year, he fell before them. To 
this they added, the taking in of Stipendiary Soldiers ; and fundry 
more. Until, delivering our Blefled Saviour to the Roman Power, and 
(aying, when they knew they were reflored to a Theocracy, They had 
no King but Cafar ; they hereby gave the concluding Stroke. 


Of the Divine Law. And Firft, Of the Law gi- 
ven to Adam and Noah. 

I. A Mong other Ufes, which God made of Miracles and Predidi- 
jr\, ■ ons ,• this was a principal one, for the greater Sanction of his 
Law : iipon which, they may be (aid to have waited, as a mod Ho- 
nourable Retinue. And on this account alone, though we looked no 
further, it may challenge our highcft regard. Much more, if the mani- 
fold Reafon, apparent in the Difpenfation and Nature of it, belikewifc 
confidered. For though the Deity is not bound to give us a Reason for 
what he commands : yet as he is pleafed in condefcention, to exprefs 
his Reafons for fome Precepts,- fo where they are not exprefs'd, they 
are yet to be fuppofed. That is to fay, Whatfbever good Reafon, Na- 
tural, Moral, Political, or Religious, may be by us afligned,* was un- 
doubtedly intended by Himfelf, the Author of all the Reafon we are 
Mafters of. And when we contemplate, that TroAv-moUiA©^ crofix, or 
Multiformed Wifdom, vifible in his Works of Creation ; we mufl be- 
lieve, it equally belongeth, to thofe of his Providence : a chief part 
whereof, is the Difpenfation of his Laws. 

2. There have been Four Difpenfations of the Divine Law ; by 
Adam, Noah, 0ofes, and Jefus Chrijl. In that by Adam, there are fun- 
dry Precepts, both before and after the Fall, whereof we have an ac- 
count. Before the Fall, of thefe Five, viz. Of Food, the Sabbath, La- 
bour, Moderation, and Marriage. 

3. God having made Man, the firfl thing he took care of, was his 
Life ,• in the Appointment of his Convenient Food : / have given you 
tvery Herb, and evere Tree for Meat, Gen. i.z^. Which, comprehended 
with the Herbage of Plants, their Roots, and Fruits. Preferable unto 
Flefli ,• not only, as Tweeter,- and ready Cook'd : but much fitter to 
maintain that Vigour, and Longevity,* which this Diet, and the bet- 
ter Condition the World was in before the Flood, were intended 

4. The next Inftitution , was that of the Weekly Sabbath : AndGod 
blejfed the Seventh Day, and San^ified it. Gen. x. i. Spoken, not by 
way of Anticipation , of what God did afterwards ,• as fbme have 

thought : 

2 28 As they A f pear from Book IV. 

thought : but of what he did, fo fbon as he had made the World, For 
the Sabbath is no where faid to be blefled, nor the Reafon given for it, 
but in the 4th Command, and in the zd Chapter of Genejis; unto which, 
what is {aid in the Command, is plainly referr'd. And, what cculd be 
more proper, than that the hallowing of a Day, fliould begin with the 
Reafon of it? as the Paflbver, and other Jewifh Feftivals did. To fay 
then. That the Sabbath was firft inflituted, when the Jews were in the 
Wildernefs : is to fay, That God had forgot the Reafon given for the 
fandtifying of it, above 2000 Years. Nor do the Levites in their 
Prayer, i^ehem. 9. 13, 14. fay, That God had given the, Jeivsh'is Judg- 
ments and Laws, and among them, his Holy Sabbath. But they ufe 
another Word ; That as he hid given them his Laws^ fo he had notifi- 
ed, to them his Holy Sahbath. To acO^liccTTv an rh oiyiov lyvji^taxi dvrtT;, (ay 
, the Septuagint. But why another Word, if they had not another Mean- 
ing ? and every Novice knows, that Legem Notijicare^ doth not fignifie, 
To give a Law, but Legem ferre. For a Law cannot be faid, To be 
made known, before it is. The Sabbath then, being faid, to be made 
known to the Jews ; it was in being, before it was made known to them. 
That is to fay , it was then inflituted, when the Creation was finifli'd ,• 
but through the general Corruption of Mankind, had been utterly 

5. It was commanded, To be a Day of Reft. Not of mecr reft from 
Labour ; but to be a Holy Sabbath. Wc cannot f;' v properly,*! hat a 
Day is Sandified and Bleffed, untomeer Reft j or that an Idle Day, is 
a Bleffed Day. This were to make good the Ridicule of the Gentiles ; 
who being ignorant of the true Reafon and End hereof, fpake contem- 
ptuoully of it, by faying that it v\-as. Dies turpi damnata ueterno. Who 
can think, that God intended, Man (liould keep the Sabbath, no other- 
wife than his Cattle, in taking his eafe ? and not rather, that every one 
according to his Opportunity, and beft Undcrftinding, Ihould make a 
Sacred ufe of it ? It is as unbefitting a Man, as it is impoftible for God 

- to do nothing* And fince daily Bufinefs is forbid,- it was intended 
we Ihould then do, what God himfelf, is faid to do ; that is, rejoycc in 
his Works. Which v/e cannot do, except Vvc take a convenient time 
to contemplate the fame. Again, Ifaiah pronounces them blefled, 
who Santlify the Sahbath, in not doing their own Ways, nor finding their 
own Pleajure, nor /peaking their own Words. Now the Prophets, were 
Expofitors of the Law. If then the Sabbath was Inftituted from the 
Beginning: what I/aiah faith of it is fpoken not to the Jews only, but 
to all. And what he faith, is alfb grounded on the Immutable Reafon 
hereof. It is therefore evident, That God having made Man, and 
taken care for his Corporal Food : he next provided, that he might 
Live, 'as became a Reafbnable Creature. That his Contemplation of 
.the World about him, and the Author of it, on that Day : might be 
the Food and Suftenance of his Mind, and his Preparation for a Cele- 
ftial Life. And the Day it felf, a Typical Predidion of that Eternal 

6. In the next place, he was alfo pleafed to ordain, a fuitable fort of 
Phyfick. For the Body, ufeful Labour, Gen. x. 1 5, And the Lord God 
put the Man into the Garden of Eden, to drefs it. For the Mind, Mo- 
deration or Government of the Phzncy, verfe 17, Of the Tree of Know 
ledge of Good and Evily thou fhalt not Eat. Upon which two Precepts, 


Chap. VII. the L A IV S. 329 

Epitletus, who, no doubt, had fcen the Books of M^/fj-, grounds that 
famous Saying of Iiis, 'Ar^;^» ^ 'A-7ii;^8. • The Sum of all Humane 
Wifdom, confifting in the Pradlical Knowledg, of what we ought to 
Bear, and Forbear. 

■ 7. Care having been taken of the Individual j provifion is alfo made 
for the Species ; 'viz. by Marriage, and that fmgle, Gen. z. 24, There- 
fore jhall a Mm leave his Father and Mother, and cleave to his Wife. 
There being as good Rcafon, why a Man fliould have but one Wife, as 
why he fliould have any. For fince the number of Males and Females, 
is in a manner equal : to have many Wives, is a Monopoly,- invading 
the common Right of every Man, to have one. It divides that Love 
into Shares, which being entire, would be more generous. Not only 
abates the Vigour of the Body, but Enervates the Mind. The Squab- 
bles of Envious Rivals, will either break the Domeftick Peace, or h 
mull be preftrved with Rigor. And how bafe mufl be that Breed, for 
the moll part, which is thus begot, by one Slave, upon another? 

8. After the Fall; befidcs the inllitution of Apparel ; the great and 
manifold ufe whereof v/e all know : fome Precepts were given by way 
of Puniihment. And were therefore partly Natural, and partly Pre- 
ternatural. In the giving of thefe, 

9. Next unto Generation, already provided for, God was pleafed to 
take care of Order and Government. The firft Inllitution whereof, 
was in thole Words, Thy Hushand jhall rule over thee^ Gen.^. 10. For 
though Wit, Strength, and Beauty, may give Power: yet nothing 
doth fo firmly ellablifli the Right of Dominion, which any one hath 
over his own Species, though by Confent, as a Divine Authority. And 
all Dominion beginning in Families; it was fufficient, to eflablifli the 
Headfliip of the Husband over the Wife, as a Pattern unto all other 
Governments. • Who ought fo to rule the People, as Men their Wives, 
for their joynt Intereft and Honour. 

10. Befides fome Retrenchment of Liberty; God was pleafed to 
abridg Mankind, of thole Excellent Fruits in the Garden of £</«?», the 
better half of his Food ; and to condemn him, to live only upon Herbs, 
whereof Corn was the chief. Gen. 3. 18, 19. For the Command of 
Abllinence before given, was grounded upon that high and immutable 
Reafon , that being lb quickly broken, God faw it requifite, fb much 
the more ftridly to renew it. Nor was this done, only to cure the 
Mind, and fubjed the Appetite and Phancy unto Reafon : but to be 
the means, of ib much the longer Life, as Corn gives more Nourifli- 
ment and Strength, than any the moll delicious Fruits. 

11. The Subftradling of Food, by Nature ready prepared; required 
the adding of more Labour , verfe 19. In thefweat of thy Face, /halt 
thou eat thy Bread. A Precept, , wherein, as the Labour and Art of 
Tillage, are exprell : So a regular Care and Pains, in whatlbever ap- 
pertains to the ufe of Life, is underllood. And was therefore given, 
not only by way of Puniiliment ; but for the Melioration of our lelves, 
and of every thing within our reach. And confequently every Man, 
of whatlbtver State or Quality, as an Improvable Creature, and a 
Member of the Common-wealth, is hereby obliged. Nor can we ex- 
pecSt, to perform any thing to purpole, in the negledof our Obedience 
to it. 

Nn n ix. Of 

27 o As they Af fear from Book IV. 

II. Of the Laws given to Adam^ thefe are all , that are mentioned. 
But we cannot doubt, but that God, by Aclam^ gave fundry others 
unto Mankind. We are told, Gen. 6. 4, That before the Flood, there 
were many Men of Renown. Y et the Scripture, is (b far from relating 
any of their Deeds, as not to give us their Names. Nor have we fb 
' much as the Names , of more^ than x6 of the Pofterity of Adam, 
which overfpread the World, for the fpace of 1600 Years, And the 
Life and Character , of that excellent Man , Encch^ -is fummed up 
in 3 or 4 Lines. So that the mention only of a few Laws, with the 
omiflion of the reft; is fuitable to the account we have of all other 
things, before the Flood. 

13. It is apparent, that God having made Man, a Creature gover- 
nable by Law : he never intended to leave him to the Light of Nature. 
For if fo, why did he give him any one Law? And if he gave him 
fome few Laws ; why not all that were neceflary to be given, though 
not to be recorded ? 

14. If God (aw it neceflary, to govern Man, by pofitive Laws, 
before the Fall : how much lefs afterw ards, when he had (hewed, how 
unfit he was to govern himfelf was he, then, to be left Lawlefs ? So 
then, having to do, with the fame Fiumane Nature, that is, with 
Man in his Lapfed Eftate, as well before, as at any time after the 
Flood : the Reafbn for his being then governed by many of the -like 
Laws , was alfo the fame. 

I J. Of Laws not mentioned, we are to reckon thofe among the 
Chief, which concerned the Regulation of Divine Worfliip. For if 
in the Inftitution of the Sabbath, God was pleafed to appoint the ef- 
pecial Time, why not alfo the Manner of it ? And it would have been 
the higheft Prefiimption in Adam, at any time, much more in his 
Lapfed Eftate, herein to have been his own Rule. Nor lor any part 
•hereof, could a Divine Dircdtion be more neceflary, than for the Otter- 
ing of a Sacrifice : the doing of which, could not be indicated by the 
Light of Nature. For that which is Nature now, was Nature then. 
No Man makes a Prefent, though to a Prince, but of fbmething ufe- 
ful, to himfelf, or thofe about him. Nor does he that receives a 
Gift, think it acceptable to the Benefadlor, to offer him part of it 
back again ; but to return him fuitable Thanks. If then Ahel confi- 
dered, that fomething was to be Offered; he would alfo have confi- 
dered, what was moft likely to be accepted. Was it a part of his 
Flock ? No : He that gave him all he had, could not need or value, 
fuch a Gift. He knew that /i^s/dtw, by his Difbbedience, had forfeited 
all that God had given him. Yet had a bountiful Allowance, and a 
Promife withal, that the Lofs he Suftained by the Devil's means, 
fliould be repaired. And therefore would conclude. That to Thank, 
Believe, and Obey him, was what h^ expedted ; and particularly, to 
obey him, in this Ad. 

• 1 6. Much lefs could the Offering of a Burnt Sacrifice, be indicated by 
the Light of Nature. And ftill lefs, the burning of Flefh and Bones, 
which make fo egregious a ftink. Could he have thought the burning . 
®f anything, acceptable; why not rather, offbme Fragrant Wood or 
Gum ? 

17. Nor 


Chap. Vli. the LAWS. 391 

17. Nor the killing of any thing in order to it. For when we con- 
fider the averfion, which all people to this day, have from killing of 
Beafts, but Butchers who are ufed to it: and that oi Pythagoras, and 
many other Vertuous Men, from killing of any Living Thing : we can- 
not think, that cutting the Throat of an Innocent Lamb, could enter 
into the Head of ^^?/, one of fo gentle a Difpofition, as a Ho- 
mage acceptable unto God ; had he not been commanded to 

do it. 

18. How, again, could it feem natural to AM^ to kill and offer that, 
which he was forbid to eat i Howfbever fome Learned Men , from 
certain weak and unconcluding Arguments, have thought the contra- 
ry. I deny nor, but that Flelh was eaten before the Flood, and was 
one of the Crimes the World was then guilty of; as our Saviour^ 
Matt.t^-l'i. {eems to intimate. But to fay, it was allowed, is diredt- 
Jy to contradid: the Text. For when Herbs and Fruits are mentioned, 
Ge;/. I.X9, 30. as allowed : can we think, that Flelh would not alio 
have been added, had God intended it fliould be eaten ? When after- 
wards, 'Gew. 3. 18. Adam is told, That he fhouU eat the Herh of the 
field; is there any mention made of Flefli ? When l^oah was comman- 
ded, Gen. 6. 19. To take of all living Creatures into the Ark : it is di- 
ftindly added, -z/fr. 21. "That he (hould alfo take unto him of all Food. 
Therefore thofe Living Creatures were not intended for Food, but to 
keep feed alive ^ Gen. 7.3. and for Sacrifices^ Gen. 8. xo. Nor would it 
have been (aid after the Flood, Gen. 9. 3. Every living thingjhallhemeat 
for Sou., as well as the green herh; if the eating of Flefh had been allow- 
ed before. To (uppole then, that Ahel offer d a Lamb, as the befl fort 
of Meat, when it was unlawful to eat Fledi ; or that he burnt it, or 
otherwife offer'd the Flelh, the Wool, or the Milk , as a deviled Ho- 
mage to his Lord and Benefadtor, when nothing hereof could be indi- 
cated by the Light of Nature, is a Phantaftick Conceit. But to fay, he 
did it, becaule he was commanded ; is agreeable unto good Senle, and 
the Scriptures. 

19. For the Charader which our Lord gives o'l Ahel, is thisj That 
he was a righteous man. Matt. 23. 35". And no other Overt Ad: of Ahel 
being mention'cj, befides the offering of his Sacrifice ,- it is evident, 
that his Righteoufnefs did therein confift : That is to fay. In his offer- 
ing fuch a Sacrifice, as was Legitimate, or according to God's Inftitu- 
tion. For lie is faid, To offer with thefirfilings of his flock, of the fat 
thereof. Gen. 4. De pinguifmis,{zysBuxtorfe. And why fo? whenwc 
have no Inftance, that I know of, where the Subffantive is in this man- 
ner put for the Adjedive? He therefore with his Burnt-Offering 
brought alio a Peace-Offering ,• wherein the Fat was then, as well as 
afterwards in the Mofaical Law, commanded to be burnt. It is laid too, 
Heh. 11.4. That hy Faith, Ahel offered a more excellent Sacrifice than 
Cain. That is, he knew he offer'd a Righteous or Legitimate Gift j 
unto which only, his Belief of Acceptance could belong. God like- 
wife tells Noah, Gen. 7. i. Thee have Ifeen righteous heforeme in this ge- 
neration. AndiSt.Luke I. 6. faith oi Zacharias and Elizaheth, That 
they were hoth righteous, walking in all the Commandments of the Lord. 
And ^K^-bq, is the Word ufed, both by the Septuagint, and this Evan- 
gel iff, as well as by St. Matthew of Ahel himfelf. Nor is being Righte- 
ous , 

•2 ^ ^ As they /J f fear from Book IV. 

ous', fpoken in the Scriptures of any man, to exprefs his con- 
iormity to the Law of Nature, but the pofitivc Law of God. 

20. On the contrary, when &/«, upon the non-acceptance of his 
Offering, was out of countenance : God tells him, Gen. 4. 7. If thou 
i/oft not well, fjin op9(£<, fay the Septuagint, Not rightly, or as I have 
prefcribed : Sin lieth at the door : that is, thou art to be dealt with as 
a Comtemner of my Law. For fin, if St. John knew how to define it, 
is the tranfgrejfion of the Law: That therefore which Cain brouglit, was 
theMeat-Oflering of the Firft- fruits. But omittihg to bring the Oyl 
and Frankincenfe, then it (eems, as well as afterwards, commanded, 
he failed of Acceptance. 

x\. The Aflurance too , which Ahel had of his being accepted, and 
Cain of his being defpifed, Gen. 4. 4, 5. muft needs be grounded on 
fome infallible Token given to them both. But what this Token was, 
whether Fire from Heaven, which confiimed Ahel's Sacrifice ,• but not 
Cains, as isreafonably thought, or fbme other, is not exprefs'd. Why 
then fliould it feem ftrange, for the Law it felf, in the fame Hiftory, 
not to be exprefs'd, but only fuppofed ? And why not this Law fuppo- 
fed, as well as that. Gen. 6, x. relating to Marriage ? Where the Sons 
of God, are branded with this Crime , of Taking them Wives of the 
Daughters of Men. For God having banilh'd Cain and his Pofterity 
Irom his own Prefence ,• and therefore alfo from the Company of the 
Faithful, to whom upon folemn occafions he fliewed himfelf : it is plain. 
That to prevent any Society between them , he prohibited, though 
the Prohibition be no w here mention'd, their marrying one among 
another: as he did the 7^ jw, from marrying with their Neighbours, 
for the fame reafon, Jo/h.x^.jyiz. Upon the general breach of which 
Law, and hereby the Corruption of all Mankind ; God was pleafed 
to declare. Gen. 6. 2, 3. That his Spirit fhould net always Jlrive with 

Z2. We are therefore to conclude, That being there was always a 
neceflity, foon after the Fall, as well as in after-Ages, Tiiat the Cor- 
ruption of Mankind fliould have bounds (et to it : and that the 
Terms of Reconciliation, and Acceptance with God, fliould be known: 
He was pleafed to give unto Adam, together with the Promife of a Sa- 
viour, a Syftem of Laws ,* and by him, to publifli them to the World. 
And the Univerfal Contempt of theft Laws, defcribed, G?«. 6. ^, 11, 
12. is a very high and unanfwerable vindication of his Juftice, in the 
Deflrudiion of it. 

23. The Second Difpenfation of the Divine Law, was by Noah, fti- 
led by St. Peter, 2 Epifl. 2. 5:, A Treacher of Right eoufnefs : That is, of 
the Law of God, which had been given to Mankind, and of the Obe- 
dience due to it. And having been God's great Prophet, to the Old 
World, for 1 20 Years before the Flood, Ge«. 6. 3. there is no queftion, 
but that he continued in the fame Office, and with the fame Authority 
to the New World afterwards. 

24. In this Difpenfation, mention is alfo made of fome kw Laws. 
As alter the Creation, fo after the Flood, God took the firft care of the 
Life of Man. Firfl, By his appointment of fuitable Food, Gen. 9. 5. 
Every moving thing that liveth, fhall he meat for you, as well as the green 
Herh. The Earth and Air being now in a worfe condition ,• and fb 
the Vegetable Diet ; Animals were allowed. And the rather, with re- 



Chap. V[I. the L A W 5« 2^5 

fpciii to the Colder Climates,- probably uninhabited before the Flood. 
Wherein, as there is lefs variety of delicious Plants; fo Flefh is more 
requifite and deHrable. Likewife, to anfwer God's Intent, of redu- . 
cing the Life of Man, to a fhorter Meafure. But withal, to give more 
Vigor unto Mens Minds, though it abated that of their Bodies. For 
of Land-Animals, which come beft within our notice, the Carnivo- 
rous, as Hawks among Fowls, and Dogs among Quadrupeds, are of 
»a!l others, the mod (agacious. And the allowance, was of all Edible 
I Animals. To make way for that Reftraint, intended to be put upon the 
: jffjwy in after-time. 

x^. And becaufe, it fecms. Men before the Flood had learned, with 
other Barbarities, r^pt only to eat Flelb, but to eat it raw ,• as the Tar- 
tars do at this day : Therefore at the fame time as Flelh was allowed ; 
the eating of Raw Flefli, was forbidden. Gen. 9. 4. But flefl?, with the 
hlood thereof^ (hall ye not eat. And much more flridly, the eating of 
Blood alone. Partly, becaufe Raw Flelh, would have been infuperable 
to the Stomach in moll Countreys : efpedally thofe which are very 
hot J as in Terfta^ where they roaft it, till it falls from the Bone. Part- 
ly, as it would have yielded an ill fort of Nourifliment. Infeding the 
Mind with Melancholy, Phantaftick, and Savage Conceits. And con- 
tributing to the unequal growth of the Body. For befides a Man, no 
other Creature has the Rickets, but a Butchers Dog, that lives much 
upon Blood. But chiefly, to admonifli Men, of the Sacracy of the 
following Command againft Murther. Teaching them by an awful ab- 
ftinence from the Blood of Beafts ; fo much the more religioufly, to be- 
ware of medling with Human Blood. -, 

2.6. The Command againfl Murther, follows in ver. ^th. Andfurely 
your Blood of your Lives will I require. This Sin having been a great 
part of the Violence, which filled the Earth before the Flood : God 
faw it requifite to proclaim his Law againfl it, with a Treble Guard. 
Befides annexing to it a (evere Penalty ; "prohibiting alfb the eating of 
Blood ; that men might not dare to be guilty : and extending the Pe- 
nalty , unto Beafts j that Men being guilty, might the lefs prcfiime 
to efcape. 

■Ly. Befides the Laws now mentioned, we mufl fuppofe, that many 
more were given by l^oah to the New World, as a Repetition of thole 
given to the Old. Oi* this , we have fome hints , from what 
IS recorded of the worfl and mofl Idolatrous People. The Men oi So- 
dom are laid to be Sinners lefore the Lord exceedingly^ Gen. 13.13. 
And therefore, with all other Nations, had received the Divine Law 
by Tradition , and could not pretend Ignorance. When the King of 
Egypt had taken Sarah into his Houfe, with a purpofe to Bed her. 
Gen. iz. What made him fay. Why didft thou not tell me^ (he u my 
Wife ? but for that he knew Adultery, to be forbidden by the Law of 
God. He was not admonillied by the Law of Nature ; which This, and 
ether Nations, made no fcruple to break afterwards, when the Law 
given by Noah, was forgot : Bedding, as oft as they had a mind, not 
only another Man's Wite, but their own Mothers. By whatGodfaid 
to Ahimelech, when he had done as Pharaoh did. Gen. 10.3. Thou art 
hut a dead man, for fhe is a mans Wife ; and by what Ahimelech replies, 
rer. 4. Wilt thou flay a righteous Nation} It appears, that himfelf, and 
his People, all knew, and acknowledged the fame Law. And by what 

O o o God 


As they Appear from Book iV. 

God faith, ver. 7. Reftore his Wife, for he is a Prophet, and fh all pray for 
thee: It further appears, tXnx Alemelcch kx\t\\i what a Prophet was, 
and the Sacracy ot his Office, without being defcriLed. 

^8. But the cleareft proof of the Legillation aforefaid, may be ga- 
ther'd from certain Paffages recorded of fome of the Holy Line : infer- 
ing much more, than they feem at firfl to do. The Apollle tells us, 
Heh.^.ii). That Mofes took the Blood of Calves and Goats, with Water, 
and Scarlet Wool, and Hyfop, and fprinkled both the Book of the Law, and 
all the People. Yet in Exod. 24 , to which he refers, there is no men- 
tion made of any thing but Blood. In like manner, before the giving 
of the ATo/ricir Law, fome Ceremonies only touched, were accompani- 
ed, as is likely, with many more ; making togethfer one entire Syflem 
of Laws. 

xg. Noah Is (zi^^ Gen.S.%0. To offer upon an Altar, Burnt-Offerings of 
Clean Beafls, and Fowls. Wherein Four Particulars , appertaining to 
the Law of Sacrifice, being mention'd, without taking notice of their 
Inftitution : naturally lead us back unto Adam, to whom it was firft 
given. And what is fubjoined, -ver. xi. That the Lord fmelled a fweet 
favour: further fhews, that, in obeying hereof, /7W^, as well as ^^f/, 
was accepted. For it had been an ill-chc(en Metaphor, to exprefs the 
Divine Acceptance, by fmelling a fweet favour, which arofe from no- 
thing, but theftink ol burning flefh. 

30. 'Tis faid, Gen.i^.g, 10. That Alraham took the Heifer, Shee- 
goat. Ram, Turtle-Dov£, and Pigeon, as he was commanded, and divided 
them all, except the Birds , which he divided not. Whereby it is appa- 
rent, that though Abraham was bid to take all thofc five Animals : 
yet he knew what to do with them, without bidding ; having received 
dired:ion already, by the Law of Noah. And the Ceremony, of not 
dividing the Birds, was the fame, as again repeated in the Levitical 
Law, ify. 1. 17. 

^1. Melchizedecky perhaps Sem, is faid to he the Priefi of the mofl 
high God. Whoever he was, nothing can be more evidently inferr'd. 
Than that there was a Prefcription of Rules then, as well as afterwards, 
appertaining to the Priefthood. 

3x. Before the Tribe o^ Levi was chofen, the Father of every Fami- 
ly, wasaPrieft. Ihettiore Abraham, and Q> Ifaac, and Jacob, in all 
their Travels, where ever they pitched their Tents, are alfo faid. To 
ered an Altar, Gen. Chap. i%. Chap.iT^. Chap. 26. Chap. 33. The firft 
thing to be done for the Worihip of God, being put by a Synecdoche^ 
for the whole Service. As in the New Teflament, the entire celebra- 
tion of the Eucharifl, is exprefled, by Breaking of Bread. And that the 
Prieflhood, and whatever elfe belonged to the Birthright, was then 
(etled by Divine Appointment ; is further evident from the Style 
which the Author to the Hebrews, 12. 16. ufeth concerning Efau. 
Who, for parting with it, is there called, not mecrly, a Fooliff , but 
a Prophane Perfon. 

33. Tis faid of jF^co^, Gf«, 28. 18,22. That in his Journey to F^^^ij*- 
Aram, he took the Stone, which had been his Pillow, and fetting it up for 
a Pillar^ poured Oyl upon the top of it ; vowing that it fbould be God's 
Houfe. Why Oyl, rather than any other Liquor ? Or why any Li- 
quor at all ? In that no Light of Nature, could diredt him to what he 
did, whereby either to make the Stone more Sacred, or more F^emark- 
%-Si; able. 



Chap. VIII. the L A W S. 295 

able. It is therefore rllifonable to believe, That as by the Mofaick- 
Xaiy, the Tabernacle which was God's Houfe, and all things in it, 
were Confccraced with a Holy Oyl : the like was always done by 
Prcfcription to the Patriarchs, for whatever place was intended for Di- 
vine Service. 

34. But nothing can be more convincing, than that Eminent Te- 
ftimony, which God gives of ^^r<3'/;^w7, Gen. x6. 5-. Thil he oheyed his 
Voice , and kept his whole Charge , liz. his Commandments , his Sta~ 
tutes, and his Laws. Where, by Laws, are meant. Ceremonial Laws. 
For Thora^ here rendred, Law j is ufed for Law , in the Book of Le~ 
liticM^ almofl: throughout. And vo,iMt^, is alfo the word ufed both 
here and in Leviticus, by the Septuagint. What then can be plainef^ 
than that the Commandments, Statutes, and Laws, fo particularly 
here mentioned ; were anfwerable to the Moral, Judicial and Ceremo- 
nial Laws , given afterwards to the Jews > All which , though thp 
whole Race ot Mankind, had received by Tradition from the Prophet 
J^oah : yet Abraham alone, is noted by God, to give exad: Obediencfe 
to them. 

3 5 . We are therefore to conclude. That it plealed God, as at the 
firft by Adam, fo once again by iJoah , to give the World, together 
with the Precepts which are mentioned, an entire body of Laws, by 
which it was to be govern'd. Extending his Benevolent Care herein, 
not only to the Holy Seed, but to all Mankind, as became the Reciiof 
of the Univerfe. 


Of the Mofaick Lar^?. 

I. "TpHE next Difpenlation of the Divine Law, vj zs hy Mofes. Upon 
1 the firft Defection of the World ,• God refblved, Noah and his 
Houfe excepted, to deflroy it. Upon the Second, after the Flood ; 
though he had promiled not to deflroy it : yet having Twice given it 
his Laws, and therein a double Inftance of his Redloral Care of it : he 
was not: bound, to renew his Covenant with it any more ,• but of his 
meer Grace, Seleded the Jeivi/h Nation, for his peculiar Treafure, 
Exodus i(). s- So then, the Mofaick 1.2.\v, was God's Gracious Recog- 
nition of the Primitive, with the addition of fiich other Laws, as 
fliould be fuitable unto that People, and the further Revelation of him- 
ftlf, in the fulnefs of Time, unto all Mankind. 

^. The Excellency of this Difpenfation, was fuch in every part, as 
well became the Divine Author hereof. The Preparatory Part, was 
very admirable. For firft in contriving the //r;ie///« into Egypt -^ and 
when their Oppreflbrs there, were intent upon their Ruine, in leading 
them out again with Safety and Honour : as he fhewed them his Right 
to rule over them; lb his purpole to rule them with fuch Laws, as 
being obcy'd, could not fail to make them Happy. And he led them 
from Egypt, into a Wildernefs j as for other Reafons, fo to give them 


2^6 -^s tbey Af fear from Book IV. 

thefe Laws, with the greater Decency, when4liey were fcpirate from 
all other People. And not in the Plain of this Wilderncfs, or in Se- 
cret, as the Laws of all other Nations have been given ; but on Mount 
Sina't^ higher than //orf^, and the reft adjacent, as his Vifible Throne. 
Whence, not only the Neighbouring Camp, of Six Hundred Thoufand 
Souls, might hear him Speak : but, with thefe, the Nations afar off, 
and round about, might have the Sight of his Glory. Which they 
heard and faw without a Figure ; that they might not think him re- 
prelentable by any. Yet arrayed with Flames, and tliick Darlcnefs, to 
let them know. That as Light, (b F^imfclf, was VifiLle unto all, in 
his Works J but in his Eflence, unto none. Having employed Men 
and Angels, and all the Artillery of Nature, in their late Deliverance; 
and condefcending now to come down, and to make a Gracious Cove- 
' nant with them. Exodus 19.5,6; it was neceffary to keep thefe his Fa- 
vourites from growing over bold. The Solemnity therefore of tlicir own 
Preparation, £x(?^«.f, 19.10,11,15; the Sacracy of the Mount it felf v?r. 
IX, 13 ; the Smoak, and Devouring Fire thereupon, verfe i8, and 
Chap, z^. I J ; the Sound of the Trumpet, 'verfe 16; and the uriex- 
preliible Terror of God's own Voice, verfe 16 ; Comma's and Periods 
made to each Precept, with Lightning and Thunder; and every Word, 
like a Bomb from a fir'd Mortar, flying all over the Quaking Camp : 
were Tremendous Ceremonies , fitted to beget a Profound Regard 
not only in this People, but in all others, who can but form the Idea 
of Co great a Scene. Wherein, to excite their Refpedt, as well as 
Fear, they were fhewed Heaven and Hell met together. 

3. The Decorum obferved, in delivering the feveral parts of the 
Law, was likewife Extraordinary. The Moral was Writ, and Pro- 
claimed, by God himfelf, upon Mount Simi^ in the moft Auguft 
manner, in the Sight and Hearing of all the Camp. That all together, 
might create the deepeft Senfe, of what the People underftood beft 
and was of greateft Moment. The Judicial, was alfo fpoken upon Mount 
Sitiai i but without any Terror, and in the Hearing of Mofes only ; 
and was by him only, writ. And Co the Orders, for the Apparatus of 
the Ceremonial. While God fpake the Moral, no Mortal CTeature, 
not Mofes himfelf, was fuffer'd to be upon the Mount, Ex. 19. 24, 25. 
& xo. ?,o, XI. &X4. I, 9. While he {pake the Judicial, Mofes indeed, 
as God's Prime Mioifter, was permitted ; and he alone. But when 
God had done fpeaking, Aaron alio, and the Elders of Ifrael, as with 
iWo/^j joint Executors of the Law, were honour'd with the {ame Ap- 
proach. The Congregation, who upon giving the Moral, ftood atar 
off; attended only unto the Third Day, Exoc/. 19. 11. But Mofes, v\ho, 
to receive Orders for the Ceremonial, was admitted to the Divine Pre- 
fence ; gave his Attendance unto the Ssventh Day, Exod.%/^. 16. 
While the Judicial was giving, Mofes being only near the Thick Dark- 
nefs, Exod. %o. xi, received it in the Sight of all Ifrael : as equally 
concerned herein, and underftanding the Reafon of it. But upon gi- 
ving the Apparatus of the Ceremonial, he was called up within the 
Cloud, Exod. 24. 18. To fignify, that this Law was intended to be a 
Myllery unto that People. 

4. And tiie Method, where requifite, is very exad-. For albeit the 
Judicial Law, hath refped chiefly to the Precepts of the Second la- 
ble; yet was it given before the Ceremonial, becaufeit was better un- 

d erflocd 

Chap. Vlll. the LAWS. 3J7 

derflood, and there was prefent cccafion for it : and fo far as the Pveafon 
of it extends, it is ot" Eternal Obligation, unto all other Nations. In 
the Ceremonial, from Exoti. 25', to the End of the Book, the Materi- 
als, and Furniture of the Tabernacle, are in pcrfed Order, prefcribed, 
and put together. And the ^/'/>^r<7J'«j being finifli'd, %e have next, the 
ufe of it tor the Offerings, {torn Levit. 1^ to 10. The Materials 
whereof, the Caufes for which, the Manner wherein, and the Perfbns 
by whom they were to be made,- being all mentioned in the Like 
Order. And fo mofl of the following Laws, in this and the next Book : 
though the Method is fecret as to fome few. And fome, for good 
and great Rcafon, were occafionally given. So when Nadah and Ahihu^ 
being Drunk, and not knowing what they did, had offered flrange 
Fire, Lev. 10. 9; the Priells u ere then forbid to drink any Wine, upon 
going to pertorm Divine Service. For it was not to be fuppofcd, I y 
giving a Law beforehand, that any Man would dare to be Drunk at 
that time. And God by flievving his Juflice on the Offenders, before 
the Law was given; gave it the greater Sanation. So the Manafites^ 
having reprefcnted to Tf/o/fi, the Law of Inheritance, with refpedl to 
the Daughters of 2e/(»/'/;(?/W, Num. t^6 : God was pleafed to ordairf. 
That every Heircfs fliould Marry w ithin her own Tribe. And to com- 
mend, what the Tribe of the Sons o^Jofeph had faicL To iliew, that 
as £///;« faith, Job 36, being great in VVifdom, and Knowing all good 
Reafbn to come from himfelf ; he defpiftth not any that fay or do well. 
As alio, to teach Men, to hearken unto good Advice, from whom- 
foever it comes. And thele and other Laws, were occafionally given, 
and with refpedt to thofe of the fame Claffis, out of Order, for this 
further Reafon ,- To make it evident. That thefe Books, with no fliew 
of good Senfe, were ever to be taken, for the Studied Compofition of 
any Man. Whereas the Book of Deuteronomy^ wherein a great part of 
them is repeated ,• is compofed by Mofes^ in the mofl exadt Method 
from firft to lail. 

5. If we look next, into the Reafon or End of the Law it felf; we 
fliail find it anfwerable to a Lcgiflator, whofe Will is the Supreme Rea- 
fon of Things. The high efteem, which the beft Lawgivers of other 
Nations had of it, I have already fhewed. My bufinefs therefore here, 
is to iliew the Reafbn it carries along with it, and of thof^ things 
which are peculiar to it felf. 

6. Now this was Twofold, Temporal and Spiritual. By the for- 
mer, I mean, the regard the Law hath, to the Politick, Domeftick, 
and Pcrfbnal Welfare of Mankind. Wherein, as the Second Table of 
the Moral Law, and moll of the Judicial, isdiredtly concerned; So 
collaterally, much of the Ceremonial: of all which, it will fuiBce, to 
give (bme Inftances. 

7. The Filth Commandment, limits not Obedience unto Good Pa- 
rents, but requires it unto all : Honour thy Father and thy Mother. 
So BpllietiiS^ Mf-n Zv 'tr^<; dyn^v ttuII^ (p'S(7&t ccxoiu^t^i ; 8x, aAAa -!ȣ?$ 
y/vric^ : Becaufe we are related to them, not as Good, but as Pa- 
rents. And bad Parents, while they do ill themfelves; know better, 
and will require tliat of their Children, which is beft for them. 

8. And Rebellious Children, were punifhed with Death, Ex. 11. 
15, 17. Dei4t.zi. 18,21. Why not, for contemning the Guardians of 
their Infancy, and the Authors of their Life? The Jews too, for 

P p p Reafons 

2^8 y^s they ^f fear from Book IV. 

Reafons hereafter mentioned, were by Law reflraincd from difinhcri- 
ting their Children. To balance which Law, it was neceflary to awe 
them into Subjedlion, by this (evere Penalty. And the further Care 
God took in thifc point, appears Num. 30,- where he thinks fit to dif- 
pence wdth a Sacred and Solemn Vow made to himfelf,- rather than to 
allow of any pretence unto Difbbedience. 

9. Care was dfo taken, to adjufl the obligation between Mafters 
and Servants. Among other Laws, by this, That if a Servant had 
received his Wife of his Mailer ; when his Years were expired, he 
was put to his Choice, Whether he would go out free, without his 
Wife and Children; or continue a Servant, with them. Exodus zi. 
4, ^j 6. And very juflly : in that he knew his Choice , when he 
took his Wife. 

10. Under the Command of Obedience to Parents ; God intending 
to declare his Will in few Words, chofe to comprehend that alfo due 
to Magillrates. Becaufe Originally, mofl Princes, were Fathers of 
Families. And Father and Mother, were both among the Jews, and 
in other Nations , Honorary Titles , given to all Superiors, and 
fiichas were ofEfteem and Dignity, JuJg. 5'. 7. x Kings ^. 13. and 13. 
14. And they who have learned to be good Children; are fitted to 
become good Citteens, and good Subjeds. 

11. For the better Government of this People, Judges and Officers 
were to be chofen in every City, Deut. 16. 18. Thefe made the Lefler 
Sanhedrim. Before whom, all Caufes, within the Jurifdicftion of the City, 
were heard , and determined, as by the Civil Law, without a Jury. 
Tryals by Juries, being, I conceive, taken up in England, when the 
Commons, and thofe before whom their Caufe was to come , had that 
dependance upon the Crown, the Nobility, and the See of i?ow(? ; that 
it was feldom fafe, at leaft, not fair, to commit the Tryal of it unto . 
them alone. Whereas the Jervs^ having no other Nobility among 
•them, but by Office : and in diverfe refpedls, efpecially before the 

time of the Kings, being a Free People : every Man, but a Slave, was 
in a maianer, try'd per Pares ; the Sanhedrim it (elf being equivalent to 
a Jury. 

I X. Befides this , there was alfb eflablilhed , a Superior Court , 
Deut. 17. 8, 11; whereunto Appeals were made in doubtful Cafes. 
And he that refufed to fubmit to the Sentence here given, was put to 
Death, verfe i x. A fevere Penalty : but this having been before laid 
upon obftinate Children; it had been incongruous, toinflid aay left, 
upon a Subjedt offending in like manner. 

13. But the Supream Court, was that of the Greater Sanhedrim. 
A kind of Parliament, confifling of the Prince, Chief Priefts, and 70 
or j-L of the Elders or Fleads of the People, Numh. 1 1. x^. Who yet, 
I conceive, had no Legiflative Power : But only , of giving Judgment 
upon fbme extraordinary Perfbns, and Cafes, according to the Law. 
For as it was Impious, for the Scribes, to make any Additions in Copy- 
ing the Law : fo would it have been Dangerous, to have allowed that 
Government, to add any Fundamental Rules, to thofe already given 
by God himfelf. 

14. If, after they w^re fettled in Canaan^ they would have a King; 
among other Rules, he was, upon no account, to be a Stranger, 
Deut.ij, 1 5". As one, that was very likely, both to Overflock them with 

Foreigners ; 

Chap. VIII. the L A W S. 299 

Foreigners ; and to make Innovations in their Law. Or fhould he do 
neither ; yet no Stranger could be thought fit for a Regency over 
God's peculiar People. And he was to be of God's chufing , z^id. 
That they might underftand him to be only a Deputy to himfelf, 
who was their King properly (b called , i Sam. 8, 7. Pjalm 68. z^. 
1 5', As to the Military Orders ,• the marching of the feveral Tribes, 
of the diftind; Families in that of Levi ; and their Stations round the 
Tabernacle J dcfcribed, Numiers Chap. x. ^^ 10. were more decent,, 
convenient, and fafe, than any other that could have been devifed. 
The Militia confided of all that were able, from xo years old and up- 
ward. Who being lifted in the Mufter-Roll, followed their Trades, 
or other Bufinefs, till they were called to War. Anfwered by our 
Train'd Bands : which, fuppofing them to be well diftiplin'd, are fitter 
to fight pro Aris & Focis, than any other fort of Soldiers. Therefore 
they had no Prefs for any War,- becaufe they all knew their Duty be- 
fore-hand. On the contrary, care was taken, that the Army ^lould 
be purged of all that were faint-hearted, or had a hankering to be at 

home, Deut. xo. 5 8. For that the Vidtory was not then got, by 

the Arts we now ufe, but by meer dint of Sword. 

1 6. To give the greater force to the Sixth Command , No ranfom 
was to he accepted for the Ufe of a Murtkerer, Numh. ■55.31. No Sandtu- 
ary could proted: him, Deut. 19. iz. The revenger of Blood himfelf 
might kill him : tho not without Witnefles of the Fad:, ver. 30. yet 
without any Legal Procefs, ver. 19. If a Beaft flew a wan, he was t© 
he ftoned, and not to he eaten, Exod. xi. i8. Nor might any one Beaft: be 
eaten, that was flain by another, Exod. 2x, 3 1. If one were found flaih 
in the Field, and the Felon unknown ,• the Magiftrates of the next ad- 
jacent City , were in the moft folemn manner to purge themlelves-, 
Deut. 21. And if one killed another, though by meer accident, yet urt- 
\e.{s he took Sanduary, he was to die for it, Num. 35'. 12. Infomuch, 
that there is not any Nation upon the Earth,, where the Laws have rai- 
led fo ftrong a Rampart againft Murther, As to (hew, how much God 
abhorreth it : fo the better to reprefs the difpofition of this people to 
it. Betimes appearing in the Slaughter of the Shechemttes ; and after- 
wards, in other Paflages of their Story. And to balance the CommiC 
fion, they had to kill every Living Creature, of the Nations devoted 
to deftrudion : Teaching them, neverthelefs, pioufty to abftain from 
Ihedding of Innocent Blood. 

17. Of a Purchafed Servant, the Rule was given, Exod.-LX.ti. 
That if he dy'd under the Rod, the Mafter ftiould be punifli'd : But not 
if he continued a day or two ; hecaufe he was the Mafter s Money. And 
therefore it was to be fuppofed, he could not intend to kill him, to his 
own lofs. And that no unjuft Rigor was hereby countenanced, ap- 
pears from what was ordained, Deut. 23. 1 5, \6. That if a Servant, be- 
ing opprcfled, made his efcape ; no man might deliver him again into 
his Mafter's hands. 

18. God was pleafed to take care, not only of their Lives, but of 
their Health. And to this end, as he had done before, to Adam and 
Noah, to prelcribe them their Food. Whereby, as the moft ancient 
Phyfick confifted in Diet ; fo Mofes became the firft Dietetick Writer, 
of any now extant. I know that a late Learned Author, thought, and 
argues, That God in giving them his Laws for Diet, had no regard to 


a^o ^i" they Affear from Book IV. 

their Health. But what he denies in one Page, he grants in another; 
That fome Meats were preierr'd, they are his ovnn Words, Propter fa^ 
luhrem fuccum. And why might he not make Laws, as wcJl as work 
Miracles, tor their Health? which he often did. Why not by his 
Laws, take care of the Health of Men, as well as of their Goods ? as 
is done in the Eighth Command j though, of the two, fometimes the 
left valuable. 

19. Confidering therefore, the manifold Wifdom of God, inalltlwt 
he faith and doth : we may believe, that together with the Spiritual 
Reafbns he had, for appointing them their Food, one Temporal End, 
was to fecure their Health. So, no manner of Fat, not mixed with the 
Fleih, but feparate, and belonging to the Inwards, was to be eaten. 
For this, with other Reafons, becaufe it is injurious to the Stomach. 
Nor any Rlood : as yielding, efpecially in hot Countries, an Atrabila- 
rious Chyle. On the Feaft of Tabernacles , w hich jaftcd (even Days; 
one Bullock was to be deduced every day, ^um 19. 13, li)c. The bet- 
ter to beware a Surfeit. Among Fifties, thole only wgvq allowed to be 
eaten, which have Fins and Scales : among Birds, and Bcafls, thofc 
only which live upon Fruits, and Grafs, and that ruminate, and feed 
clean : all of them own'd, by every knowing and civiHzed Nation, to 
be the moft whoKbme. 

zo. Among other forts of Flefli, which the "^ews were forbad, was 
that of Swine. "Tis true, as the foremention'd Author urges, their 
Neighbours bred them in great abundance. And the Romans rcckon'd 
Swines Fleih, among the chief of their Dainties. But /vr/?, the /?(?- 
waw^ were in a much more temperate Climate; the nearefl part of //^i/y 
being more remote from the Line,, than the farthcfl part of Judea. Nor 
did the People who were Neighbours to the Jews^ or the Romans^ in 
eating of Swines Flefli, mind their Health, but to gratifie their Appe- 
tites, and pamper their Lulls. Nor were Rome and Italy ever fo full 
of Difeafes, as when they were grown Luxurious. We are then ne- 
verthelefs, to believe, That one Reafbn why the Jews were forbad 
Swines Fleih, was becaufe it is unwh'oKbme , as apt to beget the Le- 
profy, and fundry other Difeafes in hot Countries. It was therefore, 
as Herodotus tells us, equally abominable to the Egyptians. Plutarch 
notes, that the very Milk of this Beaft, being drunk, produceth the 
Scab. And Hippocrates obferves, Lib. Pop. 5. That tiie Fleih, if not 
well roalled, throw's people into a Cholera Morlus, that is , it works 
vehemently, by Cholerick Vomits and Stools. Neither here in Eng- 
land do we eat it in Summer ; nor is it fo generally agreeable to the Sto- 
mach, as any other Flelli. And if not well faked, as well as roalled, 
infallibly gives many a Diarrhaa, or turns to a dangerous Fever. And 
had the Jews been taught to fait it, tho' it had prevented a Surfeit ; yet 
in them, would the rather have produced the Scab. And would like- 
Wife have tempted them, to filt other Meats; little ufed among the 
Eaftern Nations, as there, not fo wholfome. And therefore aftb Salt 
was prefcribed, for the fcalbning only of the Meat-Onferings, ^iz. Thofe 
Offerings which confilled of Vegetables , but not tiiofe of Flefh , 
Lev. 1. 13. 

zi. Neither may we doubt, but that there were other Collateral 
Ends, in giving thefe Laws to the Jews. Partly, for the better improve- 
ment of their little fpot of Grouad. So their being forbid to eat the 

Coney ; 


Chap. Vm. the L A W _S. ______lli 

Coney; induced them to hinder the Breed of this Animal, Co very 
deftrudive to all forts of Corn. Therefore alfo in Etigland^ if the King 
grant a Warren to any one in his own Lands, for Phefants or Hares ; 
no man may there chafe them, without the Owner's Licence : but for 
Coneys there is no fuch reftraint, Crow/>f. yj/r//</. 148. 

az. As alfb, to reftrain their Venereal Lulls ; being, as Tacitus calls 
them, ProjeHiJima ad Lihidinem Gens. Both by lefTening the variety 
of Meats* which is it felf an Incentive : and by forbidding, in fpecial, 
thofe which ftimulate,- as all fhell'd and flying Infeds, Lev. ir. 13. 
Which in hotCountreys partake, more or Icfs, of the Fiery and pro- 
voking Nature of the Cantharis, or Spanijh Fly. And confequently, 
to fit them for begetting a healthier and ftronger Breed ; and fo, be- 
coming more populous. 

13. The reftraint put uponj^ Inordinate Venery, was alfo (Irider 
than in any other Nation. Tne leflcr Offences of this kind , were 
puniftied, either by a Fine, £xo</. 2z. 16, 17. or by Scourging, Lev.ig. 
10. or by Barrennefs, Lev. zo. xo, zi. among the Jews a great Curie. 
All the Greater, not only Buggery, Sodomy, and Inceft ; but alfb 
Adultery, and Wedlock, or Fornication, with any near* f Kin, were 
punilhed with Death, Lev. 18. and Chap. xo. ix, 17. Nor were Men 
and Women to imitate one another in their Apparel, Deut. zz. 5-. And 
in Cafe of Jealouiy, the Tryal of the Wife's Innocency, was as ibiemn, 

as that of the Magiftrates, in Cafe of Blood, Num. ^. iz z6. For 

nothing Icfs, would have been of force, to bridle thofe, who from the 
Nature of their Country, their Conftitution , and the Example of 
other Nations, were fo prone to offend , though againfl: the greatefl 
Reafon. , 

24. For Firfi, Adultery, is of all the moft ViUanous Theft. Be- 
fides the Danger accruing to the Husband, , by this fort of Burglary; 
it robs him of the chiefeil Property he hath, the'Duty and Affediort of 
a Wife. And brings Thieves, under the Name of Children, to rob 
him of his whole Eftate. All the forts of Inceft, are more than Bruit- 
ifti. For fome Beafts, as the Camel, will not be compcH'd to cover 
their own Dams. And would introduce a Monftrous Confufion. It 
being impoffible, in Cafe of Marriage, fuppofe, between a Man and 
his Mother, for the Indifpenfable Duty of Obedience, from a Wife 
and a Son, to confift together. Nor will any thing more tend, to de- 
bafe a Nation, or Family, than Wedlock within This, or other Degrees 
of Conlangunity. * Wherein, as the Phancy is Vile and Low ; fo the 
Mixture too fimilar. Which is fo very certain, that they who are curi- 
ous, only in the Br«ed of a good Fighting Cock, or a good Hunting 
Dog ; allow them not to match with their own Kindred. Withal, it 
contrads that Love and Friendlhip, into a narrow Compafs ; which 
as the Blood and Spirits of a Commonwealth, ought to be diffus'd in- 
to every Vein and Part of it. Nor would Whoredom, if permitted, 
be lefs mifchicvous, in depopulating any Country. For a Woman, ad- 
mitting, fuppofe. Ten Men; will be fo far from having Tea times as 
many Children, as flie would have by one ; that flie will have none 
at all. 

zj. The better to keep them within due bounds, they were indul- 
ged a Threefold Liberty. Exemption from the Wars for a Year, if 
newly Mairricd : Divorce, in cafe of diflike : and Polygamy. And the 

Q.qq laft, 

342 yis they J f pear from Book IV, 

laft, the rather, becaufe what is done by Callration among Beafls; 
might be effedted by their Captivities and frequent Wars : By means 
whereof, 'tis probable, there v\ ere lewer Men, fit lor Marriage, than 
Women ; or fewer ready at hand. Yet the King was required, not to 
multiply Wives, Deut.iy. And by his Example, the People were* 
much lefs to do it. Left it fliould couardize their Military Courage. 
Therefore the King in Daniel^ Chap. 11. who was of a High Mind, and 
bent upon Great Attempts ; is faid. To abandon the defire of Women. 
Neither might a man meddle, tho' with a Captive, till flie had bewail- 
ed her Father and Mother a full Month. That the Mourning AlTe6tioii 
being fpent, it might not ipoil the Conjugal , and thereby deprave 
the Conception. And tho' a Marriage was not IndifToluble ; vet a 
Divorce, to make them more confiderate in what they did, was irre- 
vocable, Deut. X4. 2, 3, 4. It was alforequired, Levit. 15. 18, That 
after Coition, any the moft: Lawful, ^th Parties fhould bath them- 
felves. That the trouble of Walhing, might help to induce them to 
a convenient degree of Continence. And to thatModefty, becoming 
even the Privacies betv\'een Husband and Wife. 

26. There were fome other Rules hereunto belonging, of great ufe 
both to the Parents, and the Children. A Bearing Woman was to 
continue fcparate, for fome Days, from all Company. And all the 
time of her Purgations, before ilie might be Church'd, or her Hufl 
band lie with her, Lev. 12. NecelTary, to prevent the Alienation of his 
Affedions from her. The (aid purgations, being very ill fcented to 
the end of the Term. And mofl: of all, about the beginning : by rea- 
fon of that Humour, which may be called Fluor Vtridn. Efpecially 
in thofe, w ho are of a Swarthy Complexion, as the Jewifh Women ; 
and mofl of all, as is likely, in hot Countries. While therefore the 
Husband abfents, no harm can follow : for the Women are the better 
for it. 

tj. It is obferved alfo by Hippocrates^ de Mul. Morh. 2. 3 7, 3 8. That 
Coition in the time of thefe Purgations, is in Greece^ fb mifchieVous 
as to caufe a Prolapjus Uteri. And why not alfb in Judea ? And by im- 
prefTing fome Impurity on the Conception j is equally injurious to Po- 
flerity : as hereupon, it becomes Mislhapen, or Unfound. For the 
numerous increafe whereof, God having engaged by his Promife; he 
alfb took care, by this, as well as other Means, to fee it fulfil I'd. And 
therefore, we are not to wonder, That Coition with any Menftruous 
Woman, was not only forbid ,• but this too , under the fevere Pe- 
'f nalty , of both Parties being -cut ofF from among their People 
Levit. 20. 18. ♦ 

28. The Time of a Bearing W^oman's Separation, is alfb fitly fet. 
Upon the Birth of a Female, double to that of a Male : the different 
Terms of the Purgation, There, requiring as much. And for both, 
more than in many other Countries, remoter from the Line, and fa 
riie Influence of the Sun and Moon. Thcref9re in Greenland^ the Wo- 
men have no Menflruous Purgations. Herein £»g/tfW, they continue, 
at the mofl, but a Week; and the Bearing Purgations feldom more, 
than 14 Days. Whereas in Greece^ they compleat, for a Male, 30 Days, 
for the mofl part ; and for a Female, 42. Hipp, de Mul. Morh. 1.98. 
And why not yet a longer time in "Judea and other Countries, which; 


chap Vl.II. the L A W ^. 349 

are ftill more Southerly ? And Avken a Terfian , and diPigent obferver, 
feemeth to affirm as much. hih. i. Fern. x. Doil.t. Chap. ii. 

29. The Laws for fecuring every one's Property, were very exadJ. 
If an Ox, Jfs, or Sheep, being Jioin, was found alive in the hand of the 
'Thief; he was to reftore double, Exodus xi. 4. To wit , the Principal, 
and the Value of it, for the Trouble given to the Owner. If kill'dy 
or fold; thoughonly a Sheep, yet was he to reflore Fourfold, Exodms zz. i. 
The Trouble and Charge of obtaining Reftitution, thereby becoming 
much the greater. And if an Ox ; Fivefold^ ibid. For that the Labour 
of the Ox, was alfb to be confidered. If he could not do this, he was 
to be Sold, Exodus zz. 3. Rather than kept to work it out; left he 
fl:ould ftudy revenge. Nor had every Owner, cccafion for a Slave. 
And if he committed a Nodturnal Theft, he might be innocently kili'd, 
Exodus zz. z. For killing is then frequently intended by the Thief, 
rather than tail of the .1 heft , or of fecrefy therein. But the Legal 
Puniiliment of thefe Felons, was not Capital, as it is with us : who 
have taken up the Cuflom from former Times, when Thieves were 
more numerous, and defperate. We have learned indeed, Since the 
growth of our Plantations, fbmetimes to Tranfport them. But no 
Satisfadion is hereby given to the Party Robb'd, as by God's Law, 
is (lone. • 

. \ When the Injury was done by a Cheat ; the principal was to be 
reftorcd, and a Fifth part oftheVllue, to be added to it, Levit. 6. 
z, <■ A Reparation, much lefs, than what was required upon a down- 
right Theft, Exodus ax. Becaiife orte may have his Goods ftoln, tho 
he rakes care to prefcrve them. But if he is Cheated, it is more his 
own lauit. 

-i, I. If a Beafl intrufted with any Man, was certainly Stoln, he was 
to make it good, Exodus 1 x. For he that intrulls any thing with 
atioriv^r,' thinks it lafer in the Truftee's hands ,lllhan his own. ♦And 
he ih-^t accepts the Truft, bids him to think it. But if driven away, 
no man feeing it; he was not bound to do it, Exodus ii. 10. For 
that, notwithftanding any thing appearing to the contrary, 
done by rhe Owner himfelf. Nor if it was Torn, Exodus xz. 13. 
Becaufe he was not bound, for the fafety of any Man's Beaft, to ven- 
ture his own Life. Befides which ;Rules, there are fundry others, in 
Cafe of Damage, laid down in this Chapter, with exad: Juftice. 
And Levit. 19. 13. Deut. 24. 14, i j, care is taken of the Right of the 
Poor, as well as of the Rich. 

31. Special care was alfo taken, of their real Eftates. For each 
Tribe, by Lot, N^^w. 33. 54. That none might Seditioufly pretend, 
then, or afterwards, either that Jacob and Mofes^ had partially be- 
queathed the Land, or the Elders fo divided it : but every one, by fo 
publick a Tranfjdion, might fee the Agreement, between the Pre- 
diction, tiie Precept, and the Lot ; and lb be well contented, with 
the fliare given them by God himfelf. 

33. For each Family, by fetling the Defcent. Firft, upon the Sons : 
whom , though hated , yet it Vv^as not in their Father's Power, by any 
Tricks, to Difinherit. And after thefe, upon the Daughters, or other 
Kindred, according to the degrees of Confanguinity ; fb as no Inheri- 
tance, was to go from one Tribe to another, Num. xj. 8, 9,'i 0,11. Num. 
3 6. j.Dcy.i z 1 . 1 5, 1 6, 1 7. By which La\< s, they were the more obliged 


2 44 ^^ ^^9' ^tt^^^ f^om Book iV. 

exactly to Regider their Genealogies ; the Diftindion of the Tribes, 
was afccrtained ; and tiie Redemption of tlieir Eflatcs at any alloued 
time, with their Claims at the Year of Jubile, uere Indifputable : 
than which, nothing could tend more to the Quiet of this People. 

34. Tlie Levites alfb, though being under 'Jacob's Prophetick Cucfe, 
they had no Original Lot : yet that CuiTe being turned intoaBlcfling, 
they had a Secondary Lor, of 48 Cities, with their Suburbs, out of 
the other Tribes, Num. t^^. Jo/huaxi. Together with the Tithe of 
tliC' Produ(5t of the Country, Num. 18. 21, 24. And the fithc of this 
Tithe, was to be the Priefts, Num. 18. iz, z6, x8. That thofe who 
wholly attended upon the Service of God, might have the Befl, and 
without Trouble. And the fame Proportion was alfo obferved, in the 
Dividend which was made of the Martial Spoil, Nml.ii.x^^ &c. 

35i He that is Idle, Rob's the Publick: from which, die Sturdy 
Begger may be faid to Steal, by the Givers Confent. It was therefore 
a Precept given, not only to the Jews, but to all Men, SJx days fhalt 
thou Labour. Which, though it be only annexed to that for keeping 
the Sabbath,- whereunto it was alfo fubjoyned in the Beginning : yet 
this People looked upon themfelves, to be fo far obliged by it ,• that 
no Man thought it below him, to learn a Trade. Neither might any 
one flay at Jerufalem, or elfe where , frogi his own Houfe, above 20 
days ; lefl his Bufinefs there, fliould be negled-ed : as by Jriftaas, in 
his H\{\.ory oi^ the Septuagint^ we are informed. By which means, in 
part, as this People were more Wealthy than their Neighbours : fo, 
more Populous ; as it conduced much , as yvell as the Dietetick Laws, 
to keep them in Health. 

36. Laws were alfo given, for regulating the Courts of Juflice. No 
Man was to be judged Convid of any Offence, fmall or great, not of 
Murther, nor of Idolatry it felf, without Two or Three WitnefTes of 
the Fad, N«w. 35'. Deut. 17. 6. For though it is poffiblc, for Two 
WitnefTes to Lye, as well as one : yet the Circumftances of their Evi- 
dence, like the Notches of a pair of Tallies, by their agreement or 
difagreement, fliew when it is True or Falfe. And if a Witnefs prov'd 
to be falfe ,• he was to be punifhed, Secundum Talionis Legem. For it is 
likely, few of the Jews believing, that God knew their Hearts j they 
were thence the more prone to Falfliood, not to be reprefled by any 
Law lefs fevere. They were alfb forbid all Mifreports in private. Lev. 
19. 16. Both as Evil in themfelves, and as they are the Seeds of Falfe 
Evidence : the Authors being under a Temptation, to ftand to what 
they have once faid, though before the Magiftrate. 

37. The Judges were not only forbid the taking of Bribes, Exodus 
z3. 8 : but were all of them, both the Priefts and the Elders, wholly 
Independent upon any. That they might confider the Caufe, if I 
may have leave to fay, as Metaphyfically , as if the Perfon were a 
Nonentity, Exodus 13 . It was alfo cxprefly forbid, That any Man 
ihould be put to death, but for his own Sin, Deut. 24. 16. Left 
this People , inchnable to Blood and Revenge ,- fhould fuppofe the 
Power, which God affumeth to himfelf in the Second Command, of 
Animadverting upon the Children of Evil Parents, did any way belong 
unto Them. 

38. They 


Chap. VIII. the L A PV S. 245 

:;8. They were al(b prohibited all Extortion, and whatfoever was 
inconfiftent with Brotherly Love. Ufiiry, veryStridly, As being by 
This, and perhaps, by all the Neighbouring Nations, as abominably 
pradifed, in lending, not only of Money, but even of Viduals, "upon 
Ufe, Lev. tj. 37. Deut. 13. 19. Wherefore alfb, in Exodus zz.x^^ 
where Ufury is firfl: mentioned, and by which Text, we are to Inter- 
ret ail that follow, it is forbid to be taken of a Poor Man. And ib 
ikewife, ie^. 25. 35, 36. For every jF^w, as is before noted, having 
Trade; as the Rich had no Temptation to make a Trade of Ufury ,• 
fb if prompt payment was then commonly made, as is likely, for all 
Goods ; he could have no occafion to Borrow. It feemeth therefore, 
that as the Rich neverufed toBorrow,ro neither were they concerned in 
this Precept. Nor any now, where the lending of Money, upon Ufe, 
is not an Oppreflion, but a Kindnefs. 

39. Pledges too, were fo far regulated, that though they were taken 
without Ufury; yet were to be reftored by Sun-fet, if the Owner had 
need of them, Deut. x^. iz, 13 : as fuppofe of his Raiment, Exodus 
2z. 16. Vv'herc it is asked. Wherein (hall he Sleep ^ It being in the 
hotteft Countries, the moft Dangerous, to deep ill cover'd in the Night. 
And he that took a Pledge, was not to go into his Brother's Houfe to 
take it, but to receive it without Doors, Pe«/-. 24. 10, 11. That he 
might neither* (ee the Nakednefs of his Brothers Houie; nor covet any 
other Pledge, than what he could befl fpare. 

40. If they might not opprefs, nor grieve others, on pretence of 
faving themfclves from Damage; much lefs might they hurt them, 
without any Caule. Not Jludy Revenge, Lev.ig. 1%. Not afflict Wi- 
dows and Orphans, unable to defend thcmfelves. Exodus zi. zz. Not 
Curfe the Deaf^ Lev. 19. 14, Nor thererefore, fpeak evil of any be- 
hind their backs. Not put a Stumhling-hlock before the Blind, ihid. 
Much lefs. Scandalize, or Mifguide, the Ignorant. 

41. On the contrary, they were bound, to love their Neighhour, as 
themfelves, iei/. 19. 18. To do good to every Man : befides lendmg 
the Foot gratis; freely and cheerfully to give to them, Deut. 15, 7, 8, 
10. The Corners and Gleanings of the Field and Vineyard, were to 
be left for their Ufe, Lev. 19, 9, 10. And for their Sakes, partly, the 
Land to reft, every Seventh Year, Exodus z-^. 11. Strangers likewife 
were to be beloved, affifted and helpt, Deut. 10. 10. and zz. z. Yea, 
and Enemies too. Exodus xt,. ^, 5. In Co much, .that what Cicera 
thought, de Leg. 1°. might feem to fome Incredible, between one 
Wile Man and another, t/t nihilofefe plus quam alterum diligat ; the 
Perfection of the Divine Law, requires towards all. 

4Z. Thefe and many other Judicial Laws, fb much conducing to 
the Happinefs of this People ; were herein alfo very fingular, In bemg, 
for the greater part of them, given together. The Laws of other Na- 
tions, have had their new Editions and Amendments, in feveral Ages. 
So the Grecian Laws, by Draco, Licurgus, Sobn, and others. Among 
the Romans, Romulus eftabliijied the Senate ; Numa, the Religious Of- 
fices and Ceremonies; TuHus Hoftilius, the Militia ; Servius Tullius, the 
Publick Regiftries ; in no lefs a fpace than zoo Years. Nor were the 
Tables brought from Greece, till many Years after. Whereas the Judaic 
Law, was all given by one Man, Mofes ; and the main Body of it, in 
not much more than one Year. Plainly ihewing, that it came from 

. Rrr God, 

246 -^^ f^^y ^fpear from Book IV. 

God, who knew how to give fuch Precepts, all at once, asiliould need 
no Emendation. 

43. The(e Precepts, as they are not over-numerous ; fo neither, 
Verbofe, but very Sentencioufly exprefl in a few comprchenfive words. 
Herein imitated by thofe of the Twelve Tables. Of which, Sextm Cce- 
ciiius, a Roman Lawyer of great Authority, fpeaking in their Praifc, 
{aith, that they were written, Ahfohitci'verhorum brevitate. Tn>eitis, 
that the Ceremonial Law, which is a Syflem of Sacraments, leaves no 
circumftances to the difcretion of any Man or number of Men ,• but 
prefcribes what the Priefls and the People were to do, to a Tittle. 
Yet withal, very Succinctly. But the Judicial, much more. For the 
Circumftances of Perfons and Things, being Infinite ; they were left 
to the Prudence of thoie, who were to give Judgment by this Law, 
as their Fundamental Rule. Not being bound, to keep to the Letter 
of the Law ,• but having Authority, to make an Equitable Conflrui^ion 
hereof, according to the Intent and meaning of tlie Law-giver, Exo- 
flus zi.x%, 30. Deut.i'j.St II. Which Authority, the Prophets 
alfo had, and ufed, in their Sermons to the People. Nor therefore, 
was there any Court of Juftice among the Jews^ but what was properly, 
a Court of Equity. 

44. From all which, they received great advantages. For the 
Rules not being Voluminous, and Intricate; but few, and Equitable : 
the Judges were able perfectly to remember them all, and with greater 
prefence of Mind, and lefs danger of Error, to give Judgment in 
every Cafe. And where all things were thus plain and cleer, 
■TTaj/TH, oiVAa ^ <^Aiz, zsPhilo^ fpeaking of thefe Laws, faith they were : 
as the Parties concerned in the Suit,had no occafion for any to plead on 
their behalf; fo the Suit, was always ended, at the furtheft, in 5 Days. 
Not permitting of frivolous Nonfuits, and otherlike Tergiverifations, 
which no way relate to the Merits of the Caufe ; and by reafbn where- 
of, tlie Law it felf, is a grand Oppreflion, in moft other Nations. And 
thus far of the Reafon of the Law, as it had refped: to the Temporal 
Welfare of this People. 

45. The Spiritual Ends , were likewife many and great. Unto 
which, both the Firft Table of the Decalogue, and the whole Ceremo- 
nial Law, were intended. 

46. In the time of this Difpenfation, Polytheifm had fo far over- 
(pread the World;, that the Unity of the Deity, was as it feems, not 
only to all other Nations, but to the generality of the Jews, as great a 
Myftcry tlien, as the Trinity of Perfons, is now. Therefore God 
faw it neccffary, to give it as his firft and great Command, that they 
Ihould acknowledge none other but Eiimfelf. And the Preface to it, 
I am the Lord thy God^ which brought thee out of the Land of Egypt, out 
of the Hottfe of Bondage ; was a Reafbn for it, they could not Anfwer. 
For be who had fo lately, and in their fight, confounded the Reputed 
Gods of Egypt, of all others the moft famous: thereby Ihewed, that 
if thefe were no Gods, much Icfs were thofe of any other Nation in 
the World. 

47. By this Command, God not only aflerted his Unity, but alfo 
gave them an intimation of his Eflence. For the Egyptians, as well 
as other Nations, afligned (evcral Powers and Perfedlions, to their 
feveral Gods. If then there was one God , Superior to them all j 



Ghap. VIIL the L A W S. 347 

they could not but conclude, That this One, had all Perfedions in 

48. But the evincing of this, was more particularly intended by 
the Second Command, Not to reprefent the Deity, by any Materials, 
Figures, or Senfibles, whatfoever. The Reafbn whereof, as the Pro- 
phets, and other Wife Men among the Jews, might infer, was indeed, 
Becaule he is Incorporeal, that is, a Spirit,* and fo, hath tio Figure at 
all. And every Figure, mufl be in fbme Place. But he, who had no 
Figure, could be in no Place : and therefore, was alfo Immenfe. And 
confequently, could not be without all other Perfedions, anfwerable 
to the Manner of his Exiflence , fb Tranfcendent to that, of all other 
Things. Agreeably unto which, they were alfb taught, to expreis the 
Idea they had of him. Do not I fill Heaven and Earth, faitk theLord> 
j?^/-. 23.2,4. Behold, Heaven, and the Heaven of Heavens, cannot contain 
thee, X Chron. 6. iS. . By which Sayings, the Divine Immenfity, is as 
fully exprefs'd, as by the Artificial Term, Ubiquity, that is, Every- 
w herenefs, ^r by any Metaphyfick Book. 

49. The Third Command, Not to take the Name of God in vain ; was 
given, To Ihew the Sacracy of this mofl Excellent Majefty. That He, 

in whom all Perfedtions were fummed up ,• muft needs be Great, ' 

above all Expreflion , or Thought, we can have of him. Which 
Greatnefs, the Total of his own Perfections, as it alfo implies a neceCl 
fary Averfion from all Imperfedtions in the Creature, is his Holinefs. 
Excellently exprelled by Eliphaz, Job 15. 15. Behold he putteth no truji 
in his Saints, yea the Heavens are not clean in his fight. Ihey were there- 
fore taught the greater regard to the Deity himlelf, in being admoniih- 
ed to reverence his very Name. 

50. Having propofed to them, the immediate view of his Effence 
or Divine Nature ; he diredteth them , in the Fourth Command, To 
clear and fortify their Conceptions hereof, by the Contemplation of 
his Works. The Magnificence and Beauty whereoQ and their Ufes 
one to another, being feen : mull convince them, that the Power, 
Wifdom, and Goodnefs of their Author, could have no Bounds And 
by telling them, They were all made in Six Days ; He afliired them, 
that they were made in Time ; and therefore could not be Eternal : 
but that He, who made them, mufl be fo. Suitably unto what is laid, 
in the firit Words of the Sacred Story, That in the beginning, God created 
the Heavens and the Earth : That is, in the Beginning of Time. He 
therefore that madeTime,and the World together, was Eternally, before 
them both. His Ubiquity likewile, was hereby more apparent. That 
he wl^^omade all that is Vifible cilery where j is fo every where him- 
felf, as could be nothing elfe. Of which, David, Fjal. 139, gives an 
admirable Defcription, fit for any plain Man , Poet, or Philofopher, 
to read with pleafure. As alfb his Prefcience. For if every Human 
Art, is nothing elfe, but the Artificer's Idea of his Work : then the Mo- 
tion, Life, and Stuff, wherewith God has made the World, were all 
lEternally in himfelf. Who therefore tells Jeremy^ Chap, i, 5. Before I 
formed thee in the Belly, I knew thee : that is, he knew him, to Be, be- 
fore he was. 

51. With the Works of Creation, it was very natural for them, to 
contemplate thofe of Providence: for the fake of which, the World 
and every thing therein, was made. Among other Particulars, of the 


248 ^s they Affear from Book IV. 

Deftrudion of the Old World , and the Means provided for ano- 

51. With both thefc, they were invited, To confider themfejves ; as 
a principal Part of God's Creation, and about whom his Providence, 
here below, was chiefly concern'd. In feeing the Beauty of the World, 
they could not but obferve the Spots, which the Folly of Mankind 
Jiad fluck upon it : and the Briars and Thorns, which the 111 Culture 
of Themfelvcs,and That, had produced. So as at once, to fee, a 
World of God's making, and another of their own. 

5'3. But if all other things round about them, came from God's 
hands fo very fine : they could not but believe, That the Mind of 
Man,was alfo made with exadeft Symmetry in all its Parts. And there- 
by be provoked, to aim at their Original Perfedion, and ro Imitate 
the Author of it. 

54. Neither did God tell them, he had made Heaven, as well as 
this Lower World ; but to lift them up thither. To fee he had fur- 
nifli'd the fame, with Company fo much the more agreeable, as they 
were nearer, to him. Nor could they think, he would have pointed 
them to the Place ; had he not intended, by his Laws, and This, in 
Special, to prepare them for it. Nor therefore, that in keeping a Ho- 
ly Sabbath, a meer Ceflation from Labour, was alt that was required ; 
that is, to trifle it away : but that they were Indulged a Seventh Day, 
to the end, the Refledions they now had, of the Great things aforefaid, 
might be the Freer, and more refin'd. 

55. The "^evoSy and chiefly the Wifer and more Religious among 
them, were i'urtherinftruded in thefe and other Divine Myfteries, by 
the Ceremonial Law. 

56. This begins with the Order for making the Tabernacle, with 
all things belongmg to it, and the Ornaments of the Priefls. Where it 

■ is to be noted, in the firft place, that the Defcription hereof is not en- 
tire. Therefore Mofes is bid to make them, not according to This, but 
to the Patterns fhewed him in the Mount, Exod. i j. 9, 40. and %j. 8. 
For a brief Defcription, fuitable to the Majefly of the Speaker, being 
intended ; thofe Particulars only were infifled on, from whence the 
refl might be gather'd, and the Symmetry, Order, and Beauty of every 
thing, be underflood, 

57. The Numbers, and Meafures, had a Threefold Perfedtion : In 
themfelves , in relation one to another , and to the Body of Man. 
Among thofe who fpeak of the Nature of Numbers ; the Greek Mathe- 
maticians accounted the Number 6, the mofl perfed. Becaufe there 
arefo many ways, whereby Numbers may be proportion'd one toano- 
ther. Therefore in reckoning, as Fitruvius obferves, Lih.T^. i. a Sixth 
part , fignily'd an Unite ,• and Seven, was called ^(pix-mv , as much, 
as to fay. One, added to Six; beginning the Numeration again with, 7, 
as is now done every where, with 1 1 . 

58. If we confider the refped: which Number and Figure have one 
to another J zCuhe, which, o^ Re£tilinears, is the m oft pened, as it 
hath 6 Equal and Similar Plains, i'o each Plain hath 4 Equal S'des. 
And the mofl perfed of Triangular Solids, the Equilateral ; as '": hath 
4 Equal and Similar Plains, fo each Plain hath 3 Equal Sides. We may 
then reckon the mofl perfed Numbers, to be 4, and 6; and nexi. the 
Numbers wliich come of thefe, divided, multiplied, or compounded. 


Chap. VII L the L A W S. 

And thole Meafures to be the moli perled:, which are anfwcrabie. 
Therefore the Creation, of manifold Perfedion in Number and Mea- 
fure, is faid to befiniilied in Six Days. And the Motion of the Earth 
is fuch , as to make the Day 24 Hours , that is, 4 times 6. The 
Tribes of Jfrael, were Twice 6, or Thrice 4.. The ji Elders Twelve 
times 6, or Thrice 4 times 6. The Preparation for the Paflbvcr, and 
the Day ol Atonement, were both on the Tenth Day of the Month, 
or the 6th , after the 4th. And Mofes was with God in the 
Mount to receive the Orders for the Tabernacle , 40 Days , or 
4 times 10. 

59. Of thcfe, the Parts, Funiture, and Court of the Tabernacle, 
do all confift. The Boards for the Wefl End, the chief fide of the 
Moft Holy Place, were 6, The apparent Boards for each fide, werexo, 
or twice 6, and twice 4. Or if we add the other Board, coupled with- 
in, to that next the Wefl End, there were thrice 6, and 3. The Num- 
ber likewife of Boards , for the Breadth and Length of the Taberna- 
cle, was Commenfurable by, 3, which it contains 16 times; as 16, is 
alfo commenfurable by, 4. The Number too, of tjie apparent Boards 
in a Side, is made up of 4 Numbers augmented by Arithmetical Pro- 
portion, from 2 to 20. For 2, 4, 6, and 8, make 20. The Breadth 
of each Board, was ih Cubit j that is, the 4th part of 6 Cubits : and 
the Length, was 10 Cubits, or 4 and 6. 

60. The Bars on each Side, were 5- ; a 4th part of the Number of 
apparent Boards. And with thofe in the Weft End, were 3 times 5-. 
The Pillars, next to the Moft Holy Place, were, 4 : but thofe at the 
Door of the Tabernacle, 5- : a lefs perfed:, and therefore fitter Num- 
ber : and anfwerable to that of the Bars. Therefore ahb their Sock- 
ets were of Brafs ,• whereas thofe of the Pillars next the Veil , 
were of Silver. Their Length , was the Heighth of the Taberna- 
cle, Vt'hich we may gather from the Curtains. 

61. Thefe, with the other Hanging Pieces, were 6 in Number. The 
Inmoft Curtains were 10, or 4, and 6 ; each of them 4 Cubits broad, 
and z8, that is, 4 times 7, in Length. Therefore the Heighth of the 
Tabernacle, was 19 Cubits and jOr 9 5 above the Boards. For twice 95 
for the 2 Sides, and 9, for the Breadth, make 28. So that the ends 
of the Curtains being tacked to the ends of the Boards, and fupported 
above by Tranfoms over the tops of the 4 utmoft Pillars ; the Roof 
made Right Angles with the Sides ,• not ftandingup with a Ridge, but 
flat, like the Top of a Bed. And the breadth of the Ten Curtains, 
being 40 Cubits ; there were 30, for the length of the Tabernacle, 91 
to the Boards for the Weft End, and i a Cubit over the Boards, as be- 
longing to the moft Honourable Place. 

62. The Curtains of the Tent, were of the lame breadth, but each 
of them 2 Cubits longer, and were Eleven ,• the Eleventh being dou- 
bled at the Front. Andfo, as they hung a Cubit over the Boards on 
each fide, ExoJ. 26. 1 3 "J- fo the better half of a Curtain, hung over the 
Boards in the Weft End,ver. 12, 

63. We cannot fuppofe, that the Glorious Furniture of the Taber- 
nacle, ftood in a Wildernefs upon the Ground : but that there was a 
Floor fit tor it, that is, made of the fame fort of Boards overlaid. It 
is very probable too, that the Floor was raifed above the Ground : Jn 
the Sanduary, one Cubit ; in the Moft Holy Place, i^ Cubit, t/iz. the 
breadth of a Board. Arid fo, there might be 6 Steps advance above 

srr the 

250 As they Appear from Book iV, 

the Ground ; 4 at the Door of the Tabernacle, for the Sanctuary, an J 
^ more, for the Mod Holy Place. And between the Steps at the Door, 
viz. againfl the Middle Pillar, there might be a kind of Pulpit lor the 
H. Priefl to (land upon, when he bleded the People. 

64. The Materials of the Tabernacle, thus put together, made a 
Noble Figure, in the Whole, and in its Parts. Taken entirely, or 
with the X Ends, it was a Prifm, confiding of 6 Parallelogram Plains, 
each Plain having 4 fides : Between the Breadth, Hcighth, and Length 
whereof, there was an Arithmetical Proportion. For 195 Cubits, 
were the breadth of 1 3 Boards. Therefore the breadth, heighth, and 
length of the Tabernacle, were as 6, 13, and lo. The Tent of Goats- 
Hair, hanging a Cubit below the Tops of the Boards, without; redu- 
ced the appearance of their length, to 9 Cubits , the Breadth of the 
Tabernacle. And the firfl: rife of the Floor, being as much, had the 
fame Effed within. And whereas the heighth of the Curtains, was by 
this means I a Cubit more than the apparent length of the Boards ; it 
was, bccaufe the Curtains were there the fame to the Boards, as the 
Epiftylium is to the under Column. Whereof yitruvtus^ hih. 3. z. 
gives the Rule, Contratiura, propter altitudms intervallum^ Scandentis 
Oculi Speciem fullunt : quamohrem adjkiuntur CraJJitudirtihus temperatune. 
Which is applicable to length or heighth, as well as thickneis, or 
breadth. And fo the 1 Cubit, with refped to the Sight, is here loft. 
The faid Contra<ftions, anfuering to Harmonick Proportion, where- 
in the higher the Note afcends, the quicker is the Motion, that is, the 
Vibration, by which it is made. 

65. But in the Figure of the Mod; Holy Place, in which neither the 
People, nor the Prieds, had opportunity to gaze; an exad Homolo- 
gous Proportion was obferved ; the heighth, being juft double to the 
length and breadth , fo as to make a double Cube. With a Lof- 
ty Roof over the Mercy-Seat ; a Canopy fit for (b great a Throne. 

66. This, which was the only Furniture of the Mod Holy Place 
confided of 4 Parts, the Ark, the Mercy-Seat , and the Cherubims : 
or if we take in the Staves of the Ark, of, 6. In the Meafures of the 
Ark, the Proportion was Homologous; as being i| Cubit, both in 
heighth and breadth. And as the breadth was equal to the breadth of 
the Boards : fo the length, x\ Cubits , was proportional to their length; 
and the heighth, to their Number. For as x\ multiply 'd by, 4, makes, 
I o, the length of the Boards ; fo I3 multiply 'd alfo by, 4, makes 6, the 
Number of the Boards in the Wed end, that is, the chief fide of the 
Mod Holy Place. 

67. The Propitiatory or Mercy-Seat, was wholly of Gold. Of the 
fame length and breadth with the Ark whereon it dood. Probably a 

• Span or I a Cubit high, the Common Meafure of all the parts of the 
Tabernacle. Having alfo a Hanging Border, anfwerable to the Crown 
of the Ark. And it is likely, there was a Footdool fuitable to it. 

68. The Cherubims, were of a Compounded Figure. Coming near- 
eft, as is mod likely, to that of a Man. No other Creature, as Cicero 
fomewhere well oblerves, being properly faid , to have a lace. Cer- 
tainly, not of the fame, with thofe defcribed by Ezekiel^ Chap. i. For 
thofe had each of them 4 Faces ; thefe , but one.. And are therefore 
faid, Exod. z^.zo. To look towards the Mercy-feat , or one towards ano- 
ther. In which Podure, with their Wings dretched out Vertically, or 


Chap. VI n, the L A W b. 251 


on high, Exod. xs". 20. it feems, that two of them, meeting together 
behind, made the back of the Throne ; and the other two, the two 
Sides. And the Length of the Wings, being equal to that of the Bo- 
dy, from the Shoulders downward ,• they made the Throne, one Third 
of the Heighth of the moft Holy Place, or 6 Cubits. 

69. Without the Veil, were the Altar of Jncenfe, the Table, and 
the CandleUick. The Meafures of the Altar, were alfo Homologous,- 
as being a double Cube, whole heighrh was two Cubits, that is, 6 times 
6 Inches, or 4 Spans ,• and whereof the Figure,* was the fame with that 
of the moft Holy Place. 

70. The heigth of the Table, was equal to that of the Ark ,• the 
Breadth and Length, to the Breadth and Heighth of the Altar. The 
Proportion of which Meafures, was therefore Arithmetical,- the Inches 
of the Breadth, Heighth, and Length, being 18, z/, and 36; that is, 
a, ^, and 4 Spans. The fame proportion with that, which Vitrwvius^ 
Lib. 6. 5. afligns, as the moft perfecfl: , to an Inner Parlour or Dining- 
Room of an Oblong Figure : Altitudo^ fays he, f:c habere debet ratio- 
ftem, ut Longitudinis & Latitudims Menfura componatur ; ^ ex ed fumma 
dimidiumjummatur^ & quantum fuerii , t ant urn Altitudini detur. 

71. The Shaft of the Candleftick, had 4 Bowles,with 6 Branches pro- 
ceeding from it. And it is probable, that thefe were fpread to the 
Breadth of 4 Spans, or x Cubits, anfwerable to the Length of the Ta- 
ble. And that the breadth of its Foot, and that of the Table, were 
alfo the fame. And that the Incident Light, it gave to the Table and 
the Altar, might be the more conveniently refleded ; it was neceflary, 
it ftiould be higher than them both. And riot too high, for the Lamps 
to be drefTed, if of 3 Cubits : and fo, there was an Arithmetical Pro- 
portion, between the Breadth of the Foot, the Spreadth of the Bran- 
ches, and the length of the Shaft. 

7x. The Number of Cubits, going to the Length of the Tabernacle, 
is made up of 4 Numbers, augmented by Arithmetical Proportion ; 
v/z. 3, 6, 9, and 12. which make 30. which numbers, together with 
the (acred Text, feem to determine the Pofition of all the Parts within 
the Tabernacle. For fuppofing the Throne was placed, at the conve- 
nient diftancc of its own breadth, 15, from the Weft fide of the moft 
Holy Place ,- the forepart thereof did then ftand forward 3 Cubits. 
From whence, to the iiifides of the 4 Pillars , were 6 Cubits more ; 
which, with the 3 former, fquar'd the Floor of the Moft Holy Place. 
Upon the Chapiters whereof, the Veil hung without them, another 
Cubit forward, under the Golden Taches of the Curtains, Ex. 26. 33; 
in all, 10 Cubits. Next, the Altar, being alfo placed at the diftance 
of its own Breadth, i Culsit, from the Veil, Exod. 30. 6. the forepart 
thereof, ftood forward from the Veil, 2 Cubits more, the Meaftire of 
its own Heighth. Alter which, at the diftance of 9 Cubits from the 
Moft Holy Place, or 8 from the Veil ; the Table and Candleftick were 
conveniently placed ; Co as the Eaftend of the Table, ftood forward 10 
Cubits from the Veil, and 10 from the Eaft end of the Tabernacle ; and 
lb the Candleftick. Or if we meafure from the Weft end of the Table, 
and fo of the Candleftick, to the Eaft end of the Tabernacle, there were 
12 Cubits, the laft of the proportional Numbers aforefaid. And being 
thus placed, the Candleftick gave the better Light to the Altar, and 
the Table ; and all of them were at a decent diftance from the Door. 

73. The 

353 As they 4ffear from Book VI. 

73. The Furniture I htfve now defcribed , is all that is mention'd. 
But it is probable, there was one Piece more. Y or Lev. 16. 23. Aaron 
is commanded, To go into the Tabernacle of the Congreq^aition, and put ojf 
the Linnen Garments^ which he put on, when he went into the Holy Place, 

. that is, theCourtof the Tabernacle fo called, Lev.6.x6. and to leave 
them there,' that is, in the Tabernacle. Where, it is not to be fuppo- 
fed, they were left upon the Ground, but laid up in a convenient Cht ft, 
to be there kept, for the Annual Solemnity of the Atonement Day. 
And that this Chefl, was fituate againft the middlemofl; of the 5 Pil- 
lars, at the Door of the Tabernacle, as the fitted place. 

74. Without the Tabernacle, flood the Brazen Altar, and the La- 
yer. The Meafures of the Altar, were 3 Cubits in heighth, 5 in length, 
and 5' in breadth j and therefore in Homologous Proportion one to ano- 
ther. But between the breadth of the Golden Altar, of the Brazen, 
and of the Tabernacle, the Proportion was Arithmetical. The Hori- 
zontal Plain of the Brazen Altar, was alfofquare, as that of the Golden. 
And the Golden Altar being raifed with the Floor, one Cubir, and 
the Ark i a Cubit more j the Ark, the Golden Altar, and the Brazen, 
were all three of equal heighth. And fo, both the Altars had a Lowly 
Figure , with refpedt to the Throne. So Vitruvim, Lih.^.%. Arcs 
femper inferiores fint collocate , iiuam Simulacra q^ua in JEde fuerint. 

75'. The Altars were likewife placed, neither againft: the South fide," 
of the Tabernacle, nor againft the North fide : but the Brazen dired:-i 
ly before the Door of the Tabernacle ; and both, beibre the Throne, 
JExod. 40. 5, 6. that is , properly toward the Eaft. So VitruviuSy 
Lib. 4. 5'. Aras omnes Deorum^ tieceffe videtur, ad Orient em Upciiare. 

76. Between the Tabernacle and the Brazen Altar, ftocd the Laver: 
we may fuppofe, equally diftant from them both. And m^ght be two 
Cubits over, and with its Foot, as high. If then we allow 10 Cubits 
for the becoming diftance of the Altar from the Tabernacle; the La- 
ver was, 4, from them both. And the Approach, from the Gate of the 
Court to the Altar, was of a convenieut Length. 

77. The Court, was 100 Cubits long, and 50 broad. For which 
the Pillars on each fide, were 20; of equal number with the Boards of 
the Tabernacle, and half as high. And their heighth and diftance one 
from another, the fame. In each end of the Court, the Pillars were i o : 
double the number of thofe in the Front of the Tabernacle. This, I 
fuppofe, w,as fo fituate within the Court, that the Weft end of the Court, 
being at the awful diftance of xo Cubits, from the Weft end of the Ta- 
bernacle : the ftdes of the Court, were alfo at the fame diftance from 
the fides of the Tabernacle , with a fmall difference, not difcernible. 
And fo, a Line drawn tranfverfly, by the Ea'ft end of the Tabernacle, di- 
vided the Co^rt into x Squares. 

78. The Gate of the Court, having 4 of the 10 Pillars, was ao Cu- 
bits wide ; 4 times the breadth of the Altar, for a more advantageous 
approach and view. Which very divifion of the. Breadth of the Court 
into 10 Parts, and the Proportion between the Right and Left Parts, 
and the Gates ,• was imitated by the Tufcans in their Temples : Latitu- 
do Templi., fays Fitrwvius, Lib. 4. 7. SecundumTufcanam Rationem^divi- 
datur in Partes decern. Ex his, Ternce Partes, dextne ac finiftra, Cellis 
minoribus, five ubi Alec future junt , dentur ; reliqua Qjiatuer, media 


Chap. Vilf. the L A W S: 259 

79, Ldllly, The fzmcFitruvii^s, i//. 3.1, tells us, Non potefi ALJes 
vJIa, Sacram puta, cum Symtnetri^i atque proportione rationem habere Com- 
pofitionis ; «ifi uti ad Hominis hene figurati Memiroruin, exatiam bab'uerit 
rationem. Where he gives no comparative Inftances, but took his ob- 
fervation from the Greeks ; as thefe might eafily do, from the Taber- 
nacle. In which, the principal Numbers and Mcafures , anfvvered 
to thofe in the Body of Man, the mofl: perfedt of Compounded Fi- 

80, For as the Chief Parts, fervlng to fupport the Body, viz. the 
Thighs, Legs and Feet, are 6 ,• and the Fingers and Toes, on which 
the Weight of the Body may Hang, or Stand, are xo : So the Boards, 
at the end of the Tabernacle, were 6; on each fide, 20. 

81, The 4 Pillars within the Veil, anfvver'd to the 4 Bones of the 
Cub'tti ; (landing at much the fame diftance from the Weft-end of the 
Tabernacle ^ as thcfe do, when fb placed on the Brcaft, as to make 
Right Angles on each fide with the Brachium. 

^2. The 5 Pillars at the Door of the Tabernacle, anfvver to the 
5 Principal (Commanders of the Body, the Arms, the Chine, and the 
Legs. , 

83. The Dimple in the upper Lip, is { an Inch; and the firft Joint 
of the Middle Finger, an Inch. Thefe x, meafure both the whole 
Body, and all its Parts. But to fliew this, is not my bufinefs now. 
VVhat is to our purpofe, is this j Nine Inches, rhake a full Span, that 
is, 5 a Cubit; the Icaft and the Common Meafure^ of all the Parts of 
the Tabernacle. And if we take an Inch, for a Span, or i a Cubit j 
then the Breadth of a Board, that is, i i Cubit, or 3 Spans, anfwered 
to the Breadth of the Foot, which is 3 Inches : and the Length of a 
Board, 10 Cubits, or xo Spans, to the Length of the Leg, which is 
commonly about xo Inches. 

84. Again, as the Breadth of the Foot, is to the Length of the 
Foot, 3 Inches to i o ; So is the Breadth of the Body, to the Length 
of the Body, 3 times 6 Inches, to 10 times 6; in both, as 3 to 10. 
Unto which Meafures, the Breadth and Length of the Tabernacle, 
were exactly proportioned ; being as 3 times 6 Spans or | Cubits, to 
10 times 6. 

85. It is further obfervable, that the Length or Height of the Pil- 
lars, was as the Length of the Pillars of the Body, from the Sole of 
the Foot, to the top of the Hip. And from the bottom of the Os 
Sacrum^ to the Crown of the Head, is the fame Meafure; to which 
therefore, the Hcighth of the Tabernacle was proportioned. That is to 
fay, as the Length of the Tabernacle, was to a Man lying at his full 
Length ; fo the Height of the Tabernacle, was to the Heighth of a 
Man Sitting upon the Ground. 

86. Nor were the 4 Entrails of the Tabernacle, if we may fb call 
them, without their Analogy to our own. The Throne, the Incenfe- 
Altar, tlie Table, and the Candleftick ; not unaptly anfwering, in 
Number and Situation, to the Brain, tieart, Stomach , and Liver ; 
the 4 principal parts of the Body. 

8r. The fame Numbers were obferved in the Ornaments of the 
High-Priefl, as in the Tabernacle. There were Six of them ;' the 
Brcaft-Plate, the Ephod, the Robe, the Coat, the Miter, and the 
Girdle, Exodus x8. 4. And the Stuff, wherewith they were made, 

T 1 1 was 

'3^^ As they Affear from Book IV. ^ 

was of 4 kinds. As were alio the Colours, wherewith they were 
Embroidered. And the Ingredients, both for fccnting the Holy Oyl, 
and compounding the Incenfe, wcreof the lame Number, 4. 

88. In the Brcaft Plate, the btones were twice, 6, in 4 Rows. 
The Figure hereof. Square,- as the Floor and Rooi ol the mofl Holy 
Place, and the Horizontal Plam of the Altars. 

89. Into this were put the Urim and Thummim, as appears from 
the Text, Exodus ^%. 30. For which purpofe, it mull needs be open 
on One of the Four Sides. But v\ e have no ground, with Montanus^ 
Antiq. Jud. Lih. 6, to fuppofe it open on the riglit fide: but rather at 
the Top. And fo, it was a Square Puffe, wherein the Urim and 
Thummim, were fecretly and fecurely repofed. 

00. The Arts ufed for the Sandtuary, and thtfc Ornaments ; were 
Architedurc, Alchymy , Founding, Forging, Carving, Polilhing, 
Engraving, Embioidery, and (undry others. 

91. And the Materials, were of the beft which Nature produceth. 
The befl: of Metals ; and the bell ot Gems. The choicell: Wood, 
that was fit for this purpofe ; the fmeft Linncn, that of Egypt^ then 
the mofl famous; befides the Hair of White Goats, Silk died 
with all the Richefl: and mofl Beautiful Colours ; and for the Anoint- 
ing Oyl and Perlumc, the mofl fragrant of Scents. The Perfume, 
imitated by the later Egyptian Priells, in their Cyphr or Sacred Per- 
fume: from whence the AntidotusCypboiJes o{ Andromachui ; in which, 
there are Three of the Four Ingredients here appointed, Gal, de Comp, 
Med. Lih. 8. 7. 

9Z. After the Defcription of the Holy Garments, and the San- 
ctuary : Orders were alfo given for the Divine Service ; viz. for 
thcPerfons, the Materials , and the Ceremonies thereunto belonging. 
And. with thefe, likwife fiich Rules, as appertained to the People. 
All which were a fort of Cabaliflick Paraphrafe upon the Firfl Table j 
as the greater part of the Judicial Law, was a plain one upon the Se- 
cond, Therefore Mojes tells the Jevos^ Deut. -^o. 6, That God would 
Circumife their Heart., to love him with all their Heart and with all their 
Soul. By whofe applying of Circumcifion, the firfl or Initiating Cere- 
mony to the Firfl Command, we are direded to a Spiritual fnterpre- 
tation of all the refl. And it is evident, that with David and the 
rcfl of the Prophets, the Apollles alfb, do all interpret the Levitical 
Law in this manner. 

93. One great ufe which God made hereof, was to exhibit himfelf 
to the Jews^ and by them to the World. To fhew Them and \Jsy 
the Wildom of his Omnipotence. For in forcing the Egyptians, to 
beflow the befl of their Treafiires, upon the bafefl of their Slaves : 
He contrived, among other Ends, that for Erecting, and Furnifhing 
1 uch a Tabernacle, and fuch Glorious Ornaments for the High Priefl, 
and the Offerings of the Princes, for the Dedication of the Altar; 
nothing fhou.'d be wanting, though in a Wilderntfs; but of every 
thing enough and to fpare, Exodus 36. j. 

94. HisWifdom was alio miraculous, in the Perfons appointed to 
do the Work, Bezakel and Aholiah. For we have no ground to fuppofe, 
that either of thefe had learned all or any of the Arts employed herein, 
while they were in Egypt; where all was done to deflroy and beflavc 



Chap. VI II. the L A W S. 255 

them. And Bezaleel is laid, To ^evife whzt he dld^ Exo^. 3^. 3x. And 
therefore, was neither taught in Egypt, nor by Mq/es. And if Mofes 
had been the Inventor ; he might, without vanity, have given the Pri- 
vilege of being the Artificers, to feme of his own Tribe. And had 
been imprudent, if not unjuft, in preferring thofe of any other. But 
Bezaleel is chofen, a Man of the Tribe oiju^ah, a younger Son. And 
thofigh by Jacob's Blefling, this Tribe was made the chief: ^et was it 
a MiUtary i3lefling, which had no regard to any other Art, than that 
of War. Nor was any of the Sons of Ephraim, the next Principal 
Tribe, given to aflifl him ; but Aholiah, ot the Tribe o^ Dan ; the Son 
of Jacoi by neither of his Wiv^es, but a Concubine ; and whofe Blef^ 
fing contains nothing which rerped:eth this Tranfa(3:ion. In both, to 
fliew the direction of a Divine Fland from firll to laft. 

95-. By the Beauty of the Pontifical Ornaments, and of the Taber- 
nacle, and the Order of the Service belonging to it: they were alfb 
condudted, to contemplate that of the Univerle. To fee that nothing 
therein came by chance,- but that all things were difpoicd, according 
to their Nature and life, in Number and Mealure, by the Magnificent 
Architedl ; who in the one, did every where geometrize, as well as in 
the other. 

96. To fee likewife, the Order and Beauty of his Providence : 
whereof thefe were a particular and very eminent Inftance, and an 
Emblem of the whole. That lie knew how to ufe the World, and all 
Men and things therein,- with the fame skill, as that wherewith they 
were made. That in adjufting the Form of the Tabernacle, to Human 
Form, to make it comely : he had taken a jull Meafure of Fluman Na- 
ture, and of every thing that was neceflary for Men to do, and enjoy, 
to make them happy. The Ark , the Tabernacle , and the Temple, 
being (bme of the Great Letters of that Fland, in which we read the 
Wifdom, Juftice, and Exad: Proportion of all his Works. 

97. There are fome Curve Lines and Figures, which we can by 
no known Rule, reduce unto ftrait ones : and fo vice verfi. But the 
Author of Nature, and therefore of thefe Lines and Figures, perfedly 
knows their Equation and Proportion one to another. In like manner 
there may be fome Strokes and Figurations of his Providence, perfed:- 
ly comprehended by himfelf, tho' to us, inexplicable. 

98. By the Veil before the Oracle, they alfo underftood, that at the 
fame time, as himfelf was invifible; He faw all Men and things. That 
as the Mod Holy Place, needed no Light,- fo neither did himfelf, 
any : nor any means to difcover the moft Secret Thoughts of 
Men ;■ but that Light and Darkncfs , Vifibles and Invifibles are all 
alike to him. 

99. The (landing moreover of the Altars, diredly before him,- 
fliewed, the Adions of Men, and chiefly, thofe of Religion, to be all 
in his Eye, and well obferved by him. And that he fate on his 
Throne, the Mercy-Seat, not as an unconcerned Spectator, but a 

too. In the Pofition of his Throne, above the Ark, wherein the 
Law was kept ; was (liewed. That He , who was of neceflity unac- 
countable to his Creatures: whilft he gave his Laws unto Them, 
might do what he pleafed himfelf, as being above all La<v. 

1 01, He 

7^6 As they Ajfear from Book IV, 

loi. He likewife reprefenteded to them, the Holiqels of his Maj? 
fly, in the mofl comely Form of the Tabernacle, and of the Pontifi- 
cal Robes. Ikfpeaking this Rcfledion, That all (brts of Moral Defor- 
mity, were as abominable unto Him, as any of thofcarc to us, which 
are Vifible. 

I ox. The awful diftance from the Tabernacle, maintainVl by the 
Court and Altar on all fides ; and the length of the Tabernacle it felf ; 
ferved. doubly to advance theMajefty of the MpftHoly Place. Which 
hereby became inacceflible, not only to the Eye, but even to the 

103. The profound refpcdr, which the Sanduary it felf did tacitly 
command, was yet further fecur'd, by the Regulation of the Service, 
belonging to it. Of fo great a Camp, wherein 600000 were enrol'd; 
only Jaron and his Sons were permitted to Minifier in the Priefl's Of- 
fice, Exod. x8. 1. And Aaron the High Priefl alone , to go into the 
Mod Holy Place ; and this, but once in a Year. Neither he, nor any 
Prieft, might kill the Sacrifice, except at the Tabernacle Door : nor 
meddle with the Holy Things ; nor Miniftcr at the Altar ,• nor go into 
the Sanduary ,• without wafliing their Hands and Feet : Nor druikany 
Wine before-hand : none of all this , upon pain of Death, Lev. 17.4. 
ExoJ. 30. 19, ao, XI. Nor were the Prieils to defile themfelves for the 
.Dead, except of their nearefl Kindred : and the High Prieft^, not for 
any ,• nor Co much as to leave the Sandtuary upon this occafion, 
Lev., &c. The Office of the Koathiies, was to bear the Holy 
Furniture J but not till all vi^as covered by the Prieils. For if they pre- 
fumed to touch any part of it ; or fo much as to look upon it, unco- 
ver'd ; they were to die for it. Num. 4. i ^, lo. And fo w as any Man, 
not being a Levite^ that (hould dare to meddle, with any the meanefl 
part of this Service, Num. i. ^i. And all the People, whatever ,they 
were doing, at the greateft difi:ance, within the found o'l Aaron s Bells, 
when he went into the Sandtuary, and returned ,- were to put Body 
and Soul into Reverence : and their omiffion of it, through his neg- 
ledt, mufl: have coll him his Life, Exod. z8. 35. Who was alfo required, 
to make an Atonement for their Sins of Ignorance, Num. 1 5-, And con- 
fecrated. To hear the Iniquity of their Holy things^ Exod. z8. 3 8. To con- 
vince them, that Holinels was the perfedlion of Divme Majelly. And 
that the minutefl Ceremonies, with refped: to that, were as indifpenfa- 
ble, as any other part of the Law. 

104. And the Care which God took, by thefe and other Laws, to 
beget and (ecure the Veneration due to him : ferved to render his Good- 
nels the more conlpicuous, and decently to make way for it. For the 
Reafon he was pleafed to exprefs, for their making a Sandiuary, was 
not to rcprefent his Greatnefs, but his Goodneft to them ; that is. 
That he might have a Houfe to dwell in among them^ Exod. z^. 8. The 
thought of which Condefcention, infpired Solomon^ at the Dedication 
of the Temple, zChro».6. 1%, with that* moll Divine Rapture, £ut 
will God indeed dwell ivith men on the Earth } Behold the Heaven, yea^ the 
Heaven of Heavens cannot contain thee ; how much lefsy this Houfe which I 
have huilt ? Therefore alfb when Mofes dcfir'd of God, to (hew him his 
Glory, Exod. 33.18. the Anfwer He made him, was, That he would (hew 
him his Goodfiejs^ ver. 19. as that which he would have accounted his 
greateft Glory. For which caufe alio, with others, the Propitiatory 


Chap. Vill . the L A W S, 2v j_ 

was placed above the Ark ; that is, above the Law it felf. That al- 
beit he had executed great Judgments on the Contemners hereof, and 
done many famous things befides , for the Sandtion of it : yet 
men might acknowledge, He had magnified his Mercy above all his 

105'. In the Tabernacle, the Jews likewife faw fbmething of Hea- 
ven. By the Cliarge which Mofes fo often received, Exod. xi;,z6, and 
xj. To make it with all its Furniture , after the Patterns /hewed him 
in the Mount : they might underftand, what St. Stephen alfo tells us. 
That all was given to him, hy the Minijlry of Angels. And by the Cheru- 
bims on the Throne, That the Communication, which God at any 
time had with Mofes afterwards, was alfo by their Mediation. Whofe 
Complex Figure, likewife indicated, not, I conceive, as lome Learned 
Men think, the Properties of the Deity Himfelfj for i'o they had been 
a Pair erf Idols ; but of this Cceleftial Retinue. And being, as is likely, 
of leveral Forms, on the Throne, the Veil , and the Curtains : the 
Priefts might eafily infer, that they were of feveral Orders. And that 
each Order had their diftind Office or Province, either as Guardians, 
or Overfeers, of the Church. Whereunto the Pfalmift alludes, inlay- 
ing, The Angel of the Lord encampsth about them that fear him. And 
St. Paul, in admonilhing Women, To bemodefl in the Church, becaufeof 
the Angels. ' 

1 06. They were invited moreover, by the Tabernacle which came 
from Heaven ; to confider the polluted and deformed Eftate of this 
Lower World, the Wildernefs wherein it was eredled. As alio, by the 
Confecration appointed hereupon. Both Perlbns and Things belong- 
ing to it, were all of God's Creation. And according to his own di- 
reftion, were here put into their Ufe and Office. Yet every Perfon 
and Thing, the mod Beautiful Garments, and the Finefl Gold, Aaron, 
and the Ark it felf, muft have a threefold Confecration ; by Sacrifice, 
Anointing, and Sprinkling with Blood, Exod. 19. Numb. 8. Even the 
FJr?^, which purifieth and refineth all other things ; muft here, come 
from Heaven ; and was never after to go out. Lev. 6. 13. and 9. 24. 
To demonflrate tq them. That all Men, and all the World, as far as 
related unto Men, were defiled, and of themfelves unfit for God to have 
any thing to do with them. 

107. In feeing \\>hat the World was, they were obliged to think, 
v.'hat themfelves u ere intended to be. In being carry'd from Egypt, 
to live, in a manner, out of the World : they were admonifhed, to as 
entire a Separation from all the Evil that was therein. And were there- 
fore told, That whereas in Egypt, the Priefts only were accounted 
Holy : themfelves jhould be a Holy Kingdom of Priefis, Exod. 19.6. And 
if God was pleasd, in fome fort, to rtprefent himfelf to them by Vi/i- 
ble Things : it is manifeft, he did it. That they might not only know, 
but imitate Him. Wherefore alfo he propofed to them theTabernacle, 
both as an Emblem to contemplate, and a Pattern to follow. Expedt- 
ing of them the like Order, Meafure, and Proportion, in all their own 
Works. That is, the love of true Religion, and Vertue, as the Beau- 
tiful Symmetry which would beft agree with it. And by the Ped:oral 
on Aaron s Breaft, they wereafTur'd, that in their anfwering his Expe- 
dtation herein, he would never forget them, but as his Jewels, have 
them always in his Eye, and under his efpecial care and c^ftody, 

U u u Exod, 

3 5^ As ibey /Appear from Book VI.' 

ExoJ.xS. IX. That as Heaven is the firfl created Copy of Himfclf: 
fo this State and Nation might be a Copy of Heaven, and every way, of 
all others, come the nearefl to it. 

1 08. To this end, there was ordained over them, a mo(l Sncred 
Prieflhood. Whofc Olfice was, To perform Divine Service ; To en- 
quire of God for them, in Cafes Urgent and Arduous ,• to inform 
them both of the Matter, and Meaning of the Law,- and to fct thenni 
in all things, an unblameablc Pattern : and fo, to be a flandiug Light 
to this People. Indicated, by that part ot their Duty, which was, To 
Light and Drefs the Holy Lamps, and keep them always burning. 

109. Unto all which, they were abundantly qualified. Their Con- 
fecration was folemn, and of 7 Days continuance. Wherein, among 
other Ceremonies, the Blood of the Ram, vcoi to te put upon the Tip of 
their Right Ear, Thumh, and Great Toe, Lev. Z. i.t^, z^. That is upon 
the 3 principal Members ol'Converlation, and but upon the;r Extrcani 
Parts. Implying, with the Atonement, alfo a Covenant, not to heaf, 
or approve, a Syllable of that which is Evil, nor to have the Icall 
hand in it, nor to take one ftep toward it. 

no. To this was added, the Sacred Unction, Lfy/^ 8. 30. Noti- 
fying, an extraordinary Effufion of the Gifts of the Holy Ghoft. 
Whereunto St. John alluding, in his Firft Epiftle, 2. xo, tells thofe to 
whom he wrote, That having an Un^ton from the Holy One^ they knew all 

111. With both thefe, the High Pried had moreover, the Urim and 
Thummim. Which Dr. 5^(f;;c^r thought, to be a Pair of Images, f^o/. z. 
F^^ 33 1, and 366. Yet in jf«^g. 18. 14, 17, 18. The (7r/w, that is, 
according to the fame Author's Opinion, the Teraphim, is diflinguifh- 
ed, both from a Molten, and a Graven Image: befides which two kinds, 
there were no other. 

III. I rather fuppofe, they were a pair of Jewels ; that is, of Dia- 
monds fet in Gold ; whereon the Word Teraphim, or fbme other An- 
gelick Name or Names were engraven, as thofe of the Tribes, upon 
the Stones of the Pedtoral. And that as fome Diamonds will be made 
to fliine in the Dark, by known and ordinary Caufes : fo were thefe by 
unknown and extraordinary. And thac this Shining , was an Af- 
firmitive Anfwer, to the Queries and Doubts which were propofed. 
Whether this was fb, or not ,• their being preferved in fo beautiful a 
Cafe ; flieweth, that they were themfelves of greater Beauty, and of 
Honourable Ufe. As alfo doth the Interpretation which the Septuagint 
give of their Names. The former, being by them render'd A«A:«'37^, 
or Declaration ; the latter, 'AakBj/z, or Truth. It feeraeth therefore, 
that as by the former, they were intruded, cfpecially in Affairs of 
State, in what to Do : fo by the latter, in what they were to know 
and believe. That by virtue of this latter, as fiibordinate to their 
Confecration, the High Prieft, and under him the refi, were both 
gifted, and anthorized to be Commentators upon the Law. Of 
whom it is (aid by Malachi, Chap, x 6. That the Law of Truth lyas in 
their Mouth. That is to fay, the True Intent and Meaning of the 
Law ; not only of the Moral, and Judicial, but of the Ceremonial. 
And therefore, as it is faid, John 1. 17. That Truth, that is, the Law 
of Truth, came to us, iyjefus Chrifi .- fb, to thofe of this People, wha 
being Wife and Juft Men, were de|jrous to learn ; the Priefts were 



Chap VI I i. the LAWS. 259 

then ready to fncvv the True, that is, the Myftical Senfe of this 
Law. And that the StnCe hereof, by them thus given , was 
the principal part of the Hehrevo Qahala , or Divine Philofophy. : 

113. By this Law, God took care, to confecrate to himfelf the Peo- 
ple, as well as the Priefls. Partly, by the appointment of certain 
Marks, which betokened Spiritual Uncleannefs, and the Nature of it. 
And partly, by fuch Inftitutions, as were fit to expiate the fame. By 
the Uncleannefs of bearing, and Menftruous Women, they were put 
in remembrance of the Original Sin of Eve: denotirtg, both the 
Guilt, and the Pollution, thence derived. Therefore jD^i;/^ con fefles, 
Pfal.^i. That he was Jhapen in Iniquity ^ and conceived in fin. And Joh^ 
0!;d/>. 14. fpeakingof Man that is born of a Woman, asketh, Who can 
iring a clean thing out of an unclean ? By that of an lifue, that is, a Go- 
ftorrhisa^ was indicated, that Adam, tho' tempted by jfez/e, yet was no 
lefs in the Tranfgrefiion. And therefore, that the Pravity of Human 
Nature, was the greater from a double Taint. 

114. The Leprofy was of ieveral kinds, in Judea as well as other 
Countries. That which in Leviticus is called, the Plague of Leprofy • 
(eems to have been derived from Pliny s Mentagra, a (brt of Scurf com- 
mon in Egy/>f- Now as the former marks, betokened the deepnefs 
or fixednefs of rhe faid original Taint: foj this, as it was a fpreading 
Difeafe, the extent of it. That the taint was Univerfal, withiri 
and without j or together with the Body, the Soul and Spirit, that is, 
both the Phancy and the Intelledtual Mind, and fo, the whole Humane ' 
Nature, was defiled. And particularly, in thofe Men, whofe Vicious 
Inclinations were fo far indulged, and permitted to break out, as to 
become apparent unto others. 

115. Yet it is obfervable, Lev. 13. 13, That if the Leprofy had 
covered the Leper all over, he was to be pronounced, Clean. 
As being a Sign, that the Blood had difcharged all its Impurity updrf 
the Skin. Now the external Turpitude, being greater, when all oyer, 
thm only in fome parts : it evidently fliews, that God in this Law, 
as well as the refl, had refped: to Internal Cleannefs, or the Purity of 
the Mind,* whatever became of the outfide. And that if Men, by a 
Senftble and Unrefcrved Confeflion, did lay their infide all open before 
him, he would account them Clean. 

116. Befides the marks of uncleannefs aforementioned, there were 
divers others : as having touched the Carcafe of any Unclean Crea- 
ture, Lev. II. Or of any Clean Creature, that dyed of it felf, i^id. 
Or any Perfbns, or Things, that were themfelves Unclean, Lev. 15. 
iJum. 19. Now as the former, ferved to fhew the Original, and 
Polluting Nature of Sin, by Generation ; Co thefe , the Contagious 
Nature of it, by Converfe. And therefore^ that all impure Company, 
and Occafions, of Seeing, Hearing, or ThinJiing of Evil, were to be 
avoided. And that as a VefTel, which had not a Cover bound upon 
it, was to be Unclean, Num. 19. if; So the Heart, which was not 
kept with all Diligence, would certainly be defiled. 

117. Of thefe uncleannefles, were like wife feveral Degrees, Some, 
were only to wafli themfelves ; others, were to be put out of the 
Camp. To advife them, that fbme Sins were more Contagious, 
than others ,• and of fome, the Infedion, more Dangerous. There- 
fore ^Ifb, he that touched tha Carcafe of an unclean Beaft, was Un- 


2 6o y^s they /Iff ear from Book IV. 

clean, only till the Evening. But he that touched the Dead Body of 
a Man, was Unclean Seven Days. Signifying, that in a Moral, as 
well as a Phyfical Senfe, Corruption Optim/, eft Pejima. That God 
wade Man Upright^ hut he bath Jought out many Inventions. That 
therefore all Occafions of Evil, were to be avoided j but mofl of all, 
the Company, or Example of thofe, as the mofl: noxious, who, in 
St. Pauts Style, were Dead in Trefpajfes and Sins. 

1 1 8. To the fame Intent, befldes the Temporal Ends aforemention- 
ed, the Dietetick Laws were alfb given: viz. To admonifh them, 
with refpe(Sb to the Examples of Good and Evil: that is, of the Virtues 
a'nd Vices, whereof there was a Refemblance, in the Creatures they 
were allowed or forbid to eat. For thofe which were appointed jor 
'Sacrifice, are of all others, the mofl Gentle and Innocent. If then 

God himfelf had a regard to the Difpofition of thefe Creatures : was it 
not, partly, that the Jews fliould learn to have the like > So, in being 
forbad to eat of Rapacious Birds and Beads," they were advertiz'd, 
That Power, Will, and Appetite, give no Man a Right : but that 
Juftice and Benevolence towards others, ought to be ufed by every 
one, in what he Enjoys. Andfo, by other Meats prohibited, of other 
Crimes. More efpecially by the Hog : which, befides his Uncouth 
gate, lll-favour'd Shape, Rough Hide, Untunable Grunt, Filthy Wal- 
low, Voracious and Loathfbme Feed ; is alio Reftive and Unruly, 
mifchievous where e'er he comes to Root, and fo dangeroufly dogged, 
as fometimes to Rent even thole that Feed him. Evidently made, 
for an Emblem of all forts of Vice. So Suitable a Choice, did the 
Devils who were difpofTefled, make of this, above any other Animal, 
.wherein malicioufiy to divert themfelves, Matth. 8. 31. 

119. Again, there being required, not fo much as to Taft; thofe 
things which were Unclean ; was to telj them, they were fb far from 
being permitted the pradtife of Evil ; that they were not allowed any 
Inclinations to it : but were to bridle their Phancy's, as well as their 
External A^s. And to the fame purpole, were alfo given the Laws, 
relating unto Marriage. For had they been permitted to match with 
their Kindred, with whom they were fo familiar, and to whom their 
accefs was at all times fo eafie : it would have fb debauched their 
Phancies by degrees; as to have introduced all the Leudnefs, that 
was ever put in Pradife in other Nations. On the contrary, being 
confin'd within certain Bounds, they were obliged to confider, that 
the Eye, and Defire, were of themfelves Boundlefs and Infinite ; and 
could never be a Rule, unto any Wife Man. And by Subduing their 
Appetites, in relation to Meat, Drink, and Venery ; of all the mofl 
unruly : they would be able more eafily to mafler, all other Irregular 
Motions, and Inclinations unto Evil. 

ixo. The Laws appointed for Expiation, confifled of divers kinds 
of Sacrifice } whereof the* chief, were the Burnt-Ofiering, the Meat- 
offering, the Peace- Offering, the Sin-Offering, and the Trefpafs- 
OfFering : with fome other Ceremonies. 

III. The Myftical Intent ofthefe Sacrifices, I conceive, was Two- 
fold, Dired and Oblique. By the Immediate or Dired: Intent, they 
were of ufe to all the People ; even thofe, who could not fee a far off. 
And fo, every Sacrifice was underflood, to reprefent the Sacrificer 
himfelf. Which Comment St. Paul alfo makes, in exhorting the Ro- 



Chap. VilL the L A W S. 261 


watts. Chap. iz. I, To prefent their Bodies to God, as a Living 

I XI. The Burnt-Offering, was a Holocaufl. Which was either Con- 
tinual, or Occafional. The Continual, prefcribed, Exod. 29. by4:he 
Materials whereof it confifted, xiiz. the Whole Lamh^ Fine Flower^ Oyl 
and iVine ; and its conflant U{e ; (eemeth to have been a Compendium 
of all the reft. And fo, a Confefiion, and Atonement, withrefpedt to 
daily Guilt ;• and a Thankful Acknowledgment of Divine Bounty dai- 
ly enjoyed. 

1x3. The Occafional, is preftribed. Lev. i, in this manner. He 
that made the Orlering, was to do it with a Male. That is, with 
good Underftanding. Without any Blemijh. That is, without any 
Evil Affedion, Lev. zx. And of his own Voluntary Will. As alfb in 
the Offering for the SancStuary, Exodus x'^.x, God expedled: who 
loves a Spontaneous Religion. To prefent it before the Lord, Be- 
lieving he fliouid be accepted. To put his Hand upon the Head of it. 
Thereby offering himfelf, as deferving to dye. For fo it follows, 
verfe 4, and it fliall be accepted for him. The Prieft to fpr inkle the 
Blood upon the Altar. Thereby to Sandify the Offering. Then he 
that brought it, to Cut it in pieces. Betokening his Contrition. So 
David expounds it, Pfalm ^i. ij^ The Sacrifices of God, are a Broken 
Heart. And verfe 8, Make we to hear Joy and Gladnefs, that the Bones 
which thou haft Broken way rejoyce. Then the Prieft, to lay in order 
upon the Fire, both the Wood and the Parts. A Regular'Devotion, 
was to be joyned with the External Service. But the Beaft was firft 
to be Flayd., and the Inwards , and the Legs to be Wafbed. To be 
offered with a pure Heart, and Hand j clean in the Sight of God and 
Man. •To which our Lord alludes, in what he did, John 1 3 , and 
faid, verfe i o, He that is waftped, needet* only to ivajh his Feet. And 
then, all to be burnt upon the Altar, with Fire which came from Hea- 
ven. To flievv, that his Offences, in the Judgment of God, merited 
the fcvereft Punilhment. That the Serife of God's Difpleafiire, fliould 
be very grievous to him. And that his Mercy was admirable, though 
he was a Confuming Fire. 

I X4. Thf" Meat-Offering , confifted of Fine Flower , or Parched 
Corn., 'with Oyl, Salt, and Frankincenfe. The Oyl never to be 
omitted, but mingled with the Corn, as well as the Flower, Lev. z. 
The Flower or Corn and the Oyl, were to fignifie. That God was 
both their Life, and the Light of their Countenance, Ifaiah 61.3. Pfal. 
45. 7. Oyl, as a foft Body,and free from all Acrimony, being frequently 
put in Scripture, lor an Emblem of Joy. The Salt, which is Incor- 
ruptible, That what he was, according to his Covenant, he would be 
for ever ; and expected from them the like Conftancy, Lev. x. 1 3. And 
the Frankincenfe, That they were to praife him, with their Hearts lifted 
up on high, as they faw that to afcend. But the mixing oiLeven, was 
forbid. That IS, of Hypocrify, i Cor. 5. 8. Whereof it was a Token, 
as by raifing the Bread, it made it to be more in fliew, than in fubftance. 
1x5. The Peace-Offering was either in Thankfgiving, or in fulfil- 
ling a Vow. This was alfo to be without Blemiih, as the Burnt-Of- 
fenng ; but might be either Male or Female. Becaufe it required in 
the Sacriticer, not fb deep a Thought, to be fenfibleof what he enjoy 'd; 
as of what he defervcd to fuffer. He was here alio, as there, to lay 

X X X his 

262 ^s they /^ffear from Book iV. 

his Hand upon his" Offering. Thereby profcffing, that herewithal, he 
owed, and oder'd up himfclf. Body and Soul unto God. And all rh.e 
Fat of the Jfiwardsy was to be burnt. That is, he was to have Joy and 
Gladnefs in the Favour of God. The Fat being the fame in a PeaceO- 
fcring, as in a Meat-Offering, was the Oyl. And to mind him of his 
Sincerity herein ,• w ith the Fat, the Kidneys alfo were to be burnt. 
For the Ancients fuppofed the Chief Vifcera, to be fo many Seats of 
the Soul. That the Liver, as the prime Inftrument of Sanguification, 
was the Fountain of Life. Therefore Solomon^ fetting forth the fliort- 
nefs of a Fornicator's Life, Prov. 7. exprcfleth it, by having a dart ft ruck 
through hii Liver. And fo Ariflotle, de Part. Anim. 4. x. afcribes the 
Caufe of Longavity^ to this Part. From whence alfo it hath the Eng- 
li(h Name. In the Scripture, it is commanded, Thou (halt love the Lord 
thy God with all thine Heart. So Jikewife the Author of the Book de 
Corde., afcribed to Hippocrates^ fuppofed the Mind to be lodged in the 
Left Venticlc. And Ariftotle, That the Hearty ivas^ as it were, another 
Animal, deP. A. t^./^. In like manner, the Reins, in Scripture, are 
often put for the AffedJ-ions and the Mind ; as in Pfal. x6. x: Jer. ix.x. 
and in other Places. The Sacrificer then, was to offer the Kidneys 
with the Fat, to indicate, That as his Contrition was to be real and 
fenfible, in the Burnt-Offering ,• fo his rejoicing, in this, and his De- 
votion perfed: in all its Parts. 

ii6. The Sin-Offering, was either for a Prieft, the Congregation, a' 
Ruler, or one of the People. For a Priefl , it was the fame in all re- 
fpeds , as for the whole Congregation. For that an Error in the 
Prieff, would fbme way or other, have an Influence upon all the Peo- 
ple. And the Ceremonies hereof, were more, and more fblemn, than 
for the Burnt-Offering, for^^ Single Perfon and a Laick. Both thank- 
fully to acknowledge the Divine Clemency, in not putting them upon 
the Difcovery by Ibme Terror, as in the Cafe of Achan : and to de- 
monflratc their deteftation, of what they came at length tounder- 
fland. For a Ruler, moft of the Ceremonies were omitted ,• yet the 
Offering was to be a Male, But for one of the People, a Female. 
Which was alfo required for a Trefpafs -Offering, upon concealing ano- 
ther Man's Svn^Lev. 5. i, 6. But if his Trefpafs-Offering, was^ tor his 
own Sinful AdJ, though a Commoner , it was to be a Male^ Lev. 6. 6. 
So exad: a Judgment of every Offence, did God exped: to be made by 
Them, as well as it was done by Himfelf. And the reafon why an 
Atonement was to be made for Sins of Ignorance: wasbecaufe there is 
no man that offends, but he might have ufed more care and circumfpe- 
dion, than he did. That is, the Ccmmiffion of a Sin of Ignorance, 
mufl always come from a Sin , it may be, many Sins of Omif- 

izy. Befides Sacrifices, there were other Ceremonies appointed for 
the purifying of the feveral forts of Uncleannefs. For that coming 
from a Lefs Contagion, as upon touching the Carcafs of any Unclean 
Creature, all that was required, was to wajh their Cloaths. But for 
that coming from a greater, as upon touching the Dead Body ot a 
Man, or a Grave ; the Unclean Perfon, having been fprinkled with 
the Water of Purification, on two feveral Days,- was then both towafh 
his Cloaths, and to hathe himfelf. Wkich done, they were to bring an 
Heifer. A Female, as in theTrefpafs-Offering for concealing another's 


Chap VI If. the L AW S. ^ 

Sin, To he killd, and hrttt, without the Camp, and the Blood tobe- 
iprinkled diredly hefore the Tahernacle, 7 times, viz. To expiate the 
Guilt. It being hardly poffiblc, for one to converfe with Prophane and' 
Vicious Men, .but with fome degree of Imitation. And tho' he (hould 
come off, without Infedlion ,• yet he cannot be without Guilt, in expo- 
fino- himfelf to the danger of it. The Heifer was ta le Red, an^ ivell- 
favourd. To ihe'A the Infcdted, what he was avowedly to abandon, by 
that which was fo oppcifite unto Death. As were alfo the Scarlet, Hy. 
fop , and Cedar wood- Chiefly, the Laft : both as it is Longevous, and 
an Evergreen ; and of Evergreens, the befl fcented j and by its Proce- 
rity, with the E'-ed: and Regular Pofition of its Cones and Branches , 
of all , the mod beautiful ; and the faired Inftance of the Perfetiion of 
Vegetable Life. And for making the Water aforefaid, they were to 
take the Apes, of all together. Which being pnrificd, and acuated by 
the Fire ; were both clean, and cleanfing. And thefe were to be mix- 
ed with Running water. Which alfo cleanfeth it felf. And laftly, a 
Bunch of H)'(fop , 'which was fome Odoriferous Plant,- being dipped 
in this Water, he was as aforesaid, on two (everal Days to be fprinlded 
herewith. To fignifie, that having made his Vow, he was to join with 
it, theufe of all other fit and proper Means, to make and keep himfelf 

1x8. For Uncleannefs by Contad or Contagion, no Altar-Sacrifice 
was appointed. But for that of a Go»orr/j^4, both a Sin-Offering, and 
a Burnt-OlTering. As for that which betokened the Pollution of Ori- 
ginal Sin, a much deeper Stain. And the fame was alfo done for the 
purifying of a Child-bed Woman. But whereas, for a Gonorrhaa, it fuf- 
ced to oHer Birds : the Woman, if able, was to bring a Laml). As be- 
ing firft in the Tranfgreffion. 

1x9. The Law for cleanfing the Leper, Lev.iT^, 14. was the moft 
operofe of all others ; comprizing the Ceremonies, for all the former 
Uncleanncflcs, with others fuperadded. If any one had theLeprofy 
in his Head, Lev. 1^44' That is, if the Pravity pf his Mind fo far 
prevailed, as to fpread and break forth into Vicious Pradices, or Irre- 
ligious Sentiments and ExprefTions : The Priefl, having pronounced 
him, Unclean ; he was to rent his Cloaths, he hare-Headed, cover his 
Upper- Lip , cry, Unclean, Unclean ; and dwell alone without the Camp. 
That is, being convinced by the Law, and afliamed , and aftonilhed, 
at the Condition he was in; was to look upon himlelf as actually Ex- 
communicated, from the Prefence and Favour of God, Pfal. 51. 11. If 
after this, the Leprofy was healed. Lev. 14. 3. That is, if it appeared, 
he was a true Penitent : The Priefl was to perform the Ceremonies be- 
longing to the Two Birds : That is, he was firflof allto make Expia- 
tion, fb far as to abfolve his Confcience : the Demerits of his Sin being 
fignified by one of the Birds, his Pardon by the other. Pfal.^i. 7. Ifa.i. 
18. Hekio.xz. And having then ivafhed his Cloaths, and himfelf, 
and JhavedoiT all his Hair, and at the end of 7 Days done the like 
again : That is, having ufed.the Means, for obtaining a clear Head, or 
found Judgment of things, and a clean Heart; and manifefled his Re- 
pentance, by a new Courfe of Life, Heh. 10. zz. Ifa. 1. 16,17. The 
Priefl was then morefblemnly to make an Atonement for him, with 
«// forts of Offerings. No lefs fafficing, for that Pollution, which with 
the Body^niath defiled the Soul and. Spirit, or in St. Paul's Style, The 


<j54 ^^ ^^^y ^pf^^f" ff'Of^ Book IV. 

Mind andCoufcience of a Man ; by which all Men tranfgreCs more or left 
and is the innmediate caufe of all the VVickednefs in the World. And 
herewithal, he was to put fome of the Blood of the Trefpafs-OHcrin^ 
on the Tips of his Right Ear, Thumb, and Great Toe. Signiiying, his So- 
lemn Covenant, Not to return into the way ot Sinners. And of the 
Oyl of the Meat-Oifcring, on xht fame Parts, and on his Head. To 
let him know, it was the Anointing or Gift of the Holy Ghod, whicli 
fliould enable him to keep the fame. 

130. Befides thcfe Solemn Purgations, and the Yearly Atonemenr, 
whereof anon : the Sandtity of this People, was herein alfo intended. 
In that no kind of Sacrifice was appointed for Capital and Prefumpru- 
ousSins. \Ahichvvas Ddr-yz/s Meaning, in faying, /y^/. 51.16, That 
God defired not Sacrifice, elfe he would give it. There being none Infti- 
tuted for the Expiation of thofe Sins, whereof he conieiled himfelf 
guilty in that Pfakn. Therefore alfo a Leprous Houfe, if incurable, was 
to be pulled down. That is. He that being often reproved, hardneth his 
Neck, fliall fuddenly be deitroyed without remedy./'roi^.xg.i. And fo a 
Leprous Garment, if incurable, wzs to he burnt. Unto which St.y*'^^ 
alludeth, in faying, And others fave with fear, pulling them out of the fire; 
hating even the Garment fpottedwith the Flefh. 

131. But the itrongeft Guard, is that which the Wifdom of God, hath 
fet againft Idolatry ; the Nurfe of all other Crimes. The Idolater, 
was punifli'd both in his own Perflin, and in his Pofterity, Exod. lo. 
Whoever, Wife or deareft Friend, fhould tempt any one, though fe- 
cretly, to this Sin, wasto be ftonedtodeath,Z)f«^i3. yea, a Prophet, 
if he did it, though by a Sign which came to pafs, ibid. And of an 
Idolatrous City, every Living Creature was to be deftroyed, and the 
City Burnt, and never to be rebuilt, ibid. No Diviner, or Ob(erver 
of Times, that is, of Lucky Days or Hours, was permitted to live, 
Deut. 1 8. Nor were they Co much as to 'mention the Names of other 
Gods, Exodus X3. 13. 

i^z. Withthef^, and fbme other Judicial Laws, many others which 
may be reckoned am'ongthe Ceremonial, were direded unto the fame 
end. Temples Ihould be fo built, and the Altars placed, {ays Fitru- 
vius. Lib. ^. ^, UtVotafhfcipientes,contueantur.Mdem^OrientemC(Bli. 
The Tabernacle, on the contrary, was Co placed, that when they Sa- 
crificed, their Backs were on the Eafl. A Grove of no fort of Trees, 
was to be planted near the Altar of the Lord. As out of a Superfliti- 
ous Imitation of Abraham, was done by the Heathen. No Sacrifice, 
was to be made with Honey: Nor Oblation of the Firft Fruits to be 
burnt. Becaufe the Heathen did both. The Fruit to be Three Tears 
as Urvcircumcifed. Whereas the Heathen gave the Firft to their Gods. 
A Kid, not to be Seethed in the Milk of the Dam. Becaufe many 
Prophane Nations, at the end ©f Harveft, were wont to do it in a 
Magical way : and then to (prinkle their Orchards, Gardens, and 
Fields with the Milk, to make them fruitful the next Year. No Man 
to Plow with an Ox and anAfs : Nor to Sow his Vineyard with di- 
vers Seeds : Nor to wear Linfey-Woolfey. Becaufe the Egyptians ufed 
thefe mixtures in their Magical Tricks. NottoC«f , or Burn Marks 
upon themfelves : Nor to Round the Corners of their Head or Beard. 
VVhidi the Ajjyrians, and others did for the Dead ; and whqn they con- 
fecrated themlelves unto Devils : as is witnefled by Porphyrius, and 


Chap Vlll the LAWS. 365 

orhers. Cliiefly, by Rah hi Maim on; who, hath made his Obfervati- 
ops, Irom the Arahick Tranfiation of thofe Books ; wherein the Zahii^ 
a fort of y4j«ori/f-Priells, liave defcribed the Rites of the Eaftern Ido- 

133. With the fame Intcnr, they were alfb forbid, to Marry with 
any of the Idolatrous People round about them. For that the Love 
of their Perfons, would Infallibly bring them, by degrees, to be m 
Love w ith their Religion. As it did Solomon ,- permitted to tranfgrefs, 
as an eminent Inftaiice of Humane Frailty; and to fliew, with how 
much Reafon, the Law was put as a Guard upon this People. 

134. And to the fame end, among others aforelaid, the Dietetick 
Law was alio given. Partly, as fome Creatures, worfhiped by the 
Gentiles ; and fome others abufed in their Sacrifices, and Divinations,- 
were by this Law pronounced, Unclean. And partly, as it was a Bar, 
by which the Jews w tie kept, from having any Fcllowfhip with the 
Centiks, in their Riotous and Profane Feafts. 

135. And this, with divers other Laws, and Means, were the more 
proper Remedies againft Idolatry; as by conducing to the Peoples 
Health, they rendred Medicine, to be of little ufe to them. For the 
better underftanding of which, it is requifite to ftiew, in fliort, the 
State and Condition of Medicine at that Time. 

136. The EgyptiMs he'mg, from fundry Caufes, not here to be dil^ 
courfed of, the moll difeafed of all People : were alio the Firft Authors 
of Medicine. Mizraim their Firft King, that is, Menez, or O/fm, or 
DionyJiuSy or Bacchus^ all being the fame Man, with his Wife //fj, 
applyed themfelves , to furnifli their People with wholefome Food. 
He, with Wine, which he had learned to make, of his Grandfather 
Uoah ; and with Water, in making the belt ufe of the Ni/^, for their 
Drink. She, in teaching them, among fo many forts of Roots and 
Fruits wherewith ^gypt abounds ; to diftinguifli the Noxious, many 
ofv.hich, as Sulpitius Sev.^ P. Alpinus obferve, arc very fweet and 
tempting, from thofe which are wholefome and fit to Eat. From 
whence, fhe was called 'T^/a, and Salus. 

137. Their next King was Or«j ; hy Herodotus^ Diodorus, and Afhe- 
nagoras in his Appology for the Chriftians, faid to be Ofiriss Son. 
Who feeing Food provided fcr, bethought himfelf of fome Means, fuch 
as they were, Ibr the Cure of Difeafcs. . The firft ftep he took, being 
affrighted with a Plague, was to offer Sacrifice to the Celeftial Bodies ; 
winch he fuppofed to be Gods, and the only Arbiters of Life and 
Death. Therefore Aneho the Egyptian Prieft, perfbnated by Jamhli- 
chui, in his Book of the Egyptian Myfteries, faith, That even in his 
time, they knew no other way to cure that Difeafe. And what Ifis 
had found out for Food, he thought the beft to be applied to this 
purpofe. So Porphyrias, in his Book of Sacrifices, tells us, that the 
moft ancient Egyptians, did Coslejiihus litare, with Herbs, Roots, and 
Fruits. Which at firft, he offered fingly ; but afterwards, of feveral 
kinds together , fuppofing them, as is intimated by Proclus, to be the 
more acceptable. 

138.1 he Plague and other Contagious Difeafes, being blown away, 
as they commonly were and are, by the North Winds : Oras thought 
it decent, to Solemnize his Sacrifices with Mufick. And that he had 
excellent Skill herein, is witnelTcd by Diodorus. From whence alfb, 

Y y y he 

SS As they Affear from Book IV. 

he is taken to be the E^ptian Apollo. And feeing it to be acceptable 
to the People, he applyed this ahb, with the Sacrifices unto which it 
was annexed, to the Cure ofDifeafes. For which realbn, Mufck is ly 
Jamhlichus, in his Book aforcfaid, enobled witii the Title of DiVine. 
And it feemed, for manv Ages alter, fo necedary unto Medicine ; as 
to give cccafion to Thejfalui, the Head ot the Methodick Stdl: in the 
Reign of Nero, to brag, That he could make rhyficians , v\ khout tlie 
help, cither of Aftr'^logy, or Mufick. 

139. And all Mufick confiding in a proportionate Meafure ; he faw 
it requifite, the Notes or Tunes, and the Words he ufed with them, 
fhould be commenfurate one to the other: and fo became the Firfi: 
Poet or maker of Verfcs. Which being ufed with the Mufick, were 
fuppofed to have the fame Divine Vertue. And came at length, to 
be ufed alone in the cure of Dileafes. And it is by Samhuniathon af- 
firmed, that Mifora, that is, Mizraim, was one of thofc two Anti- 
ent Gods, whofe Sons uere the Inventors of Medicinal Charms. 
And thefe, as it feems, w^re all the Means that 0/us, or tlie Egyptian 
Apollo^ invented for the cure ofDifeafes; viz. Sacrifices, Mufick, and 
Charmes. Upon which Three, he began likcvvifc to build the Art of 
Divination : and as a Branch hereof, his Magical Prognoflicks in re- 
lation to Difeafes. 

140. Next to Orw, SviCC&t^^A Athothus ; by Sanchu»iatho», named 
Taautus ; by the lefs antient Egjiptiatis, Thoyth, and by the Greeks in 
Alexandria^ Thoth; zndi wzs x\\t moi\. zniiQnt E^ptian Mercury. Said 
by Mane the and Eratofihcncs, to be the Son o^Menez or Mizraim; and 
was therefore younger Brother to Orus^ whom he Succeeded by Noah's 
Gift : as is witnefled by Sanchuniathon : SaturnuSy in Deum Taautum a 
Mijore natuniy Egypti Regnum contulit. This Man, to add to what his 
PredecelTbr had Hone, was the Inventor of Images, dedicated to the 
Sun, Moon, and Stars ; with the Figures hereof upon them, accord- 
ing to their Pofition in the Heavens. Suppofing, they would be more 
eftedually moved by the Sacrifices offered to them, if hereby honour'd 
and prefentiated. And that none might be without what he thought 
fo neceflary for the Peoples Health; he caufed the making not only of 
Images of Gold and Silver,- but of certain Sculptures or Paintings 
upon Wood, or (bme other Ground. The Figures or Marks, made 
upon all thefe, were properly called, Chara^ers : and were the origi- 
nal, of all thofe ufed by Magicians in after Times, for the Cure of 
Difeafes. Whence it is, that of thefe CharaHers, thole which were 
properly made, are laid by Jamhlichus, to be D/is Congrui : that is, 
agreeable to the Celeftial Bodies, they were fuppofed to reprefenr. In 
which Senfe alfo, the Author of the Epiflle to the Hebrews, fpeaking 
of the Second Perfbn in the Sacred Trinity ^ ufeth the fame Word. 

14T. Ihe^zme Athothus, obfcrving how naturally the Mufick of the 
Sacrifices, put the Body into many Motions ,- thence took occafion, 
to reduce the Motion of the Feet, as Apollo had done thofc of Speech, 
to a proportionate Meafure j that is, to an Artificial Dance. And 
that he was the Firfl Author hereof, is argued, from his being defcri- 
bed with Wings, not only on his Shoulders, but alfo on his Heels. 
And that he had taught the People, to apply it to ReligioOj is as evi- 
dent from the Jews ; who had learned of the Egyptians , to Dance 
about the Golden Calf. And feeing it naturally to conduce towards 



Chip. VIII. tbe LAWS. 


the Cure of fome Difeafes : 'tis likely, that hereupon he invented (eve- 
ral forts of Dances: not as confidering their Natural, but Magical ap- 
titude, unto fcveral forts of Difeafes. Suppofing, fome certain Num- 
bers and Meafures of Steps, as well as of Words, to have a Divine 

I4Z. And that he might make his Motions with more eafe, in fo 
hot a Country ,• 'tis likely, he danced half naked; as Z)<7X'/^ did before 
the Ark ,- difdaining the Author of this Ceremony, fliould (hew more 
Zeal before an Idol , than himfelf before the True God. And therefore, 
as Gymnajtum, properly fignifics the Place where people exercife them- 
felves being ftript : So upon this foundation, which Athothm or the 
firft Egyptian Mercury laid ,• was afterward built the Gymnaftick Art. For 
which caufe alfo Tamblkhus, fpeaking of the Powers flowing from the 
Gods : among thofe which co-operate with Nature, mentions only the 
Medicinal and the Gymnajiick, as the Two principal, and of kin one to 
another. Nor is there ground to tliink, that in Medicine, Athothus^ 
or the firfl Mercury., underflood any thing more. So that all the means 
which the Egyptians madeufe of hitherto, in the Cure of Difeafes, -i/iz. 
till about the 3 ^oth Year after the Flood ,• were to be referred entirely 
to their Practical Theology ^HdXtf^hy Jamhlichus .^^apyiKn Te;)^,^/?, of which 
their Magical Medicine was a principal part. 

14]. After they began to (acrifice Animals, as well as Plants ,• and 
had learned the Art of Embalming : the Priefts had hereby the oppor- 
tunity of obferving the Structure of the Inward Parts ,• and fo, of mak- 
ing many both Anatomick and Pathologick Remarks. In the doing 
whereof, it appears by what Pliny faith, Lih. 19. 5. That the Kings 
themfelves did often afijl. And frequently perceiving the ine/Ecacy of 
their Magick ; they began likewife to enquire into the Phyfical Power 
of Herbs, and other Remedies, proper for the Cure of Difeafes. And 
the Cures fuppofed to be made, whether by Natural or Magical Art, 
were preferved by fome fort ot Memoirs made of them by the Priefts. 
Wherein a more efpecial care was taken by Serapis^ or Apis, one of the 
chief, and the Egyptian /£fculapius. 

144. Upon thefe accounts, the Priefts, as they were the Dodors in 
Philofophy ; fo the only Phyficians properly Co called, by whom Di- 
redtions were given to Chyrurgions, Embalmers, and all other Opera- 
tors, appertaining unto Medicine. And were of that Honourable 
Efteem, as Gyraldus reporteth from P/^^f 0, that of thefe the Kings were 
often chofe. For albeit the Servants of Jofeph, who embalmed his Fa- 
ther, are called Phyficians j yet are we to underftand thofe Men, who 
by the Priefts, the True Phyficians, were directed, as Operators, in 
Curing the Infirm, or Embalming the Dead. And therefore the Septtt- 
agint, who knew the Law in this Cafe, do not fay, the Command was 
given TOf? 'larpoK, but to?? ivTa.pi<t^aj\ a fort of Men, to whom was 
committed the care of Funerals. 

' 145. The next and greateft Improver and Patron of the Egyptian Me- 
dicine, vjzs Hermes Trifmegifius. So called, fays PWorwf, and others 
after him, from ^i^aCw : becaufe he interpreted the Hieroglyphicks 
and Sacred Tongue. But this, though he did, yet the derivation of 
his Name from thence, is a Fidion. For according to the Greek way 
of deriving a Noun, from a Verb ; he fliould not have been called 
'Epy,r4, but 'Ef ju^jk)?. And therefore, on the contrary, as 'EAAZt/Ji^, 

268 As they Appear from Book IV, 

feAAW^w, and other like Words, are all derived of 'E/.A^w , the Son 
o^ Deucalion, who firft planted Gr^fcf: So sfjw^Wc, ip^jiuu) , and other 
like Words , are all derived of 'Ep/j.r.c. For the Original where- 
of, we are not to look into Greece, but Egjpf : where we (ind Armais, 
one of their Kings, and fbmewhat junior unto ^/o/fi, as J/ermes is ^nH'o 
{kid to be. And the Radical Letters in both, are all the fame. Wiiich 
, Armais, was alio called Amerjis, that is, Merfurius, by mifiake, Mercu- 

rius; the Coptick Letter, Sima^ being written like xht Roman, c. And 
Trifmegijlus, orThrice very Great; anfwerable to a like Egyptiati, 
now loft : given him, as lie was efteemed, a great Philolopher, a great 
Prieft, and a great King. 

146. This Second yV/i?/-c«ry, having beford him a confiderable Stock 
of Oblervations , provided by the Priefts , and many others of his 
own : compofed all, as Jamilichus from Sulencus and Manetho reports, 
into many thoufands of Volumes; that is, of fb many Leaves rolled 
up. And of Books made of thefe Volumes afterwards, Clem. Alexan. 
drinus, Strom. 6. faith, There were two and forty which were ufeful; Six 
of them appertaining unto Medicine, wi, of Anatomy, Difeafes, Chy- 
rurgery. Pharmacy, and particularly for the Eyes, infefted with ma- 
ny Diftafes in Egypt, and for Women. Which Books became, as may 
be gather'd from Diodorus, as it were the Statute-Law in Eg)pt, lor the 
PradiccofPhyfick in after-times. 

147. Yet in all thefe Books, it is certain, that with the Phyfical ac- 
count of Things, there was a mixture of i'J/^g/Ci(:; the Author of them 
being the great Eftablilher of this Art. And if fome Chronologers are 
not miftaken, in faying.That^rw^iM was the King who was drowned in 
the Red-Sea : then the fame Armais, th 't vs ,HermesTrifmegiJlus,\\z.s the 
very Man, who by his Magicians contended with Mofes .- and was 
therefore raifcd up, the more remarkably to confound them at his Fall. 
And it is manifeft, that the Books now, and anciently extant under 
this Hermes s Name ; are all of this Nature. Which Books, though 
not writ by himfelf, but certain of the later Egyptian Priefts ; yet are 
believed by Jamhlichus^ Porphyrius, and others, faithfully to reprefent 
his Senfe. Therefore alfb Celfus, cited by Origen againlt him, Lib. 8. 
tells us, as a piece of Egyptian Philofophy , in his time currant. That 
the Body of Man, is divided into 3 6 parts ; each of them poflefled with 
a God, or a Daemon ; which being called upon by the Magi, cure the 
Difeafes of the Parts they poffefs. And as they afSxed (everal unto 
one Man ; fo, fays Herodotus, to every Beaft, One ; to all, fays Juftin 
but the Hog. And by the Author of the Book entituled, Trifinegifti Af. 
clepias, the fame, in effed:, is faid of Plants, and of Stones ; viz. that 
there was to Uwv, fomething of Divinity in them all. Nor were the 
Magical Ceremonies laid afide in Galena Time ; as appears, by what 
he reports of one Pamphilus, Qjii ad prafligiaturas Egypt! as Verjus fuit^ 

juntiis Incantationihiis quas ohmurmurant, cum Herhas coHigunt. And the 
Author of the Book, de Medicamentis Expertis, afcnbtd to Galen, fpeak- 
ing of the Egyptian Priefts, hath this Paflage, Laudamus Medicos Alta-